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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964

ABSTRACT

El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)


CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
3.
Rev. salud bosque ; 8(2): 62-70, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1103643

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a summary of the scientific evidence that accounts for the epigenetic effects and their phenotypic ex-pression of exposure to chronic stress environments, typical of populations exposed to armed conflict, considering also the potential implications for the achievement of wellbeing.Materials and methods. A narrative review of the literature of the last 10 years was conducted in Medline, Science Direct and Lilacs databases and repositories of journals such as: Scie-lo and BIREME. An initial filter was carried out through titles and abstracts according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, full text reading was performed in the selected ar-ticlesResults. 33 articles were obtained for full text reading. Among the main documented effects, the alteration of gene expression to stress was reported through neuronal activation (hypothala-mic-pituitary-adrenal axis) with greater sensitivity to glucocor-ticoids, leading to chronic stress and increased prevalence of non-transmittable chronic diseases.


O presente trabalho apresenta um resumo da evidencia cien-tífica que dá conta dos efeitos epigenéticos e a sua expressão fenotípica da exposição a ambientes de estrese crónico, pró-prios de populações expostas ao conflito armado, consideran-do além das implicações potenciais para atingir um bom viver.Materiais e Métodos. Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa de li-teratura dos últimos 10 anos nas bases de dados Medline e Science Direct e repositórios como SciELO e BIREME. Foram filtrados artigos a traves de critérios de inclusão e exclusão, posteriormente foi realizada uma leitura completa dos tex-to selecionados.Resultados. Foram lidos 33 artigos para leitura de texto com-pleto. Entre os principais efeitos documentados foram repor-tados a alteração da expressão genética ao estresse a través da activação neuronal (eixo hipotálamo -pituitaria- suprarenal) com maior sensibilidade aos glucocorticoides, conducente ao estrese crónico e aumento da prevalência de doenças crónicas não transmissíveis.


El presente trabajo presenta un resumen de la evidencia científica que da cuenta de los efectos epigenéticos y la expresión fenotípica, de la expo-sición a ambientes de estrés crónico, propios de poblaciones expuestas al conflicto armado; considerando, además, las implicaciones potenciales para el logro de un buen vivir.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una revisión narrativa de la literatura cien-tífica de los últimos 10 años, en bases de datos Medline y Science Direct y repositorios de revistas como SciELO y BIREME. Se llevó a cabo un filtro inicial mediante títulos y resúmenes, de acuerdo con los criterios de inclu-sión y exclusión. Posteriormente, se hizo la lectura del texto completo en los artículos seleccionados.Resultados. Se obtuvieron 33 artículos para lectura de texto completo. Entre los principales efectos documentados, se reportó la alteración de la expresión génica al estrés mediante activación neuronal (eje hipotála-mo-hipófiso-suprarrenal) con mayor sensibilidad a los glucocorticoides, conducente a estrés crónico y aumento de prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Armed Conflicts , Epigenomics/trends , Civil Rights , Human Rights
4.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 1-11, Dec. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881184

ABSTRACT

Position statement: The Brazilian Society for Food and Nutrition (SBAN) bases the following position statement on acritical analysis of the literature on nutritional genomics and nutrigenetic tests: (1) Nutrigenetic tests are predictive and not diagnostic, should not replace other evaluations required to treatment, and should only be used as an additional tool to nutritional prescription; (2) Nutritionists/registered dietitians and other health professionals must be able to interpret the nutrigenetic tests and properly guide their patients, as well as build their professional practice ongeneral ethical principles and those established by regulatory authorities; (3) It is extremely important to highlight that them is interpretation of nutrigenetic tests can cause psychological and health problems to the patient; (4) Currently, there is insufficient scientific evidence for the recommendation of dietary planning and nutritional supplementation based only on nutrigenetic tests. This position statement has been externally reviewed and approved by the board of SBAN and has not gone through the journal's standard peer review process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nutrigenomics/ethics , Nutrigenomics/methods , Nutrigenomics/standards , Epigenomics/trends
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