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1.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-14, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1371164

ABSTRACT

As mulheres rurais possuem meios de vida e estrutura familiar própria do contexto no qual se encontram inseridas, o que frequentemente favorece sua vulnerabilização. Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico, laboral e epidemiológico de mulheres rurais. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. Os dados foram coletados entre os meses de julho a novembro de 2020 em área rural do município de Nazarezinho, Paraíba, Brasil, junto a 87 mulheres rurais acompanhadas por uma unidade de estratégia de saúde da família. A análise se deu por estatística descritiva. Verificou-se predominância de mulheres rurais com poucos anos de estudo formal, com média de idade economicamente ativa, com laços conjugais e filhos, de renda mensal de até um salário mínimo, e que desempenhavam papeis consideráveis no trabalho rural, sobretudo nas atividades de plantio e colheita. Quase metade delas declarou possuir doença crônica, sendo a hipertensão arterial sistêmica a mais apontada. Conclui-se o perfi l de mulheres rurais indica vulnerabilidades sociais que devem ser combatidas a partir da implementação de políticas públicas com vistas à promoção da sua saúde, melhoria da qualidade de vida e garantia de direitos fundamentais.


Las mujeres rurales tienen medios de vida y estructura familiar relacionados con el contexto en el que se insertan, lo que muchas veces favorece su vulnerabilidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico, laboral y epidemiológico de las mujeres rurales. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo. Los datos fueron recolectados entre julio y noviembre de 2020 en una zona rural del municipio de Nazarezinho, Paraíba, Brasil. Participaron 87 mujeres rurales acompañadas de una unidad de estrategia de salud de la familia. El análisis se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva. Predominaron las mujeres rurales con pocos años de educación formal, con edad promedio económicamente activa, con vínculo matrimonial e hijos, con ingresos mensuales de hasta un salario mínimo, y que desempeñaban roles importantes en el trabajo rural, especialmente en actividades de siembra y cosecha. Casi la mitad de ellos declaró tener una enfermedad crónica, siendo la hipertensión arterial sistémica la más mencionada. Se concluye el perfil de la mujer rural indica vulnerabilidades sociales que deben ser atendidas mediante la implementación de políticas públicas con miras a promover su salud, mejorar su calidad de vida y garantizar los derechos fundamentales.


Rural women have livelihoods and family structure related to the context in which they are inserted, which often favors their vulnerability. This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic, labor and epidemiological profile of rural women. This is a descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected between July and November 2020 in a rural area in the municipality of Nazarezinho, Paraíba, Brazil. Participants were 87 rural women accompanied by a Family Health Strategy unit. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics. There was a predominance of rural women with few years of formal education, with an average age of economically active, with marital ties and children, with a monthly income of up to one minimum wage, and who played considerable roles in rural work, especially in planting activities and harvest. Almost half of them declared having a chronic disease, with systemic arterial hypertension being the most mentioned. It is concluded the profile of rural women indicates social vulnerabilities that must be tackled through the implementation of public policies with a view to promoting their health, improving their quality of life and guaranteeing fundamental rights.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Women , Women, Working , Rural Workers , Brazil , Epidemiologic Factors
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 40-43, 17-feb-2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359823

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en diciembre de 2019, el coronavirus 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2) provocó un brote en Wuhan, China, de la enfermedad respiratoria denominada COVID-19. A finales de febrero de 2020 se detectó en México el primer caso de COVID-19. Con esta enfermedad, las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas son determinantes para que la comorbilidad continúe en aumento. Objetivo: conocer las características epidemiológicas y la comorbilidad en trabajadores enfermos de COVID-19 del Órgano de Operación Administrativa Desconcentrada Estatal Veracruz Norte, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal que incluyó a 228 pacientes de COVID-19, trabajadores del IMSS. Se analizaron variables como edad, género, así como unidad médica, categoría contractual, comorbilidades, etcétera, las cuales se tomaron de abril a junio de 2020 de la base del Sistema de Notificación en Línea para la Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SINOLAVE). Se empleó estadística descriptiva y chi cuadrada de Pearson, con una p < 0.05. Resultados: se analizaron 228 pacientes. El personal de enfermería fue el de mayor prevalencia, con 101 pacientes (44.3%). Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron la obesidad en primer plano, con 27 pacientes (11.8%), y la diabetes mellitus por sí sola con 15 (6.6%), y en conjunto, con hipertensión arterial, obesidad y ser fumador crónico se presentaron en 22 pacientes (9.6 %). Conclusiones: predominó el personal de enfermería; las comorbilidades prevalentes fueron la obesidad, la diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial


Background: In December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak of the respiratory disease called COVID-19, in Wuhan, China. At the end of February 2020, it was detected in Mexico the first case of COVID-19. With this disease, chronic degenerative diseases are decisive for comorbidity to continue increasing. Objective: To know the epidemiological characteristics and comorbidity in workers sick with COVID-19 from the Veracruz Norte Regional Deconcentrated Administrative Operation Body, from the Mexican Institute for Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS). Material and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, which included 228 COVID-19 patients, who were IMSS workers. Variables such as age, gender, as well as medical unit, contractual category, comorbidities, etc., were analyzed and were taken from April to June 2020 from the Online Notification System for Epidemiological Surveillance (SINOLAVE) database. It was used descriptive statistics, and Pearson's chi-squared, with a p < 0.05. Results: 228 patients were analyzed. The nursing staff was the one with the highest prevalence with 101 patients (44.3%). Comorbidities such as obesity in the foreground, with 27 patients (11.8%), and diabetes mellitus alone with 15 patients (6.6%), and as a group, along with arterial hypertension, obesity and being a chronic smoker in 22 patients (9.6%) were the most frequent. Conclusions: The nursing staff predominated; the prevalent comorbidities were obesity, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Epidemiologic Factors , Health Personnel , Epidemiological Monitoring , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico
4.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 71-80, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353012

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública. Al respecto, se realizó un estudio no experimental de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar clínica y epidemiológica-mente el estado de la TB resistente a medicamentos de primera línea en la ciudad de Durán, desde enero 2015 hasta diciembre 2019. Los datos incluidos en los documentos de la matriz del programa de tuberculosis resistente. De 1111 casos nuevos de tuberculosis reportados en el cantón Durán durante el período estudiado, 45 de estos presentaron resistencia a medicamentos de primera línea. El 88,89% tuvo resistencia a rifampicina, el 33,33% de los pacientes se dispen-sarizaron en 2019. Los valores de chi cuadrado de Pearson no mostraron asociación estadística-mente significativa entre las variables investigadas (p>0,05). Entre los involucrados predominó el grupo de edades de 20 a 39 años, el sexo masculino, la tuberculosis pulmonar, infectados con VIH/sida, resistencia clasificada como primaria, los que abandonaron el seguimiento al trata-miento y la no manifestación de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos. No se observó mortali-dad entre los casos nuevos, predominando entre aquellos con recaída, el género masculino y los que tuvieron tuberculosis extrapulmonar.


Tuberculosis is a disease that continues to be a public health problem. In this regard, a non-expe-rimental cross-sectional study was carried out to characterize clinically and epidemiologically the status of TB resistant to first-line drugs in the city of Durán, from January 2015 to December 2019. The data included in the resistant tuberculosis program matrix documents. 1111 new cases of tuberculosis were reported in the Duran canton during the study period, 45 of these ones presented resistance to first-line drugs. 88.89% had rifampicin resistance, 33.33% of the patients were dispensed in 2019. Pearson's chi-square values did not show a statistically significant asso-ciation between the investigated variables (p> 0.05). Among the study population, it was predo-minated the age group between 20 and 39, male sex, pulmonary tuberculosis, infected with HIV / AIDS, resistance classified as primary, those who abandoned the follow-up to treatment and the non-manifestation of adverse drug reactions. No mortality was observed among new cases, predominantly among those ones with relapse, the male gender and those ones who had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Tuberculosis , Drug Resistance , Therapeutics , Epidemiologic Factors , HIV
5.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 15(2): e4543-e4549, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1366652

ABSTRACT

Context and objective. The steady increase in the number of chronic hemodialysis patients in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) calls for improved management of those patients. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the prevalent genotypes, and the risk factors associated with HCV in hemodialysis patients in Kinshasa (DR Congo). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2018 in all hemodialysis centers in Kinshasa. Blood samples were collected from 127 chronic hemodialysis patients and tested for the presence of antibodies against HCV. The HCV genotype was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). Results. Twenty-two (17.3 %) patients were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, ranging from 0 % to 52.9 % in different centers. Genotype 4 was detected in 18/22 (81.8 %), followed by genotype 2 in 2/22 (9.1%), and both genotypes 2 and 4 in one patient (4.5%). One patient had an undetermined genotype (4.5 %). Having received at least 4 transfusions [7,21 (1,09- 10,61); p=0.040)], not being under EPO treatment [5,81(1,47-12,96); p=0.012)], being on hemodialysis for at least 14 months [3,63(1,60-5,05); p=0.035)]and being dialyzed in an overloaded center [2,06(0,83-5,86); p=0.073)] were associated with a greater risk of HCV infection. Conclusion. This high HCV prevalence (17.3 %) represents a substantial health burden in HD patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. It is largely driven by the number of blood transfusions, the duration time in hemodialysis. Observations from the present study underscore the need of reducing the number of blood transfusions in people on dialysis through the administration of erythropoietin, given the unaffordable cost of HCV therapy for most individuals in DR Congo.


Contexte et Objectifs. Le nombre des patients hémodialisés en Afrique subsaharienne en constante augmentation ; justifiant de ce fait une meilleure prise en charge de ces patients. La présente étude détermine la prévalence de l'infection par le virus de l'hépatite C en en determinant les génotypes ainsi que les facteurs y associés dans ce groupe de patients. Méthodes. 127 patients hémodialisés chroniques ont subis des tests sérologiques à la recherche des anticorps anti-VHC dans plusieurs centres de Kinshasa de février à juin 2018. Le génotype viral a été déterminé par la RT-PCR. Résultats. La fréquence des anticorps anti-VHC a varié de 0 à 52,9 % dans ce groupe. Les génotypes le plus fréquents ont été le 4 (18/22) et le 2 (2/22) ; étant sumultanément rétrouvé chez un patient, et indéterminé chez un autre sujet. Avoir reçu au moins 4 transfusions [7,21 (1,09-10,61; p=0.040)], ne pas être sous EPO [5,81(1,47-12,96); p=0.012)], être en hémodialyse depuis au moins 14 mois [3,63(1,60- 5,05); p=0.035)] et être dialysé dans un centre surchargé [2,06 (0,83-5,86); p=0.073)] étaient associés à un risque plus élevé d'infection par le VHC. Conclusion. Ses principaux déterminants sont : le nombre des transfusions sanguines et la durée d'HD ; d'où la nécessité de réduire les transfusions sanguines chez les sujets dialysés par l'administration d'EPO, étant donné le coût prohibitif du traitement contre le VHC dans notre contexte


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Epidemiologic Factors , Hepacivirus , Genotype , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis
6.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 53-59, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368287

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Los linfangiomas son una malformación infrecuente a escala mundial y constituye una preocupación para los padres del infante; está asociado a problemas estéticos y a posibles efectos deletéreos debido a la obstrucción o compresión de órganos vitales. Se ha descrito a la escleroterapia como la mejor opción de tratamiento. OBJETIVO. Determinar la eficiencia del tratamiento con bleomicina en linfangiomas en la población pediátrica de 0 a 18 años. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal analítico retrospectivo. Población y muestra conocida de 20 datos de Historias Clínicas electrónicas de pacientes diagnosticados con linfangiomas y tratados con bleomicina en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, desde enero 2015 a enero 2018. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes de 0 a 18 años de edad con diagnóstico de linfangioma mediante ecografía y angiotomografía computarizada. Criterios de exclusión: pacientes mayores de 18 años de edad o sospecha diagnóstica de linfangioma sin estudios de imagen, y/o que no acudieron a la cita de control, pacientes diagnosticados de linfangioma que no recibieron bleomicina para su tratamiento, niños con otras malformaciones vasculares. El análisis de datos se realizó en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTADOS. La mediana de edad en mujeres fue de 6,25 años y 3,8 años en hombres. 10 pacientes fueron hombres. El promedio de seguimiento fue de 26,86 +/- 16,78 meses. El tamaño promedio de los linfangiomas fue de 5,77 +/- 3,73 cm. La localización más frecuente fue cervical con un 52,38%. La mayoría fueron macronodulares con un 85,71%. La respuesta fue buena o excelente en el 81,00% de los casos con la primera infiltración y subió al 95,00% con la segunda y tercera, según requerimiento. CONCLUSIÓN. El tratamiento de los linfangiomas con bleomicina fue muy efectivo en la población estudiada.


INTRODUCTION. Lymphatic malformation is a rare malformation worldwide and is a concern for the parents of the infant; it is associated with aesthetic problems and possible deleterious effects due to obstruction or compression of vital organs. Sclerotherapy has been described as the best treatment option. OBJECTIVE. To determine the efficiency of bleomycin treatment in lymphangiomas in the pediatric population aged 0 to 18 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective analytical cross-sectional study. Population and known sample of 20 data from Electronic Medical Records of patients diagnosed with lymphangiomas and treated with bleomycin at the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, from January 2015 to January 2018. Inclusion criteria: patients aged 0 to 18 years with diagnosis of lymphangioma by ultrasound and computed angiotomography. Exclusion criteria: patients older than 18 years of age or diagnostic suspicion of lymphangioma without imaging studies, and/or who did not attend the control appointment, patients diagnosed with lymphangioma who did not receive bleomycin for treatment, children with other vascular malformations. Data analysis was performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS. The median age in women was 6,25 years and 3,8 years in men. Ten patients were men. The average follow-up was 26,86 +/- 16,78 months. The average size of the lymphatic malformations was 5,77 +/- 3,73 cm. The most frequent location was cervical with 52,38%. Most were macronodular with 85,71%. The response was good or excellent in 81,00% of cases with the first infiltration and rose to 95,00% with the second and third, as required. CONCLUSION. The treatment of lymphangiomas with bleomycin was very effective in the population studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Congenital Abnormalities , Bleomycin , Epidemiologic Factors , Child Health Services , Adolescent Health Services , Lymphangioma , Pediatrics , Axilla , Diagnostic Imaging , Diagnosis , Inguinal Canal , Neck
7.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(3): 136-134, 04-oct-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357685

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la actualidad, el cáncer gástrico sigue ocupando un lugar importante entre las causas de muerte a nivel mundial. Objetivo: determinar las características sociodemográficas, ambientales y clínicas de los pacientes con cáncer gástrico en el municipio de San Gil, Colombia. Metodología: estudio descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 13 casos de personas con diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de cáncer gástrico del municipio de San Gil, Santander, residentes del área rural y urbana. El análisis estadístico fue realizado con el programa Statistical Product and Service Solutions, versión 24.0 Resultados: el género con mayor afectación fue el masculino con un 62%. La mediana de edad de los participantes fue de 51 años con una edad mínima de 36 años y una edad máxima de 87 años. En el 61.5% el nivel de escolaridad fue la educación primaria. En cuanto a los factores ambientales, se encontró que el 69.2% consumieron alimentos salados y condimentados. Conclusiones: se encontró que una gran proporción de los participantes fueron del género masculino y residentes del casco urbano. Entre las ocupaciones, las más frecuentes fueron amas de casa y conductores de transporte pesado. Los síntomas que presentaron los participantes en el momento del diagnóstico fueron: pérdida de peso, hematemesis, dolor epigástrico y sensación de plenitud abdominal


Introduction: At present, gastric cancer continues to occupy an important place among the causes of death worldwide. Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, environmental, and clinical characteristics of patients with gastric cancer in the municipality of San Gil, Colombia. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 13 cases of people with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of gastric cancer from the municipality of San Gil, Santander, who were residents of rural and urban areas. Statistical analysis was carried out with the program Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), version 24.0. Results: Men were the most affected, with 61.5%. The median age of the participants was 51 years with a minimum age of 36 years and a maximum of 87 years. In 61.5% the level of education was primary education. Regarding environmental factors, it was found that 69.2% consumed salty and spicy foods. Conclusions: It was found that a large proportion of the participants were male, urban residents. Concerning occupations, the most frequent were housewives and heavy truck drivers. Symptoms that participants presented at the time of diagnosis were weight loss, hematemesis, epigastric pain and fullness in upper abdomen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomach Neoplasms , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Health , Cause of Death , Colombia
8.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1370, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357301

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirrosis hepática representa en Perú el 9,1 por ciento de las causas de mortalidad. Existe poca evidencia sobre la influencia de variables epidemiológicas y clínicas en la mortalidad de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en Latinoamérica, en especial en países en vías de desarrollo, como Perú. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos. Métodos: Estudio trasversal en pacientes cirróticos atendidos en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia, de Piura, Perú, en el año 2017. La variable dependiente fue la mortalidad hospitalaria y las variables independientes fueron las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher y la prueba de t para estimar los factores asociados a la mortalidad. Resultados: De 52 pacientes, la frecuencia de mortalidad debido a cirrosis fue de 35,4 por ciento. Tener ascitis moderada (p = 0,004), grado de encefalopatía (p = 0,001), leucocitosis (p = 0,004), enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh (p = 0,023), índice de Meld entre 30-39 puntos (p < 0,001) y niveles de creatinina (p = 0,009) resultaron asociados a una mayor frecuencia de mortalidad. Conclusión: La presencia de ascitis moderada, grado de encefalopatía, leucocitosis, enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh, índice de Meld entre 30-39 y los niveles de creatinina, están asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos(AU)


Introduction: Liver cirrhosis represents 9,1 percent of causes of mortality in Peru. There is little evidence on the influence of epidemiological and clinical variables on the mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis in Latin America, especially in developing countries such as Peru. Objective: To identify the factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study in cirrhotic patients treated at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital in Piura, Peru, year 2017. The dependent variable was hospital mortality and the independent variables were epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Fisher's exact test and the T test were used to estimate the factors associated with mortality. Results: Of 52 patients, the frequency of mortality due to cirrhosis was 35,4 percent. Have moderate ascites (p = 0,004), degree of encephalopathy (p = 0,001), leukocytosis (p = 0,004), decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index (p = 0,023), Meld index between 30-39 points (p < 0,001) and creatinine levels (p = 0,009) were associated with a higher frequency of mortality. Conclusion: The presence of moderate ascites, degree of encephalopathy, leukocytosis, decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index, Meld index between 30-39, creatinine levels are associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites/complications , Hospital Mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Peru , Brain Diseases/mortality , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e4112, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289624

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes fallecidos por COVID-19 al inicio de la pandemia evidencian características clínico-epidemiológicas particulares y su identificación, lo mismo que los aspectos asociados a su diagnóstico son fundamentales para la implementación de estrategias en salud pública que permitan la protección sanitaria de los grupos más vulnerables. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínico epidemiológicas de los pacientes fallecidos por COVID-19 y su asociación con el diagnóstico tardío en las primeras etapas de la pandemia en el departamento de Bolívar-Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 51 pacientes fallecidos por COVID-19; se calculó la frecuencia relativa de los factores de riesgo clínico epidemiológicos de estos pacientes y se realizó un análisis bivariado para evidenciar la asociación con la posibilidad de ser diagnosticado después de la muerte, usando la razón de disparidad (OR) con su intervalo de confianza Resultados: El 47,2 por ciento de los diagnósticos se hicieron después de la muerte; el promedio entre el inicio de los síntomas y la muerte fue aproximadamente 13 días, en los que se evidencia como comorbilidades importantes las enfermedades cardíacas (58,5 por ciento) y la hipertensión (35,8 por ciento). La asociación con el diagnóstico después de la muerte se relaciona con los casos notificados en abril y mayo (p=0,03), ser mayor de 80 años (p=0,03) y tener malnutrición (p=0,04). Conclusión: En el contexto del departamento de Bolívar se observan fallas en el diagnóstico oportuno de algunos grupos poblacionales vulnerables y a los pacientes con enfermedades cardíacas se debe prestar atención para evitar la alta mortalidad(AU)


Introduction: Patients who died from COVID-19 at the beginning of the pandemic show particular clinical-epidemiological characteristics and their identification as well as the aspects associated with the diagnosis are fundamental for the implementation of public health strategies that allow the sanitary protection of the most vulnerable groups. Objective: To determine the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients who died from COVID-19 and its association with late diagnosis in the early stages of the pandemic in the department of Bolívar-Colombia. Material and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 51 patients who died from COVID-19; the relative frequency of the clinical-epidemiological risk factors of these patients was calculated and a bivariate analysis was performed to show the association with the possibility of being diagnosed after death, using the disparity ratio (OR) with its confidence interval. Results: The 47,2 percent of the diagnoses were made after death; the average between the onset of symptoms and death was approximately 13 days, in which heart disease (58,5 percent) and hypertension (35,8 percent) were evidenced as important comorbidities. The association with diagnosis after death is related to the cases reported in April and May (p = 0.03), being older than 80 years (p = 0.03) and having malnutrition (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In the context of the department of Bolívar, failures are observed in the timely diagnosis of some vulnerable population groups, thus special attention should be paid to patients with heart disease to avoid high mortality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Groups , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/complications , Epidemiologic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , COVID-19/mortality
10.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 925-934, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346994

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe the prevalence of sufficient leisure-time physical activity (LPA) in the trimesters of pregnancy and to test its association with sociodemographic and contextual characteristics. Methods: cross-sectional study that in 2019 analyzed data from 3580 pregnant women residing in Santa Catarina, Brazil. LPA was categorized as "active" (150 minutes or more of LPA/week) and "inactive" (less than 150 minutes). Results: the prevalence for the recommended level of LPA was 15.3% (CI95%= 14.1-16.4) before pregnancy, gradually declining to 7.8% (CI95%= 7.3-8.7), 7.3% (CI95%= 6.58.2), and 5.8% (CI95%= 5.1-6.7) in the following trimesters of pregnancy. Higher level of education was associated with the four outcomes, increasing the chance of being active by 79% in the third trimester of pregnancy. In the second trimester, living in a neighborhood that stimulates physical activity increased the chance of being active by 39%. In the third trimester, having received guidance from a health professional was associated with an increase of 60% in the chance of practicing LPA. Conclusion: the prevalence of recommended LPA is low among pregnant women and living in a neighborhood favorable to outdoor practices, greater education level and receiving guidance from health professionals increased the chance of pregnant women to be active.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a prevalência de atividade física no lazer (AFL) suficiente nos trimestres da gravidez e testar sua associação com características sociodemográficas e contextuais. Métodos: estudo transversal que analisou em 2019 dados de 3.580 gestantes residentes em Santa Catarina, Brasil. AFL foi categorizada como "ativa" (150 minutos ou mais de LPA / semana) e "inativa" (menos de 150 minutos por semana). Resultados: a prevalência para o nível recomendado de AFL foi de 15,3% (IC95%= 14,116,4) antes da gravidez, diminuindo gradualmente para 7,8% (IC95%= 7,3-8,7), 7,3% (IC95%= 6,5-8,2), e 5,8% (IC95%= 5,1-6,7) nos trimestres seguintes da gravidez. Maior escolaridade foi associada aos quatro desfechos, aumentando a chance de ser ativa em 79% no terceiro trimestre da gravidez. No segundo trimestre, morar em um bairro que estimula a atividade física aumentou em 39% a chance de ser ativa. Já no terceiro trimestre, ter recebido orientação de profissional de saúde esteve associado a um aumento de 60% na chance de praticar AFL. Conclusão: a prevalência de AFL recomendada é baixa entre gestantes e morar em bairro favorável a atividades ao ar livre, maior escolaridade e receber orientação de profissionais de saúde aumentam a chance de gestantes serem ativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Prevalence , Pregnant Women , Leisure Activities , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 461-471, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340662

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with unplanned pregnancy in a Brazilian capital in the Northeast. Methods: a cross-sectional study nested to a hospital birth cohort with a probable sample of 5,110 puerperal women. Associated factors were analyzed using a hierarchical theoretical model in three levels: distal (women's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics), intermediate (reproductive characteristics, maternal habits and BMI), and proximal level (partner's characteristics). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. Results: the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 68.1% (CI95%=66.8-69.4). Multivariate analysis showed association with black skin color/race (PR=1.03; CI95%=1.01- 1.07), mother's age group up to 19 years old (PR=1.09; CI95%=1.06-1.12) and 20 to 24 years old (PR=1.04; CI95%=1.01-1.07), not living with partner (PR=1.09; CI95%=1.07- 1.11), highest number of people in the household: 5 people (PR= 1.10; CI95%=1.08-1.13) and 3 to 4 (PR=1.08; CI95%=1.05-1.10), number of ≥4 children (PR=1.09; CI95%=1.06- 1.13) and 2 or 3 children (PR=1.03; CI95%=1.02-1.05), alcohol consumption (PR=1.03; CI95%=1.01-1.05), malnourished pre-pregnancy BMI (PR=1.03; CI95%=1.01-1.06) and partner's low schooling (5 to 8 years) (PR=1.03; CI95%=1.01-1.07). Prior abortion was inversely associated with planned pregnancy (PR=0.95; CI95%=0.93-0.97). Conclusions: the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was high and was associated with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that reflect on the combination of the complex inequalities that impact women and their partners


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à gravidez não planejada em uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: estudo transversal aninhado à coorte de nascimento hospitalar com amostra probabilística de 5.110 puérperas. Fatores associados foram analisados utilizando-se modelo teórico hierarquizado em três níveis: distal (caracteristicas socioeconômicas e demográficas da mulher), intermediário(caracteristicas reprodutivas, hábitos maternos e IMC), e nível proximal (características do companheiro). Realizou-se análise de regressão multivariada de Poisson. Resultados: a prevalência de gravidez não planejada foi de 68,1% (IC95%= 66,8-69,4). A análise multivariada mostrou associação com cor/raça preta (RP=1,03; IC95%= 1,01-1,07), faixa etária da mãe até 19 anos (RP=1,09; IC95%= 1,06-1,12) e 20 a 24 anos (RP=1,04; IC95%= 1,01-1,07), não residir com o companheiro (RP=1,09; IC95%= 1,07-1,11), maior o número de pessoas no domicílio: 5 pessoas (RP= 1,10; IC95%= 1,08-1,13) e de 3 a 4 (RP=1,08; IC95%= 1,05-1,10), número de ≥4 filhos (RP=1,09; IC95%= 1,06-1,13) e 2 ou 3 filhos (RP=1,03; IC95%= 1,02-1,05), uso de álcool (RP=1,03; IC95%= 1,01-1,05), IMC pré-gestacional desnutrido (RP=1,03; IC95%= 1,01-1,06) e baixa escolaridade (5 a 8 anos) do companheiro (RP=1,03; IC95%= 1,01-1,07). O aborto prévio associou-se inversamente com gravidez planejada (RP=0,95; IC95%= 0,93-0,97). Conclusões: foi elevada a prevalência de gravidez não planejada, e esteve associada a características socioeconômicas e demográficas que refletem a combinação de complexas desigualdades que impactam mulheres e seus parceiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Factors , Prevalence , Statistical Data , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Maternal Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Reproductive Health
12.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(1): e1020, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289371

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de colon se erige como la neoplasia del tubo digestivo más frecuente en la presente centuria. Objetivo: Identificar algunos factores clínicos, epidemiológicos y diagnósticos en pacientes operados de cáncer de colon con metástasis hepática sincrónica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de una muestra de 31 pacientes operados con diagnóstico definitivo de cáncer de colon con metástasis hepática sincrónica, en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba durante el periodo comprendido entre 2010 y 2019. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 63,2 años. Existió predominio de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal como antecedente patológico personal, y del alcoholismo como factor de riesgo. La sintomatología predominante fue dolor abdominal y cambios del hábito intestinal, así como el tumor palpable al examen físico del abdomen. La ecografía abdominal y el colon por enema fueron los procederes de diagnóstico más utilizados. Prevalecieron los tumores en el colon izquierdo a nivel del descendente. Todos los tumores malignos fueron adenocarcinomas a predominio de los moderadamente diferenciados. Conclusiones: Las edades avanzadas de la vida, así como la presencia de tabaquismo y alcoholismo son factores epidemiológicos característicos de la población de enfermos aquejados de cáncer de colon con metástasis hepática. Los elementos clínicos identificados constituyeron los habitualmente descritos en la literatura médica, aunque los estudios imaginológicos utilizados preoperatoriamente resultaron limitados para el diagnóstico del cáncer de colon con metástasis hepática sincrónica, precisándose el hallazgo de las lesiones metastásicas durante la intervención quirúrgica(AU)


Introduction: Colon cancer is the most frequent digestive-tract neoplasm in the present century. Objective: To identify some clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic factors in patients operated on for colon cancer and synchronic hepatic metastasis. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 31 patients operated on with a definitive diagnosis of colon cancer and synchronic hepatic metastasis, in the general surgery service of Saturnino Provincial Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during the period between 2010 and 2019. Results: The average age was 63.2 years. There was a predominance of inflammatory intestinal disease as a personal pathological antecedent, as well as alcoholism as a risk factor. The predominant symptoms were abdominal pain and changes in intestinal habits, as well as a tumor palpable on physical abdominal examination. Abdominal ultrasound and lower barium enema were the most used diagnostic procedures. Tumors prevailed at the level of the left descending colon. All malignant tumors were adenocarcinomas, predominantly moderately differentiated ones. Conclusions: Advanced ages of life, as well as smoking and alcoholism are characteristic epidemiological factors among the population of patients suffering from colon cancer with hepatic metastases. The clinical elements identified were those usually described in the medical literature, although the imaging studies used preoperatively were limited for the diagnosis of colon cancer with synchronic hepatic metastasis, a fact that required finding metastatic lesions during surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiologic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
13.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(1): e1393, ene-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177866

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas son aquellas causadas por microbios patógenos como algunas bacterias, virus, parásitos, entre otros. Estas enfermedades pueden transmitirse, directa o indirectamente, de un individuo a otro 1. La epidemiología estudia los procesos de salud y enfermedad que afectan a las poblaciones. Se interesa por conocer las características de los grupos que se ven afectados; cómo se distribuyen geográficamente y en el tiempo los eventos de salud y enfermedad; con qué frecuencia se manifiestan y cuáles son las causas o factores asociados a su surgimiento 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiologic Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology
14.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(107): 104-112, 2021 nov. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348760

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Describir variables epidemiológicas clave durante el año 2020 (pandemia de COVID-19) con respecto a la prevención de la transmisión perinatal (TP) del VIH en Ciudad de Buenos Aires (CABA), comparando con períodos previos.Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de los datos agregados de TP de las principales maternidades de CABA. El año pandémico (2020) se comparó con los años no pandémicos 2018 y 2019.Resultados: Se observó una reducción del total de nacimientos en 2020 en comparación con 2019 y 2018 (11.640 vs. 14.031 y 15,978, respectivamente). La proporción de nacidos vivos en madres VIH+ (MEV) fue 0,88% en 2020, sin diferencia con 2019 y 2018 (0,94% y 0,93%), p> 0,05 para todas las comparaciones. Entre las MEV, el diagnóstico intraparto fue del 2,9% para 2020, sin diferencias con 2019 (2,25%) y 2018 (9,3%), p> 0,05 (todas las comparaciones); el 8,8% comenzó el tratamiento antirretroviral con > 28 semanas de edad gestacional en 2020 frente al 16% y el 18,05% en 2018 y 2019 (p> 0,05, todas las comparaciones). La prevalencia de la carga viral indetectable en el momento del parto fue del 67% en 2020 frente al 64% en 2018 y del 65,4% en 2019 (p> 0,05, todas las comparaciones). La transmisión perinatal fue 0% en 2020 vs. 1,33% en 2018 y 2,25% 2019 (p> 0,05, todas las comparaciones).Conclusiones: En la primera ola de la pandemia de COVID-19 no se observaron cambios en la proporción de MEV asistidas, diagnóstico intraparto de VIH, inicio tardío del TARV y TP en CABA


Background: To describe key epidemiological variables in 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic) regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in Buenos Aires city (CABA) in comparison with previous periods. Methods: Retrospective analysis of aggregated MTCT data was gathered from six principal maternity hospitals in Buenos Aires city. Pandemic year (2020) was compared to non-pandemic years 2018-19 individually considering key epidemiological variables. Results: A reduction of total births was observed in 2020 compared to 2019 and 2018 (11640 vs. 14031 and 15978, respectively). Proportion of live births in HIV-infected women (HPW) was 0.88% in 2020 without difference with 2019 and 2018 (0.94% and 0.93%), p> 0.05 for all comparisons. Among HPW, intrapartum diagnosis was 2.9% for 2020, with no difference between 2019 (2.25%) and 2018 (9.3%), p>0.05 (all comparisons); 8.8% had antiretroviral therapy (ART) started > 28 weeks of gestational age in 2020 vs. 16% and 18.05% in 2018 and 2019 (p> 0.05, all comparisons). Prevalence of undetectable viral load at delivery was 67% in 2020 vs 64% in 2018 and 65.4% in 2019 (p> 0.05, all comparisons). Perinatal transmission was 0% in 2020 vs 1.33% in 2018 and 2.25% 2019 (p> 0.05, all comparisons) Conclusions: In first wave of COVID 19 pandemic no changes in the proportion of HPW assisted, HIV intrapartum diagnosis, late ART initiation and MTCT-rate was observed in CABA


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Health Programs and Plans , Birth Certificates , Epidemiologic Factors , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , HIV , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data
15.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(4): eabc256, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359750

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A ecocardiografia transtorácica (ETT) pode desempenhar um papel crucial na avaliação das manifestações cardíacas da COVID-19. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi relatar a prevalência das principais anormalidades ecocardiográficas em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo observacional multicêntrico prospectivo com pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos a ETT durante a internação. Pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca prévia, doença arterial coronariana ou fibrilação atrial foram classificados como portadores de doença cardiovascular (DCV) prévia. Foram coletados dados clínicos e ecocardiográficos da estrutura e da função cardíaca. Resultados: Avaliamos 310 pacientes com COVID-19, com 62±16 anos de idade, 61% homens, 53% com hipertensão arterial, 33% com diabetes e 23% com DCV prévia. No total, 65% dos pacientes necessitaram de suporte em unidade de terapia intensiva. As alterações ecocardiográficas mais prevalentes foram hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) (29%), hipertensão pulmonar (25%), disfunção sistólida do VE (16,5%), disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito (VD) (15,9%), disfunção diastólica do VE grau II/III (11%) e alteração da contratilidade regional do VE (11%). Derrame pericárdico foi incomum (7%). Hipertrofia do VE (25 vs. 45%, p=0,001), disfunção sistólica do VE (11 vs. 36%, p<0,001), alterações da contratilidade regional (6 vs. 29%, p<0,001), disfunção diastólica do VE grau II/III (9 vs. 19%, p=0,03) e hipertensão pulmonar (22 vs. 36%, p=0,019) foram menos comuns nos pacientes sem do que com DCV prévia. A disfunção sistólica do VD mostrou-se semelhante em pacientes sem e com DCV prévia (13 vs. 25%, p=0,07). Conclusões: Entre os pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19, os achados ecocardiográficos anormais foram comuns, porém menos encontrados naqueles sem DCV. A disfunção sistólica do VD pareceu afetar de forma semelhante pacientes com e sem DCV prévia. (AU)


Background: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may play a crucial role in the evaluation of cardiac manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: We aimed to report the prevalence of the main echocardiographic abnormalities of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a prospective multicenter observational study in patients with COVID-19 who underwent TTE during hospitalization. Patients with pre-existing heart failure, coronary artery disease, or atrial fibrillation were categorized as having previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and echocardiographic data about cardiac structure and function were collected. Results: We evaluated 310 patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 62±16 years; 61% men; 53% with arterial hypertension; 33% with diabetes; and 23% with previous CVD). Overall, 65% of the patients required intensive care unit support. The most prevalent echocardiographic abnormalities were LV hypertrophy (29%), pulmonary hypertension (25%), left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (16.5%), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (15.9%), grade II/III LV diastolic dysfunction (11%), and LV regional wall motion abnormality (11%). Pericardial effusion was uncommon (7% of cases). LV hypertrophy (25% vs. 45%, p=0.001), LV systolic dysfunction (11% vs. 36%, p<0.001), regional wall motion abnormalities (6% vs. 29%, p<0.001), grade II/III LV diastolic dysfunction (9% vs. 19%, p=0.03), and pulmonary hypertension (22% vs. 36%, p=0.019) were less common in patients without previous CVD. RV systolic dysfunction occurred at similar frequencies in patients with versus without previous CVD (13% vs. 25%, p=0.07). Conclusions: Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, abnormal echocardiographic findings were common, but less so among those without previous CVD. RV systolic dysfunction appeared to affect similar proportions of patients with versus without previous CVD. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/classification , Cardiovascular Diseases/history , Epidemiologic Factors , Statistical Data , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/history , Hypertension/history , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging
16.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE02952, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1248526

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Analisar a ocorrência de internações por diabetes mellitus segundo bairros residenciais de um grande centro urbano. Métodos: Estudo transversal, do tipo ecológico, que considerou o conjunto de internações hospitalares causadas por diabetes mellitus, nos 160 bairros do município do Rio de Janeiro. Para investigar a relação entre internações por diabetes mellitus e as condições de vida da população residente nestes bairros, calcularam-se alguns indicadores demográficos e socioeconômicos, no período de 2010 a 2015. As regiões foram comparadas através da análise de variância (ANOVA) e as associações bivariadas mediante estatística F. Resultados: A taxa média de internação por diabetes mellitus no período foi de 20,5 internações por 10 mil habitantes. As ocorrências foram mais elevadas entre pacientes do sexo masculino (23,0 por 10 mil) em comparação ao feminino (18,4 por 10 mil), tendência que se observou em todas as regiões do município. A região do Centro apresenta mais situações de vulnerabilidades e maior taxa de internação na comparação com as demais. A variância indicou diferenças entre as regiões no que se refere as características sociodemográficas e ambientais ligadas as condições de vida e saúde. Conclusão: As diferenças regionais identificadas nas taxas de internação e sua relação com maior vulnerabilidade dos indicadores sociais apontam para complicações no manejo do diabetes mellitus e que estas resultam em internações pela doença.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los casos de internaciones por diabetes mellitus según barrios residenciales de un gran centro urbano. Métodos: Estudio transversal, tipo ecológico, que consideró el conjunto de internaciones hospitalarias causadas por diabetes mellitus, en los 160 barrios del municipio de Rio de Janeiro. Para investigar la relación entre las internaciones por diabetes mellitus y las condiciones de vida de la población residente en estos barrios, se calcularon algunos indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos, durante el período de 2010 a 2015. Las regiones fueron comparadas mediante el análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y las relaciones bivariadas mediante estadística F. Resultados: El índice promedio de internación por diabetes mellitus fue de 20,5 internaciones por 10.000 habitantes durante el período. Hubo más episodios entre pacientes del sexo masculino (23,0 por 10.000), comparado con el femenino (18,4 por 10.000), tendencia que se observó en todas las regiones del municipio. La región del Centro presenta más situaciones de vulnerabilidad y un mayor índice de internación al compararse con las demás zonas. La varianza indicó diferencias entre las regiones respecto a las características sociodemográficas y ambientales con relación a las condiciones de vida y salud. Conclusión: Las diferencias regionales identificadas en los índices de internación y su relación con una mayor vulnerabilidad de los indicadores sociales señalan complicaciones en el manejo de la diabetes mellitus, que tienen como resultado internaciones por diabetes mellitus.


Abstract Objective: Analyze the occurrence of hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus by residential neighborhoods in a large urban center. Methods: cross-sectional ecological study, which considered the set of hospitalizations caused by diabetes mellitus, in the 160 neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro. To investigate the relationship between hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus and the living conditions of the population living in these neighborhoods, some demographic and socioeconomic indicators were calculated from 2010 to 2015. The regions were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the bivariate associations using F statistics. Results: the average hospitalization rate for diabetes mellitus in the period was 20.5 admissions per 10 thousand inhabitants. The occurrences were higher among male patients (23.0 per 10 thousand) compared to female patients (18.4 per 10 thousand), a trend that was observed in all regions of the city. The Center presents more situations of vulnerability and higher hospitalization rates compared to the others. The variance indicated differences between the regions regarding sociodemographic and environmental characteristics related to living and health conditions. Conclusion: The regional differences identified in the hospitalization rates and their relationship with greater vulnerability of social indicators point to complications in the management of diabetes mellitus and that these result in hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Social Conditions , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Health Vulnerability , Hospitalization , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20200509, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1253331

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever a completude dos dados e avaliar a qualidade do Banco de dados do Painel COVID-19 no Espírito Santo em 2020, quanto à completude de suas variáveis, bem como analisar a confirmação da doença e sua evolução por crianças, adolescentes e jovens. Métodos: estudo descritivo exploratório. A completude no preenchimento da ficha no Painel COVID-19 foi classificada como excelente (menos de 5% de preenchimento incompleto), bom (5% a 10%), regular (10% a 20%), ruim (20% a 50%) ou muito ruim (50% ou mais). Resultados: observou-se qualidade regular para o critério de confirmação (16%), ruim para a classificação da doença (44%) e status de notificação (30%) e muito ruim para a evolução (79%). Quanto às variáveis epidemiológicas, destaca-se a variável raça/cor da pele com completude regular (17%). Conclusão e implicações para a prática: é necessário educação permanente dos profissionais para o preenchimento dos dados de forma correta. Tratando-se de uma pandemia por um vírus novo, esses dados devem estar disponíveis imediatamente, e com qualidade para que medidas de controle possam ser adotadas


Objective: to describe the completeness of the data and evaluate the quality of the COVID-19 Panel Database in Espírito Santo in 2020, as to the completeness of its variables, as well as to analyze the confirmation of the disease and its evolution by children, adolescents and young people. Methods: exploratory descriptive study. Completeness of filling in the form on the COVID-19 Panel was classified as excellent (less than 5% incomplete), good (5% to 10%), fair (10% to 20%), poor (20% to 50%) or very bad (50% or more). Results: regular quality was observed for the confirmation criterion (16%), poor for the classification of the disease (44%) and notification status (30%) and very poor for the evolution (79%). Regarding the epidemiological variables, the race-skin color variable with regular completeness (17%) stands out. Conclusion and implications for the practice: permanent education of professionals is necessary to fill in the data correctly. in the case of a pandemic due to a new virus, these data must be available immediately, and with quality so that control measures can be adopted


Objetivo: describir la exhaustividad de los datos y evaluar la calidad de la Base de Datos Panel COVID-19 en Espírito Santo en 2020, en cuanto a la exhaustividad de sus variables, así como analizar la confirmación de la enfermedad y su evolución en niños, adolescentes y jóvenes. Métodos: estudio descriptivo exploratorio. La exhaustividad al completar el formulario en el Panel COVID-19 se clasificó como excelente (menos del 5% incompleto), buena (5% a 10%), regular (10% a 20%), deficiente (20% a 50%) o muy mala (50% o más). Resultados: se observó calidad regular para el criterio de confirmación (16%), mala para la clasificación de la enfermedad (44%) y estado de notificación (30%) y muy mala para la evolución (79%). En cuanto a las variables epidemiológicas, se destaca la variable raza-color de piel con exhaustividad regular (17%). Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: es necesaria la formación permanente de los profesionales para completar correctamente los datos. En el caso de una pandemia por un nuevo virus, estos datos deben estar disponibles de manera inmediata y con calidad para que se puedan adoptar medidas de control


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Disease Notification , Disease Notification/methods , Databases as Topic , Health Information Systems/standards , Data Accuracy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Factors
18.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e61717, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1287769

ABSTRACT

Objetivo investigar as variáveis que interferem na inatividade física total em mulheres com excesso de peso. Métodos pesquisa transversal que realizou levantamento de dados sociodemográficos, autopercepção de saúde, autoeficácia para atividade física, peso e altura em 142 mulheres. O International Physical Activity Questionnaire foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade física. Empregou-se estatística descritiva e inferencial. Adotou-se significância estatística de 5%. Resultados a prevalência de inatividade física total foi 34,5%. Constatou-se associação significante entre inatividade física total e idade na análise bivariada. Na análise multivariada apenas mulheres com autopercepção de saúde regular e ruim apresentaram aumento de 124 e 150%, respectivamente, da inatividade física total. Conclusão a inatividade física associou-se à autopercepção de saúde regular e ruim, sendo um parâmetro de saúde para a elaboração de políticas e ações de promoção à saúde.


ABSTRACT Objective to investigate the variables that interfere with total physical inactivity in overweight women. Methods cross-sectional research that collected sociodemographic data, self-perceived health, self-efficacy for physical activity, weight, and height in 142 women. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. A 5% statistical significance level was adopted. Results the prevalence of total physical inactivity was 34.5%. A significant association between total physical inactivity and age was found in the bivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, only women with regular and poor self-perceived health showed an increase of 124% and 150%, respectively, of total physical inactivity. Conclusion physical inactivity was associated with regular and poor self-perception of health, being a health parameter for the development of health promotion policies and actions.


Subject(s)
Women , Epidemiologic Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Motor Activity , Obesity
19.
Odontoestomatol ; 23(37): e202, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1250419

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) comparten factores de riesgo conductuales y metabólicos con las enfermedades bucales. Ambas representan también un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de caries, paradenciopatías y pérdida dentaria en personas que demandan atención en la facultad de odontología de la udelar. Metodos: se relevó una muestra de los pacientes de la facultad de odontología, que respondieron un cuestionario sobre características sociodemográficas y hábitos vinculados a factores de riesgo comportamentales, se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas, de presión arterial, de glicemia capilar y un examen bucal. Resultados: fueron encuestados 602 individuos, el cpod promedio fue de 16, la prevalencia de caries no tratada fue de 72,8 % y la prevalencia de periodontitis 42,9 %. Conclusiones: Se recomienda la instalación de un programa preventivo-asistencial conjunto entre Facultad de Odontología y área salud de la UDELAR que integre la promoción y prevención de las enfermedades bucales y las no transmisibles.


Resumo As doenças não transmissíveis (DCNT) compartilham fatores de risco comportamentais e metabólicos com as doenças bucais. Ambos também representam um problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: determinar a prevalência de cárie, paradenciopatias e perda de dente em pessoas que exigem atenção na faculdade de odontologia da udelar. Métodos: foram avaliados 602 adultos, que responderam a um questionário sobre características sociodemográficas e hábitos relacionados a fatores de risco comportamentais, medidas antropométricas, pressão arterial, glicemia capilar e realização de exame oral. Resultados: foram pesquisados ​​602 indivíduos com média de 16 cáries, prevalência de cárie não tratada de 72,8% e prevalência de periodontite de 42,9%. Conclusões: Recomenda-se a instalação de um programa de cuidados preventivos conjuntos entre a Faculdade de Odontologia e a área da saúde da UDELAR que integre a promoção e prevenção das doenças bucais e não transmissíveis.


Abstract Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) share behavioral and metabolic risk factors with oral diseases. Both are also public health issues. Objective: To determine the prevalence of caries, gum conditions, and tooth loss in patients treated at UdelaR's School of Dentistry. Methods: A sample of individuals treated at the School of Dentistry answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and habits related to behavioral risk factors. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and capillary blood glucose were recorded, and an oral exam was performed. Results: Six hundred and two individuals were surveyed. The average DMFT was 16, the prevalence of untreated caries, 72.8%, and the prevalence of periodontitis, 42.9%. Conclusions: We recommend implementing a joint preventive-care program run by the School of Dentistry and the health area of UDELAR that integrates the promotion and prevention of oral and noncommunicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Factors , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200355, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1286368

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Verificar a associação entre os marcadores de fragilidade e as características sociodemográficas e clínicas em idosos na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Pesquisa transversal, realizada com 356 idosos cadastrados em unidades de saúde da família, no Nordeste do Brasil. Os instrumentos de coleta utilizados foram o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional e outro de perfil socioeconômico e de saúde. Analisaram-se os dados pela estatística inferencial, utilizando o teste do Qui-quadrado, com nível de significância 0,05. Resultados A média de idade foi de 72,85 anos (±8,965); 63,8% eram do sexo feminino, 39% apresentaram risco de fragilização e 22,5% demonstraram fragilidade. Houve associação entre fragilidade, sexo, faixa etária, estado civil, escolaridade, renda, presença de doença cardíaca e hipertensão. Conclusões e implicações para a prática Os marcadores de fragilidade nos idosos evidenciaram associação entre as características sociodemográficas e clínicas, indicando a necessidade de rastreio precoce no nível primário de atenção à saúde.


Resumen Objetivo Verificar la asociación entre los marcadores de fragilidad y las características sociodemográficas y clínicas en ancianos en Atención Primaria de Salud. Método Investigación transversal realizada con 356 ancianos registrados en unidades de salud familiar en Nordeste de Brasil. Los instrumentos de recolección utilizados fueron el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Clínico-Funcional y otro de perfil socioeconómico y de salud. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística inferencial utilizando la prueba de Chi-cuadrado, con nivel de significancia de 0.05. Resultados La edad media fue de 72,85 años (± 8,965), el 63,8% eran mujeres, el 39% tenían riesgo de fragilidad y el 22,5% eran frágiles. Hubo asociación entre fragilidad, sexo, edad, estado civil, educación, ingresos, presencia de cardiopatía e hipertensión. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica Los marcadores de fragilidad en ancianos se asociaron con características sociodemográficas y clínicas, lo que indica la necesidad de rastreo precoz en el nivel primario de atención a la salud.


Abstract Objective to verify the association between frailty markers and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in elderly people in Primary Health Care. Method cross-sectional research, carried out with 356 elderly people registered in family health units in the Northeast of Brazil. The collection instruments used were the Index of Clinical-Functional Vulnerability and another of socioeconomic and health profile. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics, using the chi-square test, with a significance level of 0.05. Results the mean age was 72.85 years (±8.965); 63.8% were female, 39% were at risk of frailty and 22.5% were frail. There was an association between frailty, gender, age group, marital status, education, income, presence of heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions and implications for practice the markers of frailty in the elderly showed an association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, indicating the need for early screening at the primary health care level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Epidemiologic Factors , Health of the Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Accidental Falls , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frail Elderly , Polypharmacy , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Vulnerability , Sarcopenia , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Heart Diseases , Hypertension
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