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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878953

ABSTRACT

To study the molecular mechanism of Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou Decoction in the treatment of eczema by means of network pharmacology and molecular docking. First, the TCMSP database was used to excavate the active ingredient of each drug in Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou Decoction and predict its target, and the Uniprot database was used to standardize the names of target proteins, in order to obtain the disease targets of eczema through GeneCards, OMIM, PharmGkb, DrugBank and other databases. And next, the potential targets on which drug targets and disease targets work together were selected to make a Venn diagram, the Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used to screen out and construct the "active ingredient-core targets" network. STRING database was used to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, and the R language was used to perform GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Finally, the molecular docking verification of main active ingredients and core targets of the drug was performed by AutoDock software. The study showed that 74 active ingredients and 103 targets of Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou Decoction for the treatment of eczema were screened. The main active ingredients included quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, kaempferol, and the main targets included PTGS1, ESR1, PPARG, and MAPK3. In addition, eight key targets, including MAPK8, MAPK3, JUN, MAPK14, TP53, MAPK1, ESR1 and RELA, were calculated by PPI network. GO enrichment analysis involved 2 024 biological processes, 81 cell components, and 140 molecular functions. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed to screen out 158 eczema-related pathways, which mainly acted on AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, virus-related pathways, and the results of molecular docking showed that the main active compounds could respectively bind to representative targets and exhibit a good affinity. The study proved that the treatment of eczema with Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou Decoction involved multiple signaling pathways and biological processes, and the combination of main active ingredients(such as quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, kaempferol) and key targets(such as MAPK8, MAPK3, JUN, MAPK14, TP53, MAPK1, ESR1, RELA) may be one of the important mechanisms of action.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Eczema , Ephedra sinica , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Technology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878818

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish the HPLC characteristic chromatogram and content determination method for index components with the primary standard substances of the classical prescription Mahuang Decoction, and to provide data basis for the establishment of its quality standard and the development and utilization of compound preparations. First, HPLC was used to establish the material reference chromatograms of Mahuang Decoction, and 15 batches of standard samples of Mahuang Decoction were determined. Their similarity was calculated by the median method. Secondly, the content of the standard substances was determined and a simplecontent determination method was established by HPLC. Relevant methodology was investigated, and the extraction ratio, index component transfer rate and moisture content of 15 batches of primary standard samples were calculated. The results showed that the two sets of HPLC methods had their own characteristics. The six chromatographic peaks identified from the 10 common peaks in the former characteristic chromatogram covered all the herbal medicines in the standard substances, which can better indicate the quality characteristics of the standard substances of Mahuang Decoction. The latter method(content determination method) was simple and practical, so it was suitable for establishing the quality standard of its compound preparation. Two sets of methods were jointly used to evaluate the quality of 15 batches of Mahuang Decoction. The results were as follows: the similarity of 15 batches of samples was greater than 0.90; the average extraction ratio was 18.1%; the average moisture content was 9.7%; the average content and transfer rate of the standard ingredients ephedrine hydrochloride and total pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were 2.3% and 26.7% respectively, and the average content and transfer rate of amygdalin were 2.2% and 48.3% respectively. None of the data showed dispersion(beyond 70%-130% of the mean value), which met the application data requirements for the substance standards of ancient classical Chinese herbal compound preparations(draft for comments). Based on the above research, the primary substance quality standard of Mahuang Decoction was established in order to provide reference for the development and research of the compound preparation of Mahuang Decoction.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ephedra sinica , Prescriptions , Quality Control , Reference Standards
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773115

ABSTRACT

In the present paper,after the febrile rat model was prepared by injecting yeast,orthogonally compatible effective components from prescription drugs of Mahuang Decoction( Ephedra sinica total alkaloids,Cinnamomum cassia essential oil,amygdalin,Glycyrrhiza uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponins) with nine different dosage ratios were given by gavage administration.The plasma concentrations of main active ingredients including ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,methylephedrine hydrochloride,cinnamic acid,amygdalin,liquritin and glycyrrhizin at different time points were analyzed by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer( LC-MS). Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters of non-compartmental model,the area under curve of total quantum( AUCt) and the mean chromatographic retention time of total quantum( MRTt) were further calculated,in order to evaluate the effect of compatibility on the total statistical moment parameters. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of main active components in febrile rats were significantly different after treatment with orthogonally compatibility of E. sinica total alkaloids,C.cassia essential oil,amygdalin,G. uralensis total flavonoids and G. uralensis total saponins. Orthogonal analysis confirmed that different compatibility components had different effects on the total statistical moment parameters. The contribution of effective components of Mahuang Decoction to AUCtwas as follows in a descending order: E. sinica total alkaloids>C. cassia essential oil>amygdalin>G. uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponin,while the contribution to MRTtwas: E. sinica total alkaloids >G. uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponin>amygdalin>C. cassia essential oil. The E. sinica total alkaloid had the greatest effects on both of the above parameters,and the optimal combination was A_3B_3C_2D_1 for AUCt,and A_1B_1C_1D_1 for MRTt.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Pharmacokinetics , Phytochemicals , Pharmacokinetics , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771720

ABSTRACT

To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library, and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1, 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found, including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies: aristolochic acid(5 studies), Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies), Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies), Rheum palmatum(2 studies), Ephedra sinica(2 studies), and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity, including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule), Zhenju Jiangya Pian, T. wilfordii preparation, Vc-Yinqiao Pian, Chuanhuning injection, Shuanghuanglian injection, Qingkailing injection, Lianbizhi injection, herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix, Guanxin Suhe Wan, Shugan Liqi Wan, Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan, herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi, herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe, Ganmaotong(tablets), and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently, in addition to aristolochic acids, the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation.


Subject(s)
Aristolochia , Toxicity , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Ephedra sinica , Toxicity , Humans , Kidney , Tripterygium , Toxicity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812442

ABSTRACT

With a great difference in therapeutic effects of Mahuang (MH, the stems of Ephedra sinica) and Mahuanggen (MHG, the roots of Ephedra sinica), chemical differences between MH and MHG should be investigated. In the present study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based plant metabolomics was employed to compare volatile oil profiles of MH and MHG. The antioxidant activities of volatile oils from MH and MHG were also compared. 32 differential chemical markers were identified according to the variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and P value of Mann-Whitney test. Among them, chemical markers of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and α-terpineol were quantified. Their contents were much higher in most MH samples compared with MHG. The antioxidant assay demonstrated that MH had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than MHG. Although MH and MHG derived from the same medicinal plant, there was much difference in their volatile oil profiles. MH samples had significantly higher content of two reported pharmacologically important chemical markers of TMP and α-terpineol, which may account for their different antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Oils, Volatile , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320888

ABSTRACT

To detect the in vitro probe microdialysis recoveries based on an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous quantification of nine active ingredients (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, liquiritin, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and glycyrrhizic acid) in Mahuang decoction, which provides reference for in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of nine active ingredients in dialysate were detected by HPLC-DAD, to investigate the effect of flow rates (incremental method and subtraction method) and intraday stability of the probe recoveries and medium concentrations on the recoveries. Nine active ingredients could be well separated in 52 min. At the perfusion rate of 1.0 μL x min(-1), the relative recoveries of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, liquiritin, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and glycyrrhizic acid were (50.95 ± 0.82)%, (52.74 ± 1.13)%, (51.29 ± 0.51)%, (32.56 ± 0.84)%, (45.36 ± 0.83)%, (70.94 ± 0.99)%, (69.98 ± 2.30)%, (71.68 ± 0.63)%, and (22.14 ± 0.48)%, respectively. And the probe kept steady in 7 hours. At the same medium concentration, the probe recoveries decreased exponentially with the increase in flow rates. The recoveries of seven ingredients detected by these two methods were similar at certain flow rates, except for amygdalin and cinnamaldehyde. At the same flow rate, the relative recoveries of cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde changed greatly (9.55%-16.2%) and the others six ingredients had less change (3.27%-5.71%) with the changes in medium concentrations. Microdialysis method could be used to detect the in vitro recoveries of nine ingredients in Mahuang decoction. Reverse dialysis method could be used for the in vivo probe recovery calibration of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, liquiritin, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid at the flow rate of 2.0 μL x min(-1).


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Microdialysis , Methods , Molecular Structure
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321325

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To optimize the prescription dose of Mahuang decoction in a multi-target manner, in order to provide reference for the quantitative optimization of the prescription dose of the traditional Chinese medicine compound.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The number of diaphoretic spots in rats, the tracheal antispasmodic rate in guinea pigs and the writhing times by acetic acid in mice were taken as the indexes for evaluating the diaphoretic, antispasmodic and analgesic effects. According to the experimental results of the 16 orthogonal combination prescriptions, a mathematical dose-effect model was built by support vector regression (SVR) and quadratic response surface regression (RSR) respectively. The multi-target optimization was achieved by elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and entropy weight TOPSIS method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal dose of Mahuang decoction after being optimized by SVR modeling contained 17.71 g of Ephedrae Herba, 9.57 g of Cinnamomi Ramulus, 11.75 g of Armeniacae Semen Amarum and 4.39 g of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle. The optimized result by RSR modeling contained 13.37 g of Ephedrae Herba, 11.61 g of Cinnamomi Ramulus, 11.98 g of Armeniacae Semen Amarum and 5.67 g of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparate Cum Melle. SVR was superior to RSR in both of the forecast capacity and optimization results.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SVR-NSGA-II-TOPSIS method could be adopted for the multi-target optimization for the dose of Mahuang decoction and other traditional Chinese medicine compounds. It is proved to be the optimal prescription with the best efficacy, and could provide scientific quantitative basis for determining the dose of traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions and developing new traditional Chinese medicines.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cinnamomum , Chemistry , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drug Dosage Calculations , Drug Prescriptions , Ephedra , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Rats
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124664

ABSTRACT

According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Adult , Animal Experimentation , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents , Appetite Depressants , Diet , Diethylpropion , Ephedra sinica , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Animal , Motor Activity , Obesity , Overweight , Phentermine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300164

ABSTRACT

Since the polyjuice potion ingredient is complex, we need to develop an analysis method with well separation and high stability to perform qualitative analysis. After dividing chemical components of Mahuang Decoction into fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents by gradient extraction, GC-MS was used to analyze the chemical components of the ethyl acetate extraction. The results showed that forty compounds had been identified by NIST MS search 2.0 standard mass spectrometry Library and literatures. Next, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to idendify the chemical components of the water extraction. The results showed that thirty-nine compounds had been identified by MZmine-2.9.1, Isotope Pattern, fragmentation regularity of mass spectrometry and literatures. This experiment will provide evidences for elucidation of the effective substance in Mahuang decoction and can be used as a simple, shortcut method for analysis and identification for the polyjuice potion.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Ephedra , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methods
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356065

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify Ephedrae Herba using the ITS2 barcode and to secure its quality and safety in medication.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Total genomic DNA was isolated from Ephedrae Herba and its closely related species. Nuclear DNA ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using software MEGA 5.0. Identification analyses were performed using BLAST1, Nearest Distance and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The intra-specific genetic distances of Ephedrae Herba were ranged from 0 to 0.002. The inter-specific genetic distances between Ephedrae Herba and its closely related species were ranged from 0.004 to 0.034. All the three methods showed that ITS2 could discriminate Ephedrae Herba from its closely related species correctly.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ITS2 region is suitable to be used for authentication of Ephedrae Herba, and our study further confirmed the effectiveness of ITS2 to identify traditional Chinese medicinal materials.</p>


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Ephedra sinica , Classification , Genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309348

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of complement inhibiting component of Ephedra sinica on immunological inflammation following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The complement inhibiting component of Ephedra sinica was isolated by multiple precipitation steps and thin layer chromatography, and then the activity was analyzed. Fifty healthy SD rats were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group, 25 in each group. Induction of SCI was performed following a modified Allen's weight-drop method. The complement inhibiting component from Ephedra sinica (15 mg/kg) dissolving in 5 mL normal saline was immediately administered by gastrogavage after SCI, once daily. Equal volume of normal saline was administered to rats in the control group by gastrogavage. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and C3 immunohistochemical staining were performed in SCI tissue at 12 h, day 1, 3, 7, and 14 after SCI. C3 positive expressions and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression level was evaluated by Real-time PCR technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>C3 positive expression, MPO activity, and ICAM-1 mRNA level were significantly weaker in the Ephedra sinica group than in the control group at all time points (12 h, day 1, day 3, day 7, and day 14 after SCI) (P < 0.01, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There existed complement system activation following acute SCI. The complement inhibiting component of Ephedra sinica significantly reduced immunological inflammation after SCI, and played an important role in secondary SCI.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Complement Activation , Allergy and Immunology , Complement Inactivating Agents , Pharmacology , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Inflammation , Allergy and Immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252897

ABSTRACT

Many species of the genus Ephedra plants are used as Chinese traditional medicines, in Chinese which are known as "Mahuang" (Ephedrae Herba). In order to get a clear picture of resources distribution and varieties on Chinese markets of the crude drug Mahuang and provide scientific basis for their resource conservation and sustainable use, during recent years we conducted field investigations and market researches many times. The results showed that the most common species on the Chinese markets was E. sinica (33/38 commercial samples), followed by E. intermedia (5/38 commercial samples), which was also used in local clinics in Qing-hai, Gansu and Xinjiang province, no E. equisetina was found in the market. We noticed that the resources of both official and non-official plants of Mahuang, especially Zhong-Mahuang and Muzei-Mahuang, were seriously damaged in the past decade because of the ecological environment damage and over-digging. Zhong-Mahuang was distinguished in Ningxia and north Gansu, which was once one of the most distribution areas and contains more than 10,000 t Zhong-Mahuang. Muzei-Mahuang was distinguished in most places and distributed sparsely around Altay Mountains in northeast in Xinjiang. Thus, Cultivation of Mahuang, especially Zhong-Mahuang and Muzei-Mahuang should be greatly developed. At the same time, wild resources of Mahuang must be preserved strictly, i.e., proper method of cutting Ephedra plant could prevent the damage of the resource.


Subject(s)
China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Classification , Ephedra sinica , Classification
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269612

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of Herba ephedrae, honey-fried Herba ephedrae and Maxingshigan decoction on pentobabital sodium sleep experiment in mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Kunming mice were divided into 11 groups, namely normal saline (NS) group, ephedrine group, 3 Herba ephedrae dose (high, medium, and low) groups, 3 honey-fried Herba ephedrae dose group, and 3 Maxingshigan decoction dose groups. The corresponding drugs were administered intragastrically for 6 consecutive days, and 45 min after the final administration, the mice received intraperitoneal injection of pentobabital sodium, and the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with high- and low-dose Herba ephedrae groups, Maxinshigan decoction containing equivalent Herba ephedrae significantly increased the sleeping time of the mice (P<0.05). In comparison with NS, the decoction at medium and low doses produced no significant changes in the sleeping time, which, however, was significantly shortened in the other 8 groups (P<0.05). Compared with Herba ephedrae, Maxingshigan decoction and honey-fried Herba ephedrae at equivalent doses showed comparable effects on the sleep latency (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Under the condition of this experiment and with pentobabital sodium-induced sleeping time as the index, honey-fried Herba ephedrae shows no obvious effect in reducing the excitement of the central nervous system, while Maxingshigan decoction can significantly lower the excitement level, the effect of which is inversely correlated to the dose administered.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Central Nervous System , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Male , Mice , Pentobarbital , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Sleep
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279362

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the objectivity and authenticity of the difference of the Cold and Hot nature between Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction based on the cold/hot plate differentiating assay.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The measuring time and dosage of Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction were investigated before the compliance experiment. Meanwhile, the activities of adenosine triphosphatase were detected in order to probe into the mechanism of their action.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>It was found that the drug dose should be 10 times amount to human dose (0.80 g x kg(-1) of Mahuang decoction and 2.26 g x kg(-1) of Maxing Shigan decoction) and the measuring time should be from 30 min to 60 min after administering. Compared with the control group, the remaining ratio of the mice treated with Mahuang decoction on the hot pad significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with Mahuang decoction, the remaining ratio of the mice treated with Maxingshigan decoction on the hot pad significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity of liver tissue of the mice treated by Mahuang decoction significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the activity of Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase and Mg(2+) -Ca(2+) -ATPase of liver tissue of the mice treated by Maxingshigan decoction reduced significantly (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study showed that the differences of Cold and Hot nature of Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction were objectively existent from animal ethology, which was consistent with the traditional theroy of Chinese medicine. And the changes of ATPase activity of liver tissue might be the mechanism of drug action.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ephedra sinica , Hot Temperature , Liver , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism , Thermosensing
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231555

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of modified Shegan Mahuang Decoction (SGMH) on cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-13 in children suffered from cough and variant asthma (C&VA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fifty-four children with C&VA were randomly assigned to two groups: 79 in the treatment group were medicated orally with SGMH one dose per day taking in twice; 75 in the control group were medicated with Montelukast once a day in dose of 4 mg for children aged from 2 to 5 years and 5 mg for those from 6 to 14 years, the medication for all was given 4 weeks. Serum contents of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-13, in patients were measured before and after treatment. Besides, serum contents of these cytokines in 45 healthy children were measured for control.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Serum levels of TNF-alpha and IL-3 in the treatment group were 2510 +/- 1500 ng/L and 60.76 +/- 23.67 ng/L, and in the control group, 2890 +/- 1410 ng/L and 61.56 +/- 20.37 ng/L, respectively, all were significantly higher than those of healthy (709 +/- 280 ng/L and 39.49 +/- 3.09 ng/L, P < 0.01); but level of IL-10 was significant lower in the two patient groups than that in control (1546 +/- 1434 ng/L and 1823 +/- 1314 ng/L vs 7123 +/- q2641 ng/L, P < 0.01). After treatment, the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-13 decreased and IL-10 increased significantly in the treatment group, and showed significant different to those in the control group respectively (960 +/- 420 ng/L, 43.67 +/- 12.37 ng/L and 6834 +/- 2216 ng/L vs 2610 +/- 1220 ng/L, 50.56 +/-19.56 ng/L and 2529 +/- 1223 ng/L, P < 0.01). Clinical efficacy between groups also showed that the total effective rate in the treatment group was significantly better (86.07% vs. 42.67%, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SGMH can regulate the serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-13, and shows evident clinical effect in treating children's C&VA.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma , Blood , Drug Therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough , Blood , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Ephedra sinica , Female , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-10 , Blood , Interleukin-13 , Blood , Interleukin-3 , Blood , Male , Phytotherapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315421

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the change regularity of ephedrine and glyrihhzine acid in Ephedra sinila and Glycyrrhiza uralencis pair medicines and in Maxing Shigan decoction.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The contents of ephedrine and glycyrrhizic acid were determined by HPLC in samples of E. sinica extracts, G. uralencis extracts, pair medicines extracts of Maxing Shigao decoction sinica and G. uralencis, and extracts of E. sinica.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were no significant difference in ephedrine contents amoung different samples; the contents of glycyrrhizic acid were lower in decoctions of Maxing Shigan decoction than in G. uralencis decoction and pair medicines extracts.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Macromolecular complex was NOT formed by ephedrine and Glycyrrhizic acid in decoctions containing pair medicines of E. sinica and G. uralencis.</p>


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263088

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for the determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Maxing Shigan Tang by capillary zone electrophoresis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The conditions of the experiment were optimized with a fused-silica capillary of 60 cm x 50 microm (50 cm effective length) in a running buffer of 50 mmol x L(-1) borax-20 mmol x L(-1) threonine (pH 9.27) and an applied voltage of 15 kV (room temperature). Samples were introduced by hydrodynamic injections (10 cm x 20 s)and determined with on-column UV monitoring at 210 nm. Phenobarbital was chosen as the internal standard.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are separated successfully within 8 min. The linear responses covered the ranges from 21.3 to 213 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.9996) for ephedrine and from 8.4 to 84 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.9995) for pseudoephedrine. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were shown to be 1.45 and 1.48 microg x mL(-1), respectively, The quantitation limits (S/N = 10) of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were shown to be 4.81 and 4.93 mg x L(-1), respectively. The average recoveries for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were 97.5% and 98.6% with RSD less than 5.0%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is simple, rapid, cost-effective and precise with satisfactory results.</p>


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Methods , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Pseudoephedrine , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 496-499, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79501

ABSTRACT

Ischemic colitis is a condition that usually occurs in the elderly, as a form of vascular disease. However, ischemic colitis also occurs, though rarely, in healthy young adults. Moreover, food supplements containing Ephedra sinica or ma huang have been linked to adverse central nervous and cardiovascular events. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department after 2 episodes of abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea that lasted 24 hours. His medical history was unremarkable for risk factors of bowel ischemia, except for well-controlled hypertension. However, a weight-loss supplement, Ephedra sinica, had been prescribed for daily use during the previous month. Both abdominal/pelvic computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed findings compatible with ischemic colitis. His conditions spontaneously improved without any serious complications, and he was advised to discontinue the use of herbal medications containing ephedrine. In this paper, we describe a case of ischemic colitis that was potentially linked to the use of ma huang with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Dietary Supplements , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Ephedra sinica/chemistry , Humans , Male
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324324

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the factors influencing on the ephedrine contents in different compositions of Maxingshigan decoction.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Adopt mixed uniform design to dismantle recipes, employ the stepping regression analysis to deal with experimental statistics, use the partial correlational analysis to analyze the correlation coefficients and the results were validated.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The regressive equation was of significance, that is Y = 4.36719347 + 7.752707437X1 + 1.2557197041X3 (r = 0.85564, P = 0.0189). The main influencing factors on ephedrine content in Maxingshigan decoction were gypsum and amygdalin. The influent factor of amygdalin on ephedrine content had great significance, and gypsum had significance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The collective effects of amygdalin and gypsum affect the content of ephedrine in Maxing Shigan decoction which the content-effect relationship was in direct correlation.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Chemistry , Calcium Sulfate , Chemistry , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Herb-Drug Interactions , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Prunus , Chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245998

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the regularity of recipe composition by observing inhibitory effects on the genic expression of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, IL-4 and the leukotriene C4 in asthmatic mice.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The mice were challenged with OVA and administered ig with the Herba Ephedrae decoction (HED), separated compositions (2500 mg x kg(-1), calculated by Herba Ephedrae) and dexamethasone (2 mg x kg(-1)) respectively once daily for seven days. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method was employed to measure the contents of FLAP mRNA and IL-4 mRNA expressions in lung and the ELISA method was used to determine the content of LTC4 in the washing solution of pulmonary alveolus and bronchi.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In the lung of asthma mice, the expressions of FLAP and IL-4 and the content of LTC4 were significantly augmented compared with the control group. The HED and the separated compositions could suppress the expressions of FLAP and IL-4 and LTC4 release to a great extent in mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The HED had the remarkable effects of antianaphylaxis asthma and the original formula HED worked best. These results confirmed the rationality and scientific level of HED.</p>


Subject(s)
5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins , Animals , Asthma , Genetics , Metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemistry , Carrier Proteins , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Interleukin-4 , Genetics , Leukotriene C4 , Metabolism , Lung , Metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mice , Ovalbumin , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Random Allocation
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