Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 414
Filter
1.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(6): 294-303, 06/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343622

ABSTRACT

Kuhn in 1962 establishes the revolutionary character of science: "new scientific theories are not born by verification or falsification, but by substitution." The objective of this review was to analyze the ideas and paradigms through which studies on obesity and its relationship with environmental pollutants, diet and epigenetics have passed, in order to illustrate the current situation of this object of study. Articles were managed in December 2020 from the Web of Science. The strategy was Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) in the Title field, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR food OR nutrition OR diet) in the Themes field. 654 articles were obtained: 577 original investigations and 77 reviews. The documents were exported in BibTeXformat to be quantitatively analyzed with the Bibliometrix program. For the qualitative analysis, review articles were selected in whose titles, keywords and/or abstract, carried the word paradigm*, identifying 19 who underwent content analysis. From 1980 to 2020, four periods were recognized, the first and third are classified as normal science; the second and the fourth, crisis of knowledge or revolution. The evolution of the studies has been differentiated. First, the central theme was environmental pollution and secondarily, obesity. For the second and third period, the epigenetics related to environmental pollution and that associated with obesity are investigated separately and at present, causal relationships between environmental pollutants and obesity, nutrients and epigenetics are hypothesized.


Kuhn en 1962 establece el carácter revolucionario de la ciencia: "las nuevas teorías científicas no nacen por verificación ni por falsación, sino por sustitución". El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar las ideas y los paradigmas por los que han transitado los estudios sobre obesidad, y su relación con contaminantes ambientales, alimentación y epigenética, con el propósito de ilustrar la situación actual de este objeto de estudio. Se gestionaron artículos en diciembre de 2020 de la Web of Science. La estrategia fue Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) en el campo Title, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR alimentation OR nutrition OR diet) en el campo Themes. Se obtuvieron 654 artículos: 577 investigaciones originales y 77 revisiones. Los documentos se exportaron en formato BibTeX para ser analizados cuantitativamente con el programa Bibliometrix. Para el análisis cualitativo se seleccionaron artículos de revisión en cuyos títulos, palabras clave o resumen llevaran la palabra paradigm*, con lo que se identificaron 19, a los que se les realizó análisis de contenido. De 1980 a 2020 se reconocieron cuatro períodos; el primero y el tercero se clasifican como ciencia normal; el segundo y el cuarto, como crisis de conocimiento o revolución. La evolución de los estudios ha sido diferenciada. Primero, la temática central fue la contaminación ambiental y, de manera secundaria, la obesidad. Para el segundo y el tercer período se investigan por separado la epigenética relacionada con la contaminación ambiental y la asociada con la obesidad, y en la actualidad, se plantean hipótesis de relaciones causales entre contaminantes ambientales y obesidad, nutrientes y epigenética.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Obesity , World Health Organization , Diet , Environmental Pollutants , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nutritional Sciences , Epigenomics
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964

ABSTRACT

El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)


CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1063-1072, Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155041

ABSTRACT

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT-Cloning) is a promising technique in many areas and is based on genetically identical individuals. However, its efficiency is low. Studies suggest that the leading cause is inadequate epigenetic reprogramming. This study aimed to characterize the methylation pattern of the exon 10 regions of the IGF2 gene and the Imprinting Control Region (ICR) of the H19 gene in the placenta of cloned calves. For this study, female and male cloned calves presenting different phenotypes were used. Genomic DNA from these animals' placenta was isolated, then treated with sodium bisulfite and amplified to the ICR/H19 and IGF2 loci. PCR products were cloned into competent bacteria and finally sequenced. A significant difference was found between controls and clones with healthy phenotypes for the ICR/H19 region. In this region, controls showed a hemimethylated pattern, as predicted in the literature due to this region has an imprinted control, while clones were showed less methylated. For the IGF2, no significant differences were found between controls and clones. These results suggest that different genomic regions in the genome may be independently reprogrammed and that failures in reprogramming the DNA methylation patterns of imprinted genes may be one of the causes of the low efficiency of SCNT.(AU)


A Transferência Nuclear de Células Somáticas (TNCS-Clonagem) é uma técnica promissora em várias áreas, e se baseia na produção de indivíduos geneticamente idênticos. No entanto, sua eficiência é baixa. Estudos sugerem que a principal causa seja uma reprogramação epigenética inadequada. O objetivo desse trabalho é caracterizar o padrão de metilação da região éxon 10 do gene IGF2 e da Região Controladora de Imprinting (ICR) do gene H19 na placenta de bezerros clonados. Para a execução do trabalho foram selecionados clones bovinos fêmeas e machos, apresentando diferentes fenótipos. O DNA da placenta desses animais foi extraído, e em seguida foi tratado com bissulfito de sódio e amplificado para os loci ICR/H19 e IGF2. Os produtos da PCR foram clonados em bactérias competentes e, por fim, sequenciados. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os controles e os clones com fenótipos saudáveis para a região da ICR/H19. Nesta região, os controles tiveram um padrão hemimetilado, como previsto pela literatura, devido essa região ser imprinted. Enquanto os clones encontravam-se menos metilados. Para a região do éxon 10 do IGF2, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre controles e clones. Estes resultados sugerem que as diferentes regiões do genoma podem se reprogramar independente umas das outras e que falhas na reprogramação do padrão de metilação do DNA de genes imprinted podem ser uma das causas da baixa eficiência da TNCS.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Placenta , Cattle/genetics , Clone Cells , Epigenomics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/analysis , DNA Methylation
5.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(3): e1243, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156443

ABSTRACT

Las neoplasias hematológicas se caracterizan por un gran número y complejidad de alteraciones genéticas, desde la formación de genes de fusión a partir de translocaciones e inversiones cromosómicas hasta mutaciones génicas y alteraciones epigenéticas que han permitido la identificación de nuevos oncogenes y genes supresores de tumores responsables de su etiología. Al abordar el estudio genético de las leucemias se utilizan múltiples técnicas como la citogenética convencional, citogenética molecular (hibridaciónin situ por fluorescencia (FISH), esta última con una mayor sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez que permiten el diagnóstico, la estratificación pronóstica y seguimiento de la enfermedad. Las técnicas anteriores se integran con técnicas de biología molecular, secuenciación génica, entre otras, que permiten el hallazgo de nuevos marcadores genéticos con una mejor caracterización de las hemopatías malignas y la posibilidad del desarrollo de nuevos fármacos específicos que actúen sobre la diana molecular. El objetivo fue revisar la utilidad de la citogenética y la secuenciación génica en el estudio de la leucemia mieloide aguda y la leucemia linfocítica crónica. Ante las ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de estas técnicas genéticas es necesario utilizarlas de forma complementaria y nunca excluyente(AU)


Hematological neoplasms are characterized by a large number and great complexity of genetic disorders, from the formation of fusion genes after chromosomal translocations and inversions to gene mutation and epigenetic disorders that have permitted the identification of new oncogenes and tumor-suppressing genes responsible for their etiology. When addressing the genetic study of leukemias, multiple techniques are used, such as conventional cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the latter having the higher degree of sensitivity, specificity and speed, which allow diagnosis, prognostic stratification and follow-up of the disease. The previous techniques are integrated with molecular biology techniques, gene sequencing, among others, which allow discovery of new genetic markers with better characterization of malignant hemopathies and the possibility of developing new specific drugs against the molecular target. The objective was to review the usefulness of cytogenetics and gene sequencing in the study of acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Given the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of these genetic techniques, it is necessary to use them in as complementary but never exclusive management ways(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oncogenes , Genetic Markers , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Cytogenetics , Epigenomics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Molecular Biology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(3): e1135, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156435

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El comportamiento heterogéneo de los síndromes mielodisplásicos, así como los progresos en los últimos años en el campo de la genética y la biología molecular, han provocado la aparición de múltiples investigaciones con diferentes enfoques terapéuticos. Los agentes hipometilantes son hasta el momento el tratamiento estándar para esta entidad, pero desafortunadamente no son efectivos en el 100 % de los casos y la duración de su respuesta es variable. Objetivo: Analizar las opciones terapéuticas actuales para el tratamiento de los síndromes mielodisplásicos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura, en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico de artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años. Se hizo un análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Actualmente existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento, la mayor parte dirigidos contra los eventos epigenéticos fundamentales: la hipermetilación, la modificación de las histonas diacetilasa y la activación de la respuesta inmune citotóxica contra clones anormales. Sin embargo, como no se ha establecido una única alteración, los tratamientos en la mayoría de los protocolos se adaptan al riesgo, incluyen un número reducido de casos y los resultados son limitados. Conclusiones: Se considera que una posible solución es dirigir el tratamiento a la alteración específica con base en las alteraciones moleculares y la medicina de precisión, fundamentalmente en los pacientes refractarios o en recaída postratamiento con los actuales agentes hipometilantes(AU)


Introduction: The heterogeneous characteristics of myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as the progress in recent years in the field of genetics and molecular biology, have led to the appearance of multiple investigations with different therapeutic approaches. Hypomethylating agents are so far the standard treatment for this entity, but unfortunately they are not effective in 100% of cases and the duration of their response is variable. Objective: To analyze current therapeutic options for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods: A literature review was carried out, in English and Spanish, through the PubMed website and the Google Scholar search engine, for articles published in the last five years. An analysis and summary of the revised bibliography was carried out. Information analysis and synthesis: Currently, there are multiple treatment options, most of which are directed against fundamental epigenetic events: hypermethylation, modification of histone diacetylase, and activation of the cytotoxic immune response against abnormal clones. However, as long as a single alteration has not been established, treatments, in most protocols, are adapted to risk and include a small number of cases, while their outcomes are limited. Conclusions: It is considered that a possible solution is to direct treatment to specific alteration based on molecular alterations and precision medicine, fundamentally in refractory or relapsed patients after treatment with current hypomethylating agents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Epigenomics/methods , Molecular Biology , Precision Medicine
7.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

ABSTRACT

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Population Characteristics , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Maternal Mortality , Epigenomics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Malnutrition , Nutritional Transition
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s118-s129, agosto 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118605

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ENT) se han convertido en la principal causa de mortalidad global y han aumentado en América Latina. La contribución de recursos de la ciencia del desarrollo, la epigenética, las neurociencias, las ciencias ambientales, la epidemiología y la investigación ha generado evidencia del origen de las ENT desde la programación fetal. Los resultados de salud y enfermedad devienen de una trayectoria dinámica en la que se agregan factores protectores para una vida saludable o factores de riesgo para enfermedades del individuo y las comunidades.El concepto de Developmental Origins of Health and Disease redimensiona el papel del equipo de salud materno-infantil y debe guiar las políticas públicas para priorizar los primeros mil días de vida para un desarrollo saludable y la prevención de ENT. Se presenta una actualización sobre las principales condiciones ambientales adversas que pueden alterar la programación del desarrollo y predisponer a ENT en el curso de la vida.


In recent decades, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of global mortality and increased in Latin America. The contribution of the resources from development science, epigenetics, neurosciences, environmental sciences, epidemiology and research has generated evidence of the origin of NCDs since fetal programming. The healt and disease outcomes result from a dynamic trajectory where protective factors are added for a healthy life or risk factors for diseases of the individual and the communities. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept resizes the role of the maternal and child health team and should guide public policies by prioritizing the first 1000 days of life for healthy development and NCDs prevention. We present an update on principal adverse environmental conditions that may alter development programming and predispose NCDs in life course


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Environment , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Child Development , Public Health , Maternal and Child Health , Environmental Exposure , Epigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunological mechanisms underlying asthma exacerbation have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of various asthma exacerbation traits with selected serum microRNA (miRNA) expression and T-cell subpopulations. METHODS: Twenty-one asthmatics were studied during asthma exacerbation (exacerbation visit [EV] and the follow-up visit [FV] at 6 weeks). At both visits, spirometry was performed, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured, and nasopharyngeal and blood samples were collected. In nasopharyngeal samples, respiratory viruses were assayed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and bacterial cultures were performed. Serum miRNAs were assayed with real-time PCR. T-cell surface markers, eosinophil progenitors and intracellular cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients had moderate or severe exacerbation and the FV, overall improvement in asthma control was observed. The mean expression of serum miRNA-126a, miRNA-16 and miRNA-21 was significantly lower at the EV than at the FV. At EV, miRNA-29b correlated with FeNO (r = 0.44, P < 0.05), and 5 of 7 miRNA tested correlated with pulmonary function tests. The number of cluster of differentiation (CD)45+CD4+interleukin (IL)4+ cells was significantly higher at the EV than at the FV, and positive correlations of T-regulatory cells and eosinophil progenitors with asthma control was found. At the EV, serum miRNAs negatively correlated with the number of T cells expressing IL-4, IL-17, IL-22 and interferon gamma, while at the FV both positive and negative correlations with T-cell subsets were observed. No association of detected pathogen (viruses and bacteria) in nasopharyngeal fluid with clinical, functional and immunological parameters was found. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic dysregulation during asthma exacerbation could be related to respiratory function, airway inflammation and T-cell cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Epigenomics , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , MicroRNAs , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nitric Oxide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785344

ABSTRACT

The current document is based on a consensus reached by a panel of experts from the Chinese Society of Allergy and the Chinese Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rhinology Group. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects approximately 8% of Chinese adults. The inflammatory and remodeling mechanisms of CRS in the Chinese population differ from those observed in the populations of European descent. Recently, precision medicine has been used to treat inflammation by targeting key biomarkers that are involved in the process. However, there are no CRS guidelines or a consensus available from China that can be shared with the international academia. The guidelines presented in this paper cover the epidemiology, economic burden, genetics and epigenetics, mechanisms, phenotypes and endotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, management, and the current status of CRS in China. These guidelines—with a focus on China—will improve the abilities of clinical and medical staff during the treatment of CRS. Additionally, they will help international agencies in improving the verification of CRS endotypes, mapping of eosinophilic shifts, the identification of suitable biomarkers for endotyping, and predicting responses to therapies. In conclusion, these guidelines will help select therapies, such as pharmacotherapy, surgical approaches and innovative biotherapeutics, which are tailored to each of the individual CRS endotypes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biomarkers , China , Consensus , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Eosinophils , Epidemiology , Epigenomics , Genetics , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , International Agencies , Medical Staff , Neck , Phenotype , Precision Medicine
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 792-808, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880882

ABSTRACT

Over 17 and 160 types of chemical modifications have been identified in DNA and RNA, respectively. The interest in understanding the various biological functions of DNA and RNA modifications has lead to the cutting-edged fields of epigenomics and epitranscriptomics. Developing chemical and biological tools to detect specific modifications in the genome or transcriptome has greatly facilitated their study. Here, we review the recent technological advances in this rapidly evolving field. We focus on high-throughput detection methods and biological findings for these modifications, and discuss questions to be addressed as well. We also summarize third-generation sequencing methods, which enable long-read and single-molecule sequencing of DNA and RNA modification.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Humans , RNA/metabolism , Transcriptome
14.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 122-129, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG), which encodes an epidermal protein crucial for the formation of a functional skin barrier, have been identified as a major predisposing factor in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Recent reports of relatively low frequencies of FLG-null mutations among specific ethnic groups with AD necessitated analysis of the epigenetic regulation which may control FLG expression without altering its DNA sequence.OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify DNA methylation-dependent regulation of FLG expression.METHODS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the restoration of FLG mRNA expression in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells after treatment with epigenetic modulating agents. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and pyrosequencing analyses of the FLG promoter region were conducted to identify the citical CpG sites relevant to FLG expression. We performed small-scale pilot study for epidermal tissues obtained from Korean patients with severe AD.RESULTS: We here show that DNA methylation in the FLG with non-CpG island promoter is responsible for the transcriptional regulation of FLG in undifferentiated NHEK cells. The methylation frequencies in a single CpG site of the FLG promoter were significantly higher in lesional epidermis than those in matched nonlesional epidermis of subjects with severe AD.CONCLUSION: Our in vitro and clinical studies point to this unique CpG site as a potential DNA methylation marker of FLG, which can be a promising therapeutic target in the complications of filaggrin-related skin barrier dysfunction as well as in AD.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Causality , Dermatitis, Atopic , DNA , DNA Methylation , Epidermis , Epigenomics , Ethnic Groups , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Keratinocytes , Methylation , Pilot Projects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Messenger , Skin
15.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2020. 124 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1099625

ABSTRACT

A reabsorção radicular externa inflamatória (RREI) é um processo patológico definido como a perda progressiva de tecido mineralizado radicular, dentina e cemento, resultante da combinação entre a lesão às camadas protetoras da superfície externa da raiz e a presença de microrganismos no interior do sistema de canais radiculares. Estudos clínicos demonstraram o papel da idade e de fatores relacionados ao manejo e tratamento do dente avulsionado na etiopatogenia e evolução das RREI após reimplantes. Entretanto, não existem informações sobre a interação destes fatores, bem como poucos estudos avaliaram a influência do perfil genético e imunológico do paciente no padrão de cicatrização após reimplantes dentários. O presente estudo objetivou (1) avaliar a interação de fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento da RREI após o reimplante de dentes permanentes, bem como (2) investigar o papel da epigenética nos processos imunomediados das RREI pós-traumáticas. Para estudo dos determinantes clínicos e suas interações, o universo da pesquisa envolveu 427 pacientes (idade média de 12,6 anos) portadores de 581 dentes permanentes reimplantados, com rizogênese completa no momento do trauma, tratados na Clínica de Traumatismos dentários da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais entre 1994 e 2018. Dados relativos à idade do paciente no momento do trauma, grau de rizogênese, condições de armazenamento e período extra alveolar do dente avulsionado, uso de antibioticoterapia sistêmica, tempo decorrido entre o reimplante e o início da terapia endodôntica radical (TER) e a duração do período de imobilização foram coletados dos prontuários dos pacientes. Tomadas radiográficas realizadas na consulta de início do TER foram utilizadas para diagnóstico da atividade de reabsorção. Sinais radiográficos de RREI foram encontrados em 80,7% da amostra (469 dentes). Os resultados demonstraram que a idade do paciente no momento do trauma e o tempo decorrido até o início do TER representaram importantes fatores prognósticos para a ocorrência de RREI. Além disso foi observada uma interação quantitativa entre estas duas variáveis uma vez que o aumento na idade do paciente atenuou significativamente o efeito do tempo até o início da terapia endodôntica. Este resultado inédito evidencia a maior vulnerabilidade do paciente mais jovem e enfatiza a importância de se considerar estas duas covariáveis conjuntamente durante a tomada de decisão clínica. Para o estudo epigenético, o perfil de metilação do DNA de 22 genes envolvidos na resposta imune foi avaliado em um pool de 08 amostras de fragmentos radiculares de dentes reimplantados portadores de RREI, indicados para exodontia. O grupo controle consistiu em um pool de 06 amostras de tecido ósseo saudável coletado durante a extração cirúrgica de dentes impactados. Os padrões de metilação do DNA dos 22 genes foram quantificados utilizando EpiTect Methyl II Signature Human Cytokine Production PCR Array. Os resultados do estudo da epigenética revelou que o pool de amostras com RREI apresentou nível mais alto de metilação do DNA na região promotora da FOXP3, em comparação com o pool de osso normal (65,95% e 23,43%, respectivamente). Esta é a primeira evidência de uma possível participação de eventos epigenéticos na modulação da RREI e especula-se se o padrão hipermetilado da FOXP3 poderia estar relacionado à presença da infecção endodôntica.


Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) is a pathological process defined as the progressive loss of root mineralized tissue, dentin and cement, resulting from both: damage to the protective layers in the root external surface and the presence of endodontic infection inside the root canal. Clinical studies have demonstrated the role of age and factors related to the management and treatment of avulsed teeth in the etiopathogenesis and progression of RREI. However, there is no information on the interaction of these factors and few studies have evaluated the influence of the patient's genetic and immunological profile on the healing pattern after dental replantation. The present study aimed to (1) evaluate the interaction of prognostic factors for the development of RREI after replantation of permanent teeth, as well as (2) to investigate the role of epigenetics in the immunomediated processes of posttraumatic RREI. To study the clinical determinants and their interactions, the sample comprised 427 patients (mean age 12.6 years) with 581 replanted mature permanent teeth treated at the Dental Trauma Clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry from the Federal University of Minas Gerais between 1994 and 2018. Patients' records were evaluated to collect data such as patient's age at the time of the trauma, storage conditions and extra alveolar period of the avulsed tooth, systemic antibiotic therapy prescription, time elapsed between reimplantation and onset of endodontic therapy (TER) and splinting timing. The presence and index of IERR was assessed radiographically at the visit of pulpectomy. Radiographic signs of IEER were found in 80.7% of the sample (469 teeth) and were absent in 19.7% of cases (112 teeth). The results showed that the patient's age at the time of the trauma and the time that elapsed until the beginning of TER represented important prognostic factors for the occurrence of RREI. In addition, a quantitative interaction was observed between these two variables since the increase in the patient's age significantly attenuated the effect of time until the beginning of endodontic therapy. This is an original result that highlights the greater vulnerability of the younger patients and emphasizes the importance of considering these two covariates together during clinical decision-making. For the epigenetic study, the DNA methylation profile of 22 genes involved in the immune response was evaluated in a pool of 08 samples of root fragments of replanted teeth with RREI, referred to extraction. The control group consisted of a pool of 06 samples of healthy bone tissue collected during surgical extraction of impacted teeth. The DNA methylation pattern was quantified using EpiTect Methyl II Signature Human Cytokine Production PCR Array. The results of the epigenetics study revealed that the sample pool with RREI showed a higher level of DNA methylation in the FOXP3 promoter region, compared to the normal bone pool (65.95% and 23.43%, respectively). This is the first evidence of a possible participation of epigenetic events in the modulation of RREI and it is speculated whether the hypermethylated pattern of FOXP3 could be related to the presence of endodontic infection.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Ligament , Root Resorption , Tooth Avulsion , Tooth Replantation , Dentition, Permanent , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
In. Briozzo Colombo, Leonel; Grenno Troitiño, Analía Alondra; Tarigo Galo, Josefina; Gallino Font, María Verónica; Viroga Espino, Stephanie; Greif Waldman, Diego; Firpo, María Noel; Gómez, Fernanda; Ben Carli, Sebastián Nicolás; Quevedo, Carolina; Citrín, Estela; Fiol Lepera, Verónica Juana; Nozar Cabrera, María Fernanda. Integrando los derechos sexuales y reproductivos en la clínica desde el compromiso profesional de conciencia: derechos sexuales en la práctica clínica. Montevideo, Udelar, 2020. p.184-222.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343273
17.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(4): 10-22, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1146562

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHomeopathy as a therapeutic tool is still very nascent in plant science and agriculture. Therapies used for plant growth and diseases are not relevant for plants alone, but they also drastically influence the ecosystem of the organic world too. Pesticidesand chemical fertilizers was a boon during the initial phase of the green revolution around the world. Unfortunately, later they became the major reason for the chronic illnesses like cancers and a cause for soil degradation all over. The scenario demandsthe use of alternative models in agricultural practices in order to prevent diseases and to maintain the health status of the population. This is also very important to get rid ofthe damages done to the soil. AimsThe present study aimed at analyzing thematerial content of the agro-homeopathic drug, 'Homeo agrocare'. MethodologyHigh resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) wereused to evaluate the material content of the drug. DLS and HRTEM wereused for the analysis of control sample (Pharmaceutical grade alcohol). Results(1) Drug solution contains plenty of nanoparticles (NPs). (2) Size of NPs ranges between 4.99nm -93.09 nm. (3) Twenty elements were identified in fields studied. (4) No particles identified in the control sample by DLS and HRTEM analysis. Conclusion Study conclusively proved the presence of NPs of the original drug materials used in the 'Homoeo agrocare' drug solution.(AU)


Subject(s)
Agrochemicals , Urban Agriculture , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Epigenomics , Homeopathy
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 959-978, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094101

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La ontogenia humana está basada en fundamentos genéticos y epigenéticos. Con el objetivo de estructurar los referentes teóricos sobre el papel relevante de la epigenética en la ontogenianormal y defectuosa que contribuyan a la promoción de salud y prevención de enfermedad, se realizó la revisión de 37 referencias bibliográficas. La epigenética es el conjunto de procesos químicos dependientes del ambiente que modifican la expresión del ácido desoxirribonucleico, sin alterar su secuencia. Su acción está presente durante toda la vida, especialmente en la prenatal cuando, por modificaciones ambientales intraútero ocurre la programación epigenética que hace al humano susceptible a defectos en la ontogenia, incluso a padecer ulteriormente de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se han reportado factores ambientales inductores de marcas epigenéticas, entre ellos: alimentación, hábitos tóxicos, estrés, consumo inadecuado de ácido fólico y técnicas de reproducción asistida, todos modificables; su conocimiento constituye un baluarte inestimable en la promoción de salud y prevención de enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Human ontogeny is based in genetic and epigenetic fundaments. 37 bibliographic references were reviewed with the objective of structuring the theoretical referents on the relevant role of epigenetics in normal and defective ontogeny to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention. Epigenetics is the whole of chemical processes depending from the environment that modify the deoxyribonucleic acid expression without modifying its sequence. Its action is present during all lifetime, especially at pre-natal times; when due to intrauterine environmental modifications the epigenetic programming takes place, making humans susceptible to defects in ontogeny, even to subsequently suffer non-communicable chronic diseases. Environmental factors inducing epigenetic marks have been reported: food, toxic habits, stress, folic acid inadequate intake and assisted reproduction techniques, all modifiable. Its knowledge is an invaluable bulkward in health promotion and disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services , Fetal Development/genetics , Disease Prevention , Epigenomics , Human Genetics , Genetics, Medical , Health Promotion , Impacts on Health , Environmental Hazards , Genetic Code
20.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(2): e786, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003964

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El exposoma, la epigenética y la microbiota de un individuo son categorías que se interrelacionan y pueden contribuir a una mejor comprensión del proceso salud enfermedad. Objetivo: Exponer la relación entre las categorías mencionadas con enfoque biopsicosocial. Métodos: Búsqueda bibliográfica en Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, LILACS y Cochrane en los últimos cinco años en idioma inglés y español, sobre la relación entre nutrición y aparición de enfermedades, el eje intestino cerebro, la correspondencia entre epigenética y el exposoma y la microbiota intestinal y su relación con algunas afecciones. Resultados: La alimentación adecuada de la madre, en calidad y cantidad, es un seguro de salud para la vida futura del hombre. El eje intestino cerebro puede afectarse por factores de riesgo, de ahí la importancia de regular su funcionamiento para la prevención de enfermedades como la depresión, síndrome de ansiedad, sobrepeso, y otras. El 10 por ciento del riesgo de padecer enfermedades crónicas puede deberse a factores genéticos pero se desconoce que muchas exposiciones humanas al ambiente, podrían iniciar procesos de enfermedad en el futuro. El exposoma es una herramienta útil para evaluar factores de riesgo de enfermedades generadas por el medio ambiente: exposición a productos químicos y contaminantes; el estilo de vida, el nivel socioeconómico y el entorno social de un individuo. Consideraciones finales: La ruptura del equilibrio entre la microbiota intestinal, la epigenética y el exposoma está relacionada con la etiopatogenia de diversas enfermedades, con las características individuales del ser humano y su relación con el medio ambiente(AU)


Introduction: Exposome, epigenetics and microbiota of an individual are categories that are interrelated and can contribute to a better understanding of the health-sickness process. Objective: To deepen the comprehensive analysis of the mentioned categories with a biopsychosocial approach. Methods: A bibliographic search in Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, LILACS and Cochrane databases was made in the last five years in English and Spanish, on the relation between nutrition and diseases onset, the intestine-brain axis, the correspondence between epigenetics and the exposome, and intestinal microbiota and its relation with some conditions. Results: The proper feeding of the mother in quality and quantity is a health insurance for the future life of a person. The intestine -brain axis can be affected by risk factors, hence the importance of regulating its functioning for the prevention of diseases such as depression, anxiety syndrome, overweight, and others. 10 percent of the risk of chronic diseases may be due to genetic factors but it is unknown that many human exposures to the environment could initiate disease processes in the future. The exposome is a useful tool to evaluate risk factors for diseases generated by the environment: exposure to chemicals and contaminants, lifestyle, socioeconomic status and social environment of an individual. Final considerations: The rupture of the equilibrium between intestinal microbiota, epigenetics and exposome is related to the etiopathogenesis of various diseases, with the individual characteristics of human beings and their relationship with the environment(AU)


Subject(s)
Health-Disease Process , Epigenomics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Exposome , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Nutritional Sciences
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL