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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 347-348, March-Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364950
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 336-346, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364946


ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the incidence of epididymal anomalies (EAs) associated to spermatic obstruction in patients with undescended testis (UT) according to testicular position and age. Materials and Methods: We studied 87 patients (110 testis) with cryptorchidism and analyzed the presence of EAs correlated with the testicular position, age and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis we considered three situations: (a) Normal pattern: the epididymis was attached to the testis at the head and tail and epididymis totally attached to the testis; (b) EAs: when the epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head (Figure-1A) and (c) EAs associated to spermatic obstruction: epididymis was attached to the testis only at the tail (Figure-1B) and when there are no visible connection between testis and epididymis (Figure-1C). We used the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test for contingency analysis (p <0.05). Results: The mean age of the patients was 5.18 years (SD=2.867). Of 110 testes analyzed, 14 were abdominal (12.72%); 83 inguinal (75.45%) and 13 suprascrotal (11.81%). Normal relationships between testis and epididymis were observed in 54 patients (62.1%) with no significant differences in relation to the patient's age (p=0.666). Epididymal tail disjunction was observed in 23 patients (26.44%), with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.59). EAs associated to spermatic obstruction were observed in 16 patients (18.4%), also with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.684). We did not observe significant correlation between the testis position and the incidence of EAs (p=0.119). We did not observe significant correlations between patency of the PV (64.7%) and incidence of EAs (p=0.742). Conclusions: Epididymal anomalies associated with spermatic obstruction are present in almost 20% of undescended testes, without significant correlation with age, testicular position and patency of the PV. This information needs to be correlated to the infertility risk of this congenital anomaly.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Cryptorchidism/complications , Testis/abnormalities , Incidence , Epididymis/abnormalities , Inguinal Canal
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922197


BACKGROUND@#Exposure to the ionizing radiation (IR) encountered outside the magnetic field of the Earth poses a persistent threat to the reproductive functions of astronauts. The potential effects of space IR on the circadian rhythms of male reproductive functions have not been well characterized so far.@*METHODS@#Here, we investigated the circadian effects of IR exposure (3 Gy X-rays) on reproductive functional markers in mouse testicular tissue and epididymis at regular intervals over a 24-h day. For each animal, epididymis was tested for sperm motility, and the testis tissue was used for daily sperm production (DSP), testosterone levels, and activities of testicular enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and acid phosphatase (ACP)), and the clock genes mRNA expression such as Clock, Bmal1, Ror-α, Ror-β, or Ror-γ.@*RESULTS@#Mice exposed to IR exhibited a disruption in circadian rhythms of reproductive markers, as indicated by decreased sperm motility, increased daily sperm production (DSP), and reduced activities of testis enzymes such as G6PDH, SDH, LDH, and ACP. Moreover, IR exposure also decreased mRNA expression of five clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Ror-α, Ror-β, or Ror-γ) in testis, with alteration in the rhythm parameters.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings suggested potential health effects of IR exposure on reproductive functions of male astronauts, in terms of both the daily overall level as well as the circadian rhythmicity.

ARNTL Transcription Factors/genetics , Acid Phosphatase , Animals , CLOCK Proteins/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/radiation effects , Epididymis/radiation effects , Gene Expression/radiation effects , Genitalia, Male/radiation effects , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 1/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 2/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Radiation Exposure , Radiation, Ionizing , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena/radiation effects , Sperm Motility/radiation effects , Spermatozoa/radiation effects , Testis/radiation effects
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877566


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupoint thread-embedding at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) on the macrophage polarization of epididymis adipose tissue in obese mice, and to explore the action mechanism of acupoint thread-embedding on weight control.@*METHODS@#Among 30 male C57BL/6 mice, 10 mice were randomly selected and fed with normal diet, and the remaining 20 mice were fed with high-fat diet to establish the obesity model. Sixteen mice with successful obesity model were randomly divided into a model group and an acupoint thread-embedding group, 8 mice in each group. Eight mice were selected from mice which were fed with normal diet as the normal group. On the next day of successful modeling, acupoint thread-embedding was performed at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) in the acupoint thread-embedding group, once every 10 days for 4 times. The body weight was recorded at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 days into intervention; the level of glucose metabolism was compared after intervention; the level of lipid metabolism and weight of epididymal adipose tissue were compared at the end of the intervention; the mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage-related cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected by real-time PCR; the mRNA and protein expression of M1 macrophage labeled inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and M2 macrophage labeled arginase-1 (Arg-1) were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the body weight at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 days into intervention in the model group was increased (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint thread-embedding at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Fenglong" (ST 40) may play a role in weight control by regulating the polarization of macrophages.

Acupuncture Points , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Epididymis , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1434-1443, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134460


SUMMARY: The objective of this present investigation was undertaken to study the testicular and epididymal biometrical characteristics in Algerian donkeys throughout the year according to age, body weight and seasonal changes. The study was conducted from February 2019 to January 2020. A total of 24 sexually mature donkeys (Equus asinus) were selected randomly. The testis and epididymis were collected after slaughter of donkeys and separated from the conjunctive and adherent tissues. The epididymis has been carefully removed at the testicular junction. In total, 10 biometric measures were selected and performed. Our results revealed that there are significant differences (P<0.05) between groups in most biometrics values. All biometric parameters varied throughout the year and were affected by the season. Significant differences of the GSI and SC values (P<0.05) were observed in different age groups and seasons. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed between the body weight categories of donkeys. The analysis of the correlation coefficients between the biometric values shows high positive correlations, ranged between 0.98 and 0.72 (P<0.001). There was a high positive correlation between age and all the parameters, ranged from 0.85 to 0.61 (P<0.001). However, there were low negative correlations between season and; testicular and epididymal biometrics. It is the first investigation that describes the male reproductive organs in donkeys of the Algerian race (Equus asinus), on the basis of biometric testicular and epididymal measurements. Our results showed that the essential differences were noted between some biometric parameters and the age, season and body weight of donkeys. In addition, the correlation coefficients were supported between biometric measurements and these factors. However, other approaches are necessary to undertake, such as histology of reproductive organs and hormone measurement, for a deeper understanding of the physiology of reproduction in donkeys.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar las características biométricas testiculares y epididimarias en burros Argelinos durante todo el año de acuerdo con la edad, el peso corporal y los cambios estacionales. El estudio se realizó entre febrero de 2019 y enero de 2020. Se seleccionó al azar un total de 24 burros sexualmente maduros (Equus asinus). Los testículos y el epidídimo se recogieron después del sacrificio de los burros y se separaron de los tejidos conjuntivos y adherentes. El epidídimo se eliminó cuidadosamente en la unión testicular. En total, se seleccionaron y realizaron 10 medidas biométricas. Nuestros resultados revelaron que existen diferencias significativas (P <0,05) entre los grupos en la mayoría de los valores biométricos. Todos los parámetros biométricos variaron a lo largo del año y se vieron afectados por la temporada. Se observaron diferencias significativas de los valores de GSI y SC (P <0,05) en diferentes grupos de edad y estaciones. Por otra parte, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre las categorías de peso corporal de los burros. El análisis de los coeficientes de correlación entre los valores biométricos muestra altas correlaciones positivas, entre 0,98 y 0,72 (P <0,001). Hubo una alta correlación positiva entre la edad y todos los parámetros, que varió de 0,85 a 0,61 (P <0,001). Sin embargo, hubo bajas correlaciones negativas entre temporada y biometría testicular y epididimaria. Es la primera investigación que describe los órganos reproductores machos en burros de la raza Argelina (Equus asinus), sobre la base de mediciones biométricas testiculares y epididimarias. Nuestros resultados mostraron que se observaron las diferencias esenciales entre algunos parámetros biométricos y la edad, la estación y el peso corporal de los burros. Además, los coeficientes de correlación fueron compatibles entre las mediciones biométricas y estos factores. Sin embargo, son necesarios otros enfoques, como la histología de los órganos reproductivos y la medición de hormonas, para una mayor comprensión de la fisiología de la reproducción en burros.

Animals , Male , Testis/anatomy & histology , Equidae/anatomy & histology , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Seasons , Body Weight , Age Factors
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1758-1766, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131566


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recuperação de espermatozoides epididimários de cães castrados, utilizando as técnicas de fluxo retrógrado (FR) e flutuação (FL) em diluidor Tris-gema, antes e após a criopreservação. Foram coletados 30 complexos testículo-epididímos (CTE), sendo 15 para FR e 15 para FL, e, logo após a recuperação dos espermatozoides, foram analisadas as alterações morfológicas nessas células espermáticas. Após a adição do diluidor, foram avaliados os parâmetros de motilidade total (MOT) e vigor (V) espermáticos. O sêmen pós-criopreservado foi submetido ao teste de termorresistência nos tempos T0, T30, T60 e T90 minutos, além da avaliação das membranas plasmática e acrossomal por sondas fluorescentes. Não houve diferença estatística entre as técnicas quanto à MOT e ao vigor no sêmen diluído (FR-MOT: 82,3% e V: 3,4; FL-MOT: 79,6% e V: 3,2) e pós-criopreservado (FR-MOT: 34% e V: 2,8; FL-MOT: 30% e V: 2,7). A partir do T30, houve diferença significativa quanto à MOT e ao vigor nas técnicas utilizadas, e o tempo também prejudicou o acrossoma espermático a partir do T30. Conclui-se que as técnicas de recuperação de espermatozoides epididimários de cães castrados, testadas neste trabalho, podem ser utilizadas para refrigeração e criopreservação de sêmen.(AU)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery of epididymal spermatozoa from castrated dogs using retrograde flow (FL) and flotation (FL) techniques in Tris-egg yolk diluent, before and after cryopreservation. Thirty testicle-epididymal complexes (CTE) were collected, 15 for FR and 15 for FL and soon after spermatozoid recovery, morphological changes in these spermatic cells were analyzed. After addition of the diluent, the parameters of total motility (MOT) and vigor (V) were evaluated. The post-cryopreserved semen was submitted to thermoresistance (TTR) test at T0, T30, T60 and T90 minutes, as well as the plasma and acrosomal membrane evaluation by fluorescent probes. There was no statistically significant difference between techniques tested for MOT and vigor in the diluted semen (FR-MOT: 82.3% and V: 3.4, FL-MOT: 79.6% and V: 3.2) and post-cryopreserved (FR-MOT: 34% and V: 2.8, FL-MOT: 30% and V: 2.7). From the T30 there was a significant difference regarding MOT and vigor in the used techniques, and the time also damaged the spermatic acrosome from the T30. It is concluded that the epididymal spermatozoa recovering techniques from castrated dogs, tested in this study, can be used for semen refrigeration and cryopreservation.(AU)

Animals , Male , Dogs , Epididymis/physiology , Sperm Retrieval/veterinary , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Cryopreservation/veterinary
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 306-314, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135625


The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm quality obtained of domestic cats by electroejaculation and recovery of the tail of the epididymis after cooling at -1°C and 4°C for 24 and 48 hours. Twenty-nine adult cats (2 to 6kg) were used. Sperm collection was performed by electroejaculation (EEJ), and after 48 hours, the cats were orchiectomized, and sperm sample was obtained from the vas deferens and epididymis tail (EPD). The samples were diluted in ACP-117® extender, and the sperm characteristics were evaluated at three different moments: when still fresh, 24 and 48 hours after cooling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm quality obtained of domestic cats by electroejaculation and recovery of the tail of the epididymis after cooling at -1°C and 4°C for 24 and 48 hours. Twenty-nine adult cats (2 to 6kg) were used. Sperm collection was performed by electroejaculation (EEJ), and after 48 hours, the cats were orchiectomized, and sperm sample was obtained from the vas deferens and epididymis tail (EPD). The samples were diluted in ACP-117® extender, and the sperm characteristics were evaluated at three different moments: when still fresh, 24 and 48 hours after cooling. In order to compare the two refrigeration temperatures, the first stage was to analyze if there was a difference between the harvesting techniques. After this, two experiments were conducted: in the first, sperm sample from 14 cats were used and the cooling was performed at -1°C; and in the second, sample from 15 cats were used and the sperm were refrigerated at 4°C. Sperm kinetics were evaluated by computerized analysis (CASA) and concentration by Neubauer chamber, spermatic morphology was evaluated by modified Karras staining, and membrane integrity was evaluated by eosin nigrosine. The results obtained were analyzed in R software, version 3.2.5 using the Mann-Whitney test for variables with abnormal distributions, considering significance at the level of 5%. In ejaculate samples, higher values of total morphological defects were observed after 24 and 48 hours of refrigeration at 4°C (P<0.022) compared to refrigeration at -1°C, using Friedman test. To quantify the decrease in sperm quality, parameter reductions were calculated among time points (F-24h/F-48h/24h-48h). In EPD samples, a greater reduction in sperm quality was detected after 24 hours of refrigeration at 4°C, both in motility and sperm kinetics and in the movement and velocity indices, compared to refrigeration at -1°C. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cooling of feline spermatozoa at -1°C for up to 48 hours was efficient in maintaining spermatic quality collected by EEJ and EPD, and it could be an alternative to spermatozoa cryopreservation in domestic felines.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade espermática de gatos domésticos obtidos por eletroejaculação e recuperação da cauda do epidídimo após a refrigeração a -1°C e a 4°C por 24 e 48 horas. Vinte e nove gatos adultos (2 a 6kg) foram utilizados. A colheita de espermatozoides foi realizada por eletroejaculação (EEJ) e, após 48 horas, os gatos foram orquiectomizados, e as amostras espermáticas foram obtidas a partir do ducto deferente e da cauda do epidídimo (EPD). As amostras foram diluídas em ACP-117® e as características espermáticas foram avaliadas em três momentos distintos: fresco, 24 e 48 horas após a refrigeração. Para ser possível comparar as duas temperaturas de refrigeração, a primeira etapa foi analisar se havia diferença entre as técnicas de colheita. Após isto, dois experimentos foram conduzidos: no primeiro, espermatozoides de 14 gatos foram utilizados e a refrigeração foi realizada a -1°C; e no segundo, amostras de 15 gatos foram utilizados e os espermatozoides foram refrigerados a 4°C. A cinética espermática foi avaliada por análise computadorizada (CASA), a concentração por câmara de Neubauer, a morfologia espermática foi avaliada pela coloração de Karras modificada, e a integridade da membrana foi avaliada por eosina nigrosina. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados no software R, versão 3.2.5, utilizando o teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis com distribuições anormais, considerando significância ao nível de 5%. No ejaculado, maiores valores de defeitos morfológicos totais foram observados após 24 e 48 horas de refrigeração a 4°C (P<0,022) em comparação com refrigeração a -1°C, usando o teste de Friedman. Para quantificar a diminuição na qualidade espermática, as reduções dos parâmetros foram calculadas entre os pontos de tempo (F-24h/F-48h/24h-48h). Na EPD, uma maior redução na qualidade espermática foi detectada após 24 horas de refrigeração a 4°C, tanto na motilidade e na cinética espermática quanto nos índices de movimento e velocidade, em comparação com a refrigeração a -1°C. Com base nos resultados, pode concluir-se que a refrigeração dos espermatozoides felino a -1°C, até 48 horas, foi eficaz na manutenção da qualidade espermático colhidos por EEJ e EPD, e pode ser uma alternativa para a criopreservação de espermatozoides em felinos domésticos.(AU)

Animals , Male , Cats , Semen , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Spermatozoa , Cryopreservation , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/veterinary , Epididymis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762456


BACKGROUND: Tumor markers are useful for detection and preoperative evaluation of ovarian tumors. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of cancer antigen (CA) 125, human epididymis 4 (HE4), and CA72-4 levels and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) values for differential diagnosis of malignant and borderline tumors among suspected ovarian tumors, and the effects of endometriosis on these tumor markers. METHODS: In a total of 266 patients (213, 14, and 39 with benign, borderline and malignant tumors, respectively), CA125, HE4, and CA72-4 levels were measured, and ROMA values were calculated. Medians of each marker were compared among the three groups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to analyze the diagnostic performance of each marker. RESULTS: All markers were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the benign group. HE4 levels and ROMA values were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the borderline group. ROMA value had the highest AUC for distinguishing the malignant and borderline groups from the benign group in premenopausal (0.773) and postmenopausal (0.927) patients. CA125 level was significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than in those without (P<0.001), whereas HE4 and CA72-4 levels were not affected by endometriosis (P=0.128 and 0.271, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ROMA value is the best marker to distinguish malignant and borderline tumors from benign tumors in pre- and postmenopausal patients. HE4 and CA72-4 levels provide information on possible CA125 elevation due to endometriosis.

Area Under Curve , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , Endometriosis , Epididymis , Female , Humans , Male , ROC Curve , Rome , Sensitivity and Specificity
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 815-824, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019894


ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hyperglycemia is caused by diabetes mellitus-committed genital morphophysiology, and oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in this process. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can prevent metabolic and morphological changes in diabetic individuals. Objectives In present study, we evaluated the effects of regular ALA consumption on the spermatogenesis and histoarchitecture in the male genital system of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (CG); Diabetic Control (DCG), receiving commercial diet: ALA Group (ALAG) and Diabetic ALA Group (DALAG), fed diets with added ALA (300 mg/Kg bw). The diabetic groups received a single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After sixty days of the diet, the animals were euthanized, and semen, testis and epididymis samples were collected. A histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter, tubular and luminal area of seminiferous tubules and each epididymal region. Sertoli cells were evidenced using the antivimenti antibody and were quantified. The results were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA test. Results At the end of the experiment, the DALAG glycemia was significantly lower than DCG. The histomorphometric parameters of the seminiferous and epididymal tubules did not show improvement in the DALAG. However, there was an improvement in the DALAG in terms of the concentration, motility and percentage of spermatic pathologies, as well as in the number of Sertoli cells (p<0.001). Conclusions The results demonstrated that supplementation with the ALA antioxidant retards testicular lesions and preserve the process of spermatogenesis in diabetes.

Animals , Male , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Thioctic Acid/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Epididymis/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sertoli Cells , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiopathology , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Epididymis/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 538-548, July 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040714


Trachemys scripta elegans is an American underwater chelonian illegally marketed in Brazilian pet shops. When abandoned in nature, it compromises native species, threatening local biodiversity. However, little is known about the body development and structure of its reproductive tract. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and biometry of testis, epididymis and penis, as well as the biometry of the body and secondary sexual characters in this species. Twenty-seven adult males were used aiming to contribute to preservation actions in captivity, population control, and scientific research, as well as to interspecific comparisons. Sex identification by the third claw length was effective, and the specimens presented harmonious and positive body development between mass, carapace, plastron, and height, with unimodal tendency and higher frequency of maximum carapace length at 15cm. The testes and epididymides presented biometric similarity between the antimeres and anatomical and histological structure similar to that of other species of chelonians and mammals, except for the type of epithelium. The findings suggest that there is conserved morphology between slider turtles and homology in relation to mammals. Histological similarity to the reproductive organs of other amniotes, including humans, may give rise to scientific and comparative studies, essential for the establishment of conservation strategies in reptiles.(AU)

Trachemys scripta elegans é um quelônio subaquático americano ilegalmente comercializado em pet shops brasileiros. Ao ser abandonado na natureza, compromete as espécies nativas, ameaçando à biodiversidade local. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e a estrutura do seu aparelho reprodutor. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a morfologia e a biometria dos testículos, epidídimos e pênis, a biometria corporal e dos caracteres sexuais secundários. Foram utilizados 27 machos adultos desta espécie, visando contribuir com ações de preservação em cativeiro, controle populacional e pesquisas científicas, além de comparações interespecíficas. A identificação sexual pelo comprimento da terceira garra foi efetiva e os espécimes apresentaram desenvolvimento corporal harmônico e positivo entre massa, carapaça, plastrão e altura, com tendência unimodal e maior frequência de comprimento máximo de carapaça em 15,0cm. Testículos e epidídimos apresentaram semelhança biométrica entre os antímeros e estrutura anatômica e histológica semelhantes à de outras espécies de quelônios e mamíferos, excetuando-se pelo tipo de epitélio. Os achados sugerem haver morfologia conservada entre os cágados e homologia em relação aos mamíferos. A semelhança histológica com os órgãos reprodutivos de outros amniotas, incluindo os humanos, pode dar ensejo a estudos científicos e comparativos, essenciais para estabelecimento de estratégias de conservação em répteis.(AU)

Animals , Male , Penis/anatomy & histology , Testis/anatomy & histology , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Biometry , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 752-760, May-June 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011321


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da adição de plasma seminal de garanhões de alta e baixa fertilidade sobre a congelabilidade e a viabilidade de espermatozoides do ejaculado (EJ) e do epidídimo (EP) de garanhões subférteis. Foram utilizados seis garanhões com histórico de subfertilidade. Após coleta, espermatozoides do ejaculado foram divididos em três alíquotas: BotuSêmen® (EJ-CT); plasma seminal de alta qualidade espermática (EJ-PS1); e plasma seminal de baixa qualidade espermática (EJ-PS2). O mesmo protocolo foi realizado com espermatozoides da cauda do epidídimo após orquiectomia (EP-CT; EP-PS1; EP-PS2). Foram realizadas avaliações da cinética espermática pelo CASA e análises de integridade de membrana, acrossoma, fragmentação de DNA, capacitação espermática e peroxidação espermática por citometria de fluxo. Não foram observadas diferenças na cinética espermática entre EJ e EP, logo após a descongelação. Porém, foi observada maior (P<0,05) porcentagem de células com membranas plasmática e acrossomal íntegras nos grupos EP (EP-CT:31,7±7,5b; EP-PS1:35,2±7,0b; EP-PS2:33,9±7,2b) em comparação aos grupos EJ (EJ-CT:15,1±4,9a; EJ-PS1:11,7±4,5a; EJ-PS2:13,1±5,2a). Adicionalmente, foram observadas diferenças no índice de fragmentação de DNA (EJ-CT:2,6±0,6a; EJ-PS1:2,4±0,8a; EJ-PS2:3,0±0,8a; EP-CT:1,4±0,4b; EP-PS1:1,2±0,3b; EP-PS2:1,3±0,2b). Concluiu-se que a adição de 20% de plasma seminal, oriundo de animais férteis ou subférteis, previamente à congelação de espermatozoides epidídimários de animais subférteis não interfere na qualidade espermática.(AU)

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the addition of seminal plasma from high and low fertility stallions on sperm viability of frozen-thawed sperm cells from ejaculate and from epididymal tail of subfertile stallions. Six stallions with a history of subfertility were used. After collection, ejaculate spermatozoa were divided into three aliquots: Botu-Semen® (EJ-CT); High-quality seminal plasma (EJ-PS1); Low-quality seminal plasma (EJ-PS2). The same was done with sperm cells from epididymis tail after orchiectomy (EP-CT; EP-PS1; EP-PS2). Evaluations of sperm kinetics were assessed by CASA and membrane and acrosome integrity, DNA fragmentation, sperm capacitation and sperm peroxidation were assessed by flow cytometry. After thawing, no differences were observed between ejaculated sperm (EJ) and epididymal sperm (EP) in any CASA evaluations. However, higher (P< 0.05) percentage of cells with intact plasma and acrossomal membranes was observed in EP groups (EP-CT:31.7±7.5b; EP-PS1:35.2±7.0b; EP-PS2:33.9±7.2b) compared to EJ groups (EJ-CT:15.1±4.9a, EJ-PS1:11.7±4.5a, EJ-PS2:13.1±5,2a). In addition, differences in DNA fragmentation index were observed (EJ-CT:2.6±0.6a; EJ-PS1:2.4±0.8a; EJ-PS2:3.0±0.8a; CT:1.4±0.4b; EP-PS1:1.2±0.3b; EP-PS2:1.3±0.2b). It was concluded that the addition of 20% seminal plasma from fertile or subfertile animals prior to the freezing of epididymal spermatozoa from subfertile animals does not interfere in sperm quality.(AU)

Animals , Male , Semen , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Epididymis , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Horses , Infertility, Male/veterinary
MedUNAB ; 22(1): 71-78, 31/07/2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021407


Introducción. La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa que puede afectar cualquier órgano del cuerpo, incluyendo el sistema genitourinario, representando el 33.7-45.5 % de las tuberculosis extrapulmonares. El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el caso de un paciente con hidrocele como manifestación inicial de tuberculosis genitourinaria y miliar, enfermedad que no se sospechaba. Presentación del caso. Paciente masculino previamente sano, que consulta a urgencias por orquialgia e hidrocele bilateral, con secreción purulenta por escroto, requiriendo manejo antibiótico intravenoso e hidrocelectomía derecha, con hallazgos intraoperatorios de engrosamiento del epidídimo derecho, y drenaje de material caseoso y purulento. Se realizó epididimectomía ipsilateral, se solicitaron pruebas de detección de bacilos tuberculosos en espécimen y derivado proteico purificado, que fueron positivas. En el postoperatorio presentó sintomatología respiratoria; paraclínicos evidenciaron compromiso pulmonar, pleural y de la vía urinaria por bacilos tuberculosos. Se inicia manejo antituberculoso con evolución satisfactoria. Discusión. El genitourinario es considerado el segundo sistema con mayor afectación de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. El órgano más afectado es el riñón (en un 80 % con respecto a los demás) y el órgano genital es el epidídimo (22 - 55 %). Debe sospecharse en pacientes con síntomas urinarios crónicos sin causa aparente. Se asocia a una alta tasa de morbimortalidad por infertilidad y falla renal. Conclusiones. A pesar de su sintomatología inespecífica y de tratarse de una entidad poco sospechada, la tuberculosis genitourinaria debe descartarse al existir tuberculosis pulmonar. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno serán de gran importancia para evitar complicaciones secundarias. Cómo citar: Álvarez-Jaramillo J, Ortiz-Zableh AM, Tarazona-Jiménez P, Ortiz-Azuero A. Hidrocele como manifestación inicial de tuberculosis genitourinaria y miliar. MedUNAB. 2019;22(1):71-78. doi:10.29375/01237047.3534

Introduction. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can affect any organ in the body, including the genitourinary system, which accounts for 33.7 - 45.5 % of non-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of hydrocele as initial manifestation of genitourinary and miliary tuberculosis, which was an unsuspected disease. Case Presentation. Previously healthy male patient is admitted to emergencies due to orchialgia and bilateral hydrocele, with purulent secretion from the scrotum. Was managed with intravenous antibiotic and right hydrocelectomy. Intraoperative findings of thickening of right epididymis and drainage of caseous and purulent material. Ipsilateral epididymectomy was performed; testing for detection of tubercle bacillus in specimen and purified protein derivative was requested, and was found positive. In the postoperative period, respiratory symptoms arose; paraclinical tests found compromised lungs, pleura and urinary tract by tubercle bacillus. Antituberculous treatment was initiated with satisfactory evolution. Discussion. The genitourinary system is the second-most affected system by nonpulmonary tuberculosis. The most affected organ is the kidney (by 80 % compared to the others) and the most affected genital organ is the epididymis (22 - 55 %). It should be suspected in patients with chronic urinary symptoms with no apparent cause. It is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality due to infertility and kidney failure. Conclusions. Despite the non-specific symptoms and because it is not normally a suspected entity, genitourinary tuberculosis should be ruled out when pulmonary tuberculosis exists. Timely diagnosis and treatment are very important in order to prevent secondary complications. Cómo citar: Álvarez-Jaramillo J, Ortiz-Zableh AM, Tarazona-Jiménez P, Ortiz-Azuero A. Hidrocele como manifestación inicial de tuberculosis genitourinaria y miliar. MedUNAB. 2019;22(1):71-78. doi:10.29375/01237047.3534

Introdução. A tuberculose é uma doença infecciosa que pode afetar qualquer órgão do corpo, incluindo o sistema geniturinário, representando 33.7 a 45.5 % da tuberculose extrapulmonar. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o caso de um paciente com hidrocele como uma manifestação inicial de tuberculose geniturinária e miliar, uma doença que não se suspeitava. Apresentação do caso. Paciente do sexo masculino previamente saudável, que consultou a emergência para orquialgia e hidrocele bilateral, com secreção purulenta do escroto, necessitando de tratamento antibiótico endovenoso e hidrocelectomia direita, com achados intraoperatórios de espessamento do epidídimo direito e drenagem de material purulento e caseoso. Foi realizada uma epididimectomia ipsilateral e foram solicitados exames de bacilos tuberculosos em espécime e derivado proteico purificado, que foram positivos. No pós-operatório, apresentou sintomas respiratórios; testes para-clínicos mostraram comprometimento pulmonar, pleural e do trato urinário devido a bacilos da tuberculose. Começa-se o tratamento antituberculose com evolução satisfatória. Discussão. O sistema geniturinário é considerado o segundo com maior comprometimento da tuberculose extrapulmonar. O órgão mais afetado é o rim (80 % em relação aos demais) e o órgão genital é o epidídimo (22 a 55 %). Deve-se suspeitar em pacientes com sintomas urinários crônicos sem causa aparente. Está associada a uma alta taxa de morbimortalidade devido à infertilidade e insuficiência renal. Conclusões. Apesar de sua sintomatologia inespecífica e de ser uma entidade pouco suspeitada, a tuberculose geniturinária deve ser descartada quando existir tuberculose pulmonar. Seu diagnóstico e tratamento oportuno serão de grande importância para evitar complicações secundárias. Cómo citar: Álvarez-Jaramillo J, Ortiz-Zableh AM, Tarazona-Jiménez P, Ortiz-Azuero A. Hidrocele como manifestación inicial de tuberculosis genitourinaria y miliar. MedUNAB. 2019;22(1):71-78. doi:10.29375/01237047.3534

Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Male Genital , Tuberculosis, Renal , Tuberculosis, Urogenital , Epididymis , Testicular Hydrocele
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719624


PURPOSE: Testosterone replacement therapy is an effective treatment for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) despite a few contraindications and side-effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether modified Ojayeonjonghwan (KH-204, Korean herbal formula) improved LOH. KH-204 is a strong antioxidant herbal formula. We evaluated the effect of Korean herbal prescription on androgen receptor (AR) expression in an aged rat model of LOH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen-month-old rats were used as aged LOH rat models. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups of six animals each and treated with one of the following: 1) normal control group (oral administration with distilled water, n=6), 2) KH-204 200 group (oral administration with 200 mg/kg of KH-204, n=6), and 3) KH-204 400 group (oral administration with 400 mg/kg of KH-204, n=6). After four weeks of treatment (once daily, distilled water or KH-204), serum testosterone levels, changes in testicular and epididymal weight, Western blotting analysis of AR expression and measurement of oxidative stress were examined. RESULTS: Treatment with the herbal formulation KH-204 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (1) increased the weights of testis and epididymis; (2) increased the level of serum testosterone; (3) increased the level of superoxide dismutase and reduced the level of 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine; and (4) upregulated AR expression in testicular tissue. CONCLUSIONS: KH-204 might be an effective alternative for LOH. It improves antioxidant mechanisms and increases testicular AR expression without side-effects.

Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Epididymis , Hypogonadism , Male , Models, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Prescriptions , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Androgen , Superoxide Dismutase , Testis , Testosterone , Water , Weights and Measures
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758962


Two American Cocker Spaniels and one Bichon Frise were presented to our veterinary teaching hospital with an enlarged clitoris. Diagnostic imaging showed that the structure was composed of bony material. Exploratory laparotomy revealed uterine-like structures and testes which had an epididymis unilaterally. Surgical removal of internal genitalia, gonads and protruded clitoris were performed well. Histological evaluation revealed; inactive testes, female internal genital tracts with ambisexual ductal remnants, and prominent ossification in the clitoris. All 3 cases were diagnosed with male pseudohermaphroditism. In author's knowledge, this is the first report in Bichon Frise dog with os clitoris and also, it describes not common cases in small dog breeds with os clitoris.

Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY , Animals , Clitoris , Diagnostic Imaging , Dogs , Epididymis , Female , Genitalia , Gonads , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Testis
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765648


BACKGROUND: External quality assessment (EQA) is important for standardizing cancer biomarker assays, thereby, ensuring accurate and precise results. Although the human epididymis-specific protein 4 (HE4) assay has been increasingly used to detect and monitor ovarian malignancy in Korea, a nation-wide EQA program for HE4 has not been appropriately established. To conduct an EQA program, a large amount of quality control (QC) materials are required. This study aimed to produce HE4 QC materials for an EQA program and evaluate their homogeneity and stability. METHODS: QC materials for three different concentrations of HE4 were produced from the collected remnant sera of 275 patients for whom the HE4 assays were performed. These materials were evaluated for homogeneity between vials and stability during storage. The frozen QC materials were distributed to 13 representative organizations for a provisional EQA. RESULTS: The total coefficient of variation of the HE4 QC materials of three concentrations was 0.75%–1.24%, and no significant differences were noted between vials; therefore, the samples were considered to be homogenous. With respect to stability, the HE4 QC materials were found to be stable till 30 days when frozen and for 24 hours when refrigerated. The results of the provisional HE4 EQA were reviewed and the survey results were reported to each participant. CONCLUSIONS: The HE4 QC materials produced from remnant specimens were found to be homogenous between vials and stable in a frozen condition until 30 days. The findings of this study may be practically applied for establishing a future HE4 EQA program.

Epididymis , Humans , Korea , Male , Ovarian Neoplasms , Quality Control
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764574


OBJECTIVE: To identify the power of tumor markers for predicting ovarian cancer according to menopausal status. METHODS: The medical records of 876 women with ovarian cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) were analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of these tumor markers were evaluated. RESULTS: The sensitivity of ROMA was 66.7% and the specificity was 86.8% to detect ovarian malignancy. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to menopausal status: premenopause (n=532, 60.7%) and postmenopause (n=344, 39.3%). For diagnostic accuracy, ROMA was lower than HE4 in premenopausal women (82.7% vs. 91.4%) and lower than CA 125 in postmenopausal women (86.9% vs. 88.7%). The ROC curve analysis revealed that the power of ROMA was not significantly better than that of HE4 in premenopausal women (area under the curve [AUC], 0.731 vs. 0.732, p=0.832), and it was also not significantly better than that of CA 125 in postmenopausal women (AUC, 0.871 vs. 0.888, p=0.440). CONCLUSION: The discrimination power of tumor markers for ovarian cancer was different according to menopausal status. In predicting ovarian malignancy, ROMA was neither superior to HE4 in premenopausal women nor superior to CA 125 in postmenopausal women.

Biomarkers, Tumor , CA-125 Antigen , Discrimination, Psychological , Epididymis , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Menopause , Ovarian Cysts , Ovarian Neoplasms , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Rome , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773498


OBJECTIVE@#To study the expressions of the members of HSP110 family in the testis and epididymis of mice at different stages of development and whether they are regulated by hormones.@*METHODS@#The testicular and epididymis tissues of mice at different ages (14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 70, and 90 days after birth, 3 mice at each age) were collected for RT-PCR detection of the expression levels of HSP110 family members. Forty-eight mice were randomized into 3 groups for sham operation, castration, or castration with testosterone injections every other day (starting at 7 days after castration), and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after first testosterone injection, the expressions of HSP110 family in the epididymis were detected using RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA expression levels of HSP110 family members underwent obvious variations with the development of the mice: , and expressions in the testicles of the mice first increased and then decreased, and gradually became stable; they also exhibited similar temporal patterns of changes in the epididymis. In the castrated mice, the mRNA expressions of and in the epididymis decreased significantly with the reduction of serum hormone levels ( < 0.05), and became normal after the supplementation of exogenous hormone.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression levels of HSP110 family are affected by developmental regulation, and the expressions of and are under the regulation by hormones.

Animals , Epididymis , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , HSP110 Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Orchiectomy , Testis , Testosterone , Pharmacology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2166-2174, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976402


The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is one of the most threatened aquatic mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as "endangered" (MMA). The objective of this study was to characterize histologically the reproductive tract and fetal annexes of stranded manatees in northeastern Brazil. Tissue samples were collected from the reproductive tract of 23 manatees, which were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed using standard histological protocols and stained with hematoxylin eosin. We qualitatively described the histological and histomorphometric characteristics of each structure. Six ovaries were analyzed. In four ovaries, we found a large number of primordial and primary follicles. Two ovaries were different from the others: one had inflammatory infiltration and the other had a thickening in the cortex and absence of follicles. We also analyzed seven uteri (of which four were in the proliferative phase, two in the secretory phase, and one in the recovery phase), four placentas, one vagina, six testes (four were in the immature phase, one in the pubertal phase, and one in the mature phase), two epididymides, two penises, and one umbilical cord. The histological and morphometric findings in our work will support future analyses of the reproductive tract of T. manatus from Brazil.(AU)

O peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) é um dos mamíferos aquáticos mais ameaçados do Brasil e, atualmente é classificado como "em perigo" (MMA). O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente o trato reprodutor e os anexos fetais de peixes-bois marinhos encalhados no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de tecidos do trato reprodutor de 23 peixes-bois marinhos (T. manatus), que foram fixadas em formol tamponado a 10%, processados usando protocolos histológicos padrão e corados com hematoxilina eosina. Foi realizada a descrição qualitativa das características histológicas e histomorfométricas de cada estrutura. Foram analisados seis ovários. Em quatro ovários, foi encontrado um grande número de folículos primordiais e primários. Dois ovários eram diferentes dos outros: um tinha infiltração inflamatória e o outro tinha um espessamento no córtex e ausência de folículos. Também foram analisadas sete amostras uterinas (das quais quatro estavam na fase proliferativa, duas na fase secretória e uma na fase de recuperação), quatro placentas, uma vagina, seis testículos (quatro na fase imatura, um na fase puberal e um na fase madura), dois epidídimos, dois pênis e um cordão umbilical. Os achados histológicos e morfométricos em nosso trabalho apoiarão futuras análises do trato reprodutivo de T. manatus do Brasil.(AU)

Animals , Male , Female , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Penis/anatomy & histology , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Testis/anatomy & histology , Umbilical Cord/anatomy & histology , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Vagina/anatomy & histology , Trichechus manatus/anatomy & histology , Epididymis/anatomy & histology , Brazil
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 835-840, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954194


Tyrosine phosphorylated proteins have been localized and identified in male reproductive tissues such as testis and capacitated/ acrosome reacted sperm except epididymis. The changes of such proteins are associated with decreased sperm quality of valproic acid treatment. This study aimed to investigate the presence and alterations of protein phosphorylation in epididymal epithelium and fluid of rats treated VPA. Sixteen adult male rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each). Treated rats were injected with VPA (500 mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally) for 10 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, the monoclonal antiphosphotyrosine (clone 4G10) was used for immunohistochemistry to probe tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and also to examine the expression of such proteins using immuno-Western blotting in epididymal tissue and fluid. The result showed that positive reactivity of phosphorylated proteins was clearly observed in cytoplasmic principle cells, nuclei of apical & basal cells and sperm mass surrounded with epididymal fluids. The profiles of phosphorylated proteins in epididymal fluid were 182, 127, 80, 70, 57, 45, 34, and 31 kDas, respectively. Interestingly, VPA affected the changes of phosphorylated proteins and β actin in head, body, and tail epididymal fluids. We conclude that tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were detected in epididymal epithelium and fluid. The expressions of those proteins and actin were altered under VPA treating.

Las proteínas tirosina fosforiladas han sido localizadas e identificadas en tejidos reproductores masculinos tales como testículos y espermatozoides, capacitados a nivel acrosómico, excepto en el epidídimo. Los cambios de estas proteínas están asociadas con una disminución de la calidad del esperma en el tratamiento con ácido valproico (AVP). Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia y las alteraciones de la fosforilación de proteínas en el epitelio epididimal y en el fluido espermático de ratas tratadas con AVP. Dieciséis ratas macho adultas se dividieron en dos grupos: control y tratadas con AVP (n = 8 / cada uno). A las ratas tratadas se les inyectó AVP por vía intraperitoneal (500 mg / kg de peso corporal) durante 10 días consecutivos. Al final del experimento, se realizó inmunohistoquímica con la anti-fosfotirosina monoclonal (clon 4G10) para sondear las proteínas tirosina fosforiladas y también para examinar la expresión de tales proteínas usando inmunotransferencia Western, en tejido y fluido epididimarios. El resultado mostró reactividad positiva de proteínas fosforiladas en células citoplásmicas principales, en los núcleos de las células apicales y basales y en la masa de esperma rodeada por fluidos epididimarios. Los perfiles de proteínas fosforiladas en el fluido epididimal fueron 182, 127, 80, 70, 57, 45, 34 y 31 kDas, respectivamente. El AVP provocó cambios en las proteínas fosforiladas y en la β actina de los fluidos epididimarios de cabeza, cuerpo y cola del epidídimo. Concluimos que las proteínas tirosina fosforiladas se detectaron en el epitelio y el fluido epididimarios. Las expresiones de esas proteínas y de la β actina se alteraron bajo tratamiento con AVP.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phosphoproteins/drug effects , Tyrosine/drug effects , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Actins/drug effects , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Tyrosine/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Actins/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphotyrosine , Epididymis