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1.
Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2(1): 46-54, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366088

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic neurologic disease that comes third after cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease. Anti-epileptic drugs may affect certain hematological parameters of epileptic patients. Few researches investigated hematological adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs in Libya. Thus, the aim was to evaluate hematological parameters in epileptic children who are on antiepileptic drugs. This retrospective study included 83 pediatric patients with epilepsy recruited from Benghazi Children Hospital, Department of Neurology, from December 2017 to April 2018. Data collected included demographic characteristics, types of epilepsy, anti-epileptic drugs and serum hematological parameters. Hematological parameters recorded included: hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count. In all treated patients, regardless of the number of antiepileptic drugs therapy used, the average levels of hematological parameters were significantly lower in treated group compared to control group (11.64 gm per dl, 34.53%, 27.74 pg and 33.13 gm per dl, respectively). A significant increase (12.12109 per l) in white blood cell counts in treated group was found. Average hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean cell hemoglobin concentration levels were significantly lower in patients on poly-therapy compared to mono-therapy and control groups. Average white blood cell counts were significantly increased in patients on anti-epileptic drugs. In sodium valproate users, levels of hematological parameters were significantly decreased but significantly increased in white blood cell counts. In diazepam users, significant increases in white blood cells and platelet but no difference in other parameters observed. There were no differences in all hematological parameters among patients using carbamazepine except for platelet counts (significantly decreased). In conclusion, there is substantial effect of the anti-epileptic drugs, especially sodium valproate, on hematological parameters of children despite the effects were not critical as the changes were still in the normal range.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Epilepsy , Anticonvulsants , Hematologic Agents
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 31-39, out.-dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359225

ABSTRACT

There is a known relationship between seizures and sleep deprivation that increases epileptiform abnormalities and slow waves expressed in the EEG, but chronic insomnia, greater in patients with epilepsy (PWEs) than in healthy control, supposedly has a different mechanism linked to a hyperarousability state with increased rapid EEG activity and associated "restless REM". Therefore, there is a complex interaction at various levels between insomnia and epilepsy that may play a role in seizure presentation. The recognized interconnection between mood and anxiety disorders and insomnia should also advise special care in the management of psychiatric comorbidities in PWEs. This article raises questions related to the interaction between the brain basis of insomnia and epilepsy and the triggers of seizures, particularly sleep deprivation.


Há uma relação conhecida entre crises epilépticas e privação de sono que aumenta as anormalidades epileptiformes e as ondas lentas expressas no EEG, mas a insônia crônica, maior em pacientes com epilepsia (PCE) do que no controle saudável, supostamente tem um mecanismo diferente ligado a um estado de hiperexcitabilidade com aumento da atividade rápida do EEG e associado "REM inquieto". Consequentemente, existe uma complexa interação em vários níveis entre a insônia e a epilepsia que pode desempenhar um papel na apresentação das crises. A reconhecida interligação entre transtornos de humor e ansiedade com a insônia também deve aconselhar um cuidado especial no manejo das comorbidades psiquiátricas do PCE. Este artigo levanta questões relacionadas à interação entre a base cerebral da insônia e da epilepsia e os desencadeadores de crises epilépticas, principalmente a privação do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 23-30, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359223

ABSTRACT

There is a close association between sleep and epilepsy, and this literature review aims to raise issues regarding sleep time control, circadian and ultradian rhythms, epilepsy and its interaction with sleep and circadian rhythm, epilepsy and sleep disorders, and finally epilepsy management and medications. It is mentioned that sleep may provide a hypersynchronous state, as occurs in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), and hyperexcitability, in cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), allowing more frequent interictal epileptiform abnormalities and seizures. In some epilepsy syndromes, seizures occur broadly / or entirely during sleep or on awakening, mainly in childhood, and maybe exacerbated in adults during the sleep or sleep-deprived, and there are the so-called Sleep-related epilepsies that are divided as sleep-associated, sleep-accentuated and arousal/awakening related. Sleep quality may be reduced in patients with epilepsy also due to nocturnal seizures or concomitant sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are common in patients with epilepsy and treatment of them mainly sleep-disordered breathing may improve seizure control. Besides, some parasomnias may mimic seizures, and also they can adversely affect the quality and quantity of sleep whereas antiepileptic therapy can have a negative or positive effect on sleep. Nocturnal epileptic seizures may be challenging to discern from parasomnias, in particular NREM parasomnias such as night terrors, sleepwalking and confusional arousals.


Há uma estreita associação entre sono e epilepsia, e esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo levantar questões relacionadas ao controle do tempo do sono, ritmos circadianos e ultradianos, epilepsia e sua interação com sono e ritmo circadiano, epilepsia e transtornos do sono e, finalmente, o tratamento e medicamentos para epilepsia. Menciona-se que o sono pode proporcionar um estado hipersincrônico, como ocorre no sono "non-rapid eye movement" (NREM), e hiperexcitabilidade, no "cyclic alternating pattern" (CAP), permitindo anormalidades epileptiformes interictais e crises epilépticas mais frequentes. Em algumas síndromes epilépticas, as crises ocorrem ampla / ou inteiramente durante o sono ou despertar, principalmente na infância, e podem ser exacerbadas em adultos durante o sono ou privação de sono, e as chamadas epilepsias relacionadas ao sono se dividem em sono associadas, sono acentuadas e relacionadas com o despertar. A qualidade do sono pode ser reduzida em pacientes com epilepsia também devido a crises epilépticas noturnas ou transtornos do sono concomitantes. Esses são comuns em pacientes com epilepsia e o seu tratamento, principalmente dos transtornos respiratórios do sono, pode melhorar o controle das crises epilépticas. Além disso, algumas parassonias podem mimetizar crises epilépticas, e também elas podem afetar adversamente a qualidade e a quantidade do sono, enquanto a terapia antiepiléptica pode ter um efeito negativo ou positivo sobre o sono. Pode ser difícil discernir as crises epilépticas noturnas das parassonias, em particular das parassonias NREM, como terrores noturnos, crises de sonambulismo e despertares confusionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Circadian Rhythm , Epilepsy/drug therapy
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-8, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348217

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia engloba un conjunto de trastornos convulsivos heterogéneos, con diversas características clínicas que excluyen un mecanismo etiológico singular. Individuos con epilepsia presentan una tasa significativamente mayor de condiciones psiquiátricas y neurológicas asociadas. Niños con epilepsia tienen dos a tres veces más riesgo de desarrollar trastornos por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) cuando son comparados con individuos sanos, mientras que uno de cada cinco adultos epilépticos presentan síntomas de TDAH. En los niños con epilepsia, la gravedad y frecuencia de las crisis y una edad más temprana de inicio de las crisis son factores de riesgo comunes para padecer TDAH. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura y se seleccionaron artículos publicados en el periodo entre el año 2003 y 2021 en bases digitales del área de la salud (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO y PubMed). La revisión evidenció que la epilepsia puede aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar TDAH en los niños, y que la epilepsia rolándica benigna es el tipo más diagnosticado en estos niños, que incluso tiene alta tasa de trastornos neuroconductuales con síntomas de TDAH asociados. El diagnóstico temprano y un manejo apropiado, llevan a mejor pronóstico en este grupo de pacientes


Epilepsy encompasses a set of heterogeneous seizure disorders, with various clinical characteristics that exclude a unique etiological mechanism. Individuals with this disease have a significantly higher rate for the development of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Children with epilepsy have two to three times increased risk of developing ADHD when compared to healthy individuals, while one in five epileptic adults have ADHD symptoms. In children with epilepsy, the severity and frequency of seizures and an earlier age at the onset of seizures are common risk factors for ADHD. A narrative review of the literature was carried out and articles published in the period between 2003 and 2021 in digital databases of the health area (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO and PubMed) were selected. The review showed that epilepsy can increase the risk of developing ADHD in children, and that benign rolandic epilepsy is the most diagnosed type in these children, which even has a high rate of neurobehavioral disorders with associated ADHD symptoms. Early diagnosis and appropriate management lead to a better prognosis in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Epilepsy
5.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-7, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352450

ABSTRACT

Introducción: No existe un mecanismo plausible del trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) como causa de epilepsia, sin embargo, su coocurrencia es seguramente el resultado de factores predisponentes para ambas condiciones, incluyendo factores genéticos y ambien-tales. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer la prevalencia de epilepsia en pacientes con TEA y encontrar asociación con otros factores. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo basado en las historias clínicas del Centro de Enfermedades Neurológicas y Nutricionales en Niños y Adolescentes (CENNA) de 81 pacientes (3-19 años) con diagnóstico de TEA, en donde se identificaron a los pacientes con coexistencia epilepsia durante un periodo de 6 años, y las diferentes variables en este grupo. Resultados: Se identificaron 81 pacientes con diagnóstico de TEA, de los cuales 12 pacientes (15%) presentaban coexistencia de epilepsia. Al analizar el grado de TEA, se evidenció que la comorbilidad en ambas entidades es más común en el TEA grado 3 (58.33%). La edad inicio de la epilepsia en el rango entre 5 a 10 años (42%). Se evidencio que el 25% de los pacientes tienen antecedentes familiares de epilepsia, mientras que sólo el 8% tiene ante-cedente familiar de TEA. Todos los tipos de crisis epiléptica se presentaron en los pacientes con TEA, pero las más comunes fueron las crisis de tipo focal (58%), específicamente moto-ras con alteración de la conciencia (33%). Además, existió un 100% de mejoría en el comportamiento autista en los pacientes que recibieron su tratamiento antiepiléptico, y sólo el 8% presentó epilepsia de difícil control. Conclusiones: El estudio mostró una prevalencia significativa de epilepsia en la población con diagnóstico de TEA. El estudio logró observar la distribución de población con comorbilidad de TEA y epilepsia, para en un futuro encontrar una variable común entre ambas patologías. A nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer estudio retrospectivo en Ecuador que analiza la comorbilidad de TEA y epilepsia en la población ecuatoriana


Introduction: Compared to the general population, there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with an indecency of approximately 20%. There is no plausible mechanism for ASD as a cause of epilepsy; however, its cooccurrence is surely the result of predisposing factors for both conditions, including genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with ASD and find a correlation with other factors, such as sex, etiology, type of seizure or epileptic syndrome, age of onset of epilepsy, EEG abnormalities, and therapeutic response. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was carried out based on the clinical records of the Center for Neurological and Nutritional Diseases in Children and Adolescents (CENNA) of 81 patients (3-19 years) with a diagnosis of ASD, where patients coexisted with epilepsy for a period of 6 years, and the different variables in this group. Results: Eighty-one patients with a diagnosis of ASD were identified, of whom 12 patients (15%) had coexisting epilepsy. When analyzing the degree of ASD, it was evidenced that comorbidity in both entities is more common in ASD grade 3 (58.33%). The age of onset of epilepsy ranged between 5 and 10 years (42%). Twenty-five percent of patients had a family history of epilepsy, while only 8% had a family history of ASD. All types of epileptic seizures occurred in patients with ASD, but the most common were focal-type seizures (58%), specifically motor seizures with altered consciousness (33%). In addition, there was a 100% improvement in autistic behavior in the patients who received their antiepileptic treatment, and only 8% had difficult-to-control epilepsy. Conclusion: The study showed a significant prevalence of epilepsy in the population diagnosed with ASD. The study managed to observe the distribution of the population with comorbidities of ASD and epilepsy to find a common variable between both pathologies in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first retrospective study in Ecuador that analyzes the comorbidity of ASD and epilepsy in the Ecuadorian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autistic Disorder , Epilepsy , Child Behavior , Environment , Genetics
6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 357-360, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339798

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Memory complaints are common in adult people with epilepsy (PWEs). However, the associated clinical aspects are not yet fully understood. Objective: This study aims to relate the occurrence of memory complaints in PWEs with clinical aspects and self-esteem. Methods: To relate the data obtained from the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) with clinical aspects, 71 PWEs were assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Brief Cognitive Battery-Edu. These data were compared with 55 individuals in a control group (CG). Results: Memory complaints (MAC-Q≥25) were significantly higher in PWEs, when compared with individuals in the CG [35 (49.3%) vs. 15 (27.2%); Student's t-test; p=0.012]. Objective cognitive performance was lower in PWEs. Memory complaints were associated with a lower educational level, the presence of depression, SES, MMSE, incidental memory, and the clock-drawing test scores in PWEs. Conclusions: Memory complaints were more frequent in PWEs than in individuals in the CG, and there was a relationship with cognitive deficit, educational level, depression, and low self-esteem.


RESUMO Queixas de memória são frequentes em pessoas adultas com epilepsia (PCEs). Entretanto, os aspectos clínicos associados ainda não são totalmente compreendidos. Objetivo: Relacionar a ocorrência de queixas de memória em PCEs com aspectos clínicos e a autoestima. Métodos: Relacionar os dados do Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) com aspectos clínicos, a Roserberg Self-esteem Scale (SES), o MEEM e a BCB-Edu de 71 PCEs. Os dados foram comparados aos de 55 indivíduos normais (GC). Resultados: Queixa de memória (MAC-Q≥25) foi significativamente maior nos PCEs quando comparada a do GC [35 (49,3%) vs. 15 (27,2%); teste t de Student; p=0,012]. O desempenho cognitivo objetivo foi inferior nas PWEs. As queixas de memória foram associadas à menor escolaridade, presença de depressão e à SES, o MEEM, à memória incidental e o clock-drawing test nas PCEs. Conclusões: As queixas de memória foi mais frequente nas PCEs do que no GC, e houve relação com o déficit cognitivo, a escolaridade, a depressão e a baixa autoestima.


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Concept , Surveys and Questionnaires , Epilepsy , Memory
7.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(2): 1-8, 31 de agosto del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284494

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trastorno del espectro autista constituye un desorden neuropsiquiátrico caracterizado por dificultades en la interacción y comunicación social, al que se asocian actividades e intereses restrictivos y estereotipados. Los medicamentos psicofarmacológicos convencionales suelen ir dirigidos al tratamiento de las conductas asociadas, pero no tratan los déficits centrales del TEA. Caso clínico: Niño de 3 años que acude a consulta de neuropediatría por retraso en la adquisición de lenguaje y conductas inapropiadas para la edad que son compatibles con manifestaciones de TEA; además al realizar el estudio electroencefalograma se evidencian descargas paroxísticas que coinciden con episodios de desconexión del medio. Padres deciden el uso de CBD además de iniciar un programa de intervención terapéutica psicomotora, conductual y fonoaudiológica. Evolución: Tras un año de intervención y seguimiento se evidenciaron avances significativos en el control de las crisis y mejoría en las capacidades empáticas, adaptativas y relacionales. Tolera de mejor manera los espacios cerrados, sigue órdenes y rutinas sencillas. El terapista indica grandes avances y termina su primer año de escolarización con logros significativos. El estudio EEG en mejores condiciones con respecto a los anteriores, con una actividad de base mejor estructurada y disminución de la actividad epileptógena frontal. Conclusión: Este reporte de caso refuerza la idea de que la intervención terapéutica temprana y la utilización de cannabidiol como terapia añadida puede ser capaz de ayudar en el control de las crisis en la epilepsia y también a disminuir los síntomas conductuales relacionados con el trastorno del espectro autista. Se requiere más investigación para dilucidar la efectividad del cannabidiol en los TEA.


Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are made up a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, associate with restrictive and stereotyped activities and interests. Conventional psychopharmacological medications are usually directed to the treatment of associated behaviours but do not treat the core deficits of ASD. Clinical case: A 3-year-old boy attended for delayed language acquisition and age inappropriate behaviours compatible with manifestations of ASD; in addition, an electroen-cephalogram showed paroxysmal discharges coinciding with episodes of disconnection from the environment. Parents decided to use cannabidiol and to start a psychomotor, behavioural, and speech therapy intervention program. Evolution: After one year of intervention and follow-up, were evidenced significant advances in seizures control and improvement in empathic, adaptive, and relational skills. He tolerates closed spaces better, follows orders and simple routines. The therapist indicates great pro-gress, and he finishes his first year of schooling with significant achievements. EEG study in better conditions than previous ones, with a better-structured baseline activity and de-creased frontal epileptogenic activity. Conclusion: This case report reinforces the idea that early therapeutic intervention and the use of cannabidiol as an add-on therapy may be able to aid in seizure control in epilepsy and decrease behavioural symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder. Further research is needed to elucidate the effectiveness of cannabidiol in ASD.


Introdução: O transtorno do espectro autista é um transtorno neuropsiquiátrico caracterizado por dificuldades de interação e comunicação social, ao qual estão associados atividades e interesses restritivos e estereotipados. Os medicamentos psicofarmacológicos convencionais geralmente têm como objetivo o tratamento de comportamentos associados, mas não tratam os déficits centrais do TEA. Caso clínico: Menino de 3 anos que procurou uma clínica neurológica pediátrica por atraso na aquisição da linguagem e comportamentos inadequados para a idade compatíveis com manifestações de TEA; Além disso, na realização do estudo eletroencefalograma, evidenciam-se descargas paroxísticas que coincidem com episódios de desconexão do meio ambiente. Os pais decidem usar o CBD, além de iniciar um programa de intervenção psicomotora, comportamental e fonoaudiológica. Evolução: Após um ano de intervenção e acompanhamento, foram evidenciados avanços significativos no controle das crises e melhora nas capacidades empáticas, adaptativas e relacionais. Tolera melhor espaços fechados, segue comandos e rotinas simples. O terapeuta indica grande progresso e termina o primeiro ano de escola com conquistas significativas. Estudo do EEG em melhores condições em relação aos anteriores, com atividade de base mais bem estruturada e diminuição da atividade epileptogênica frontal. Conclusão: Este relato de caso reforça a ideia de que a intervenção terapêutica precoce e o uso de canabidiol como terapia adjuvante podem ajudar no controle das crises epilépticas e também diminuir os sintomas comportamentais relacionados ao transtorno do espectro do autismo. Mais pesquisas são necessárias para elucidar a eficácia do canabidiol em ASDs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Autistic Disorder , Cannabidiol , Aggression , Epilepsy , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
8.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3261, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251803

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una muerte súbita en epilepsia (SUDEP) ocurre cada diez minutos en todo el mundo. El 30 por ciento de los pacientes epilépticos padecen de epilepsia fármaco resistente (EFR), no logran el control de sus crisis y esto aumenta el riesgo de SUDEP. Muchos aún desconocen los factores de riesgo SUDEP y cómo prevenirlos. Los tratamientos para evitarla aún son insuficientes. Las investigaciones enfermeras aportan resultados positivos en el manejo de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Revisar el estado sobre mortalidad, autogestión de epilepsia e investigaciones enfermeras para prevenir la SUDEP en adolescentes y adultos con EFR. Material y Métodos: Revisión sistemática y búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed SciELO, SCOPUS, ElSEVIER, MEDES, Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), INFOMED y Google académico. Los criterios de selección: trabajos de la última década en adolescentes y adultos publicados en Cuba y el mundo, enfatizando en las investigaciones enfermeras. Búsqueda de palabras claves en español e inglés, sin restricciones de idioma. Desarrollo: Entre los tratamientos para evitar la SUDEP, destacan los dispositivos de detección de crisis y programas de ayuda online, pero aún son necesarias nuevas opciones. En los factores de riesgo, destacan aquellos relacionados con el sueño. Otros factores de riesgo SUDEP pudieran ser modificables con programas educativos. A pesar de que aún se debaten las formas más adecuadas de ofrecer información sobre SUDEP, los programas educativos enfermeros han evidenciado mayor autogestión, conocimiento de la enfermedad y apego al tratamiento. Conclusiones: El enfermero es el potencial humano ideal, para implementar acciones de autocuidado en las personas con EFR, y empoderarlas con habilidades para el manejo de su enfermedad y prevención de SUDEP(AU)


Introduction: A sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurs every ten minutes worldwide. Also, 30 percent of epileptic patients who suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) fail to control their seizures, so the risk of SUDEP increases. Many epileptic patients are unaware of the risk factors for SUDEP and the ways to prevent it. Treatments to avoid SUDEP are still insufficient. Nursing research provide positive results in the management of the disease. Objective: To review the mortality status, self-management of epilepsy and nursing research to prevent SUDEP in adolescents and adults with DRE. Material and Methods: A systematic review and bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed SciELO, SCOPUS, ELSEVIER, MEDES, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), INFOMED and Google Scholar databases. Selection criteria included studies on nursing research conducted in adolescents and adults during the last decade that have been published in Cuba and other countries of the world. Keywords in Spanish and English without language restrictions were used to carry out the search. Development: Crisis detection devices and online help programs stand out among the treatments to avoid SUDEP, but new options are still necessary. Among the risk factors for SUDEP, those related to sleep are highlighted. Other risk factors for SUDEP could be modified with educational programs. Despite the most appropriate ways of offering information about SUDEP are still debated, nursing educational programs have shown greater self-management, knowledge of the disease, and adherence to treatment. Conclusions: The Nurse is the ideal human potential to implement self-care actions in people with EFR. These actions aim to learn new skills for managing their disease and preventing SUDEP(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care , Nursing Research , Knowledge , Disease Management , Epilepsy/mortality , Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy/prevention & control , Nurses , Risk Factors
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 62-68, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287242

ABSTRACT

Resumen La elección de un método anticonceptivo considerado como altamente efectivo en mujeres epilépticas en edad fértil es importante, ya que requiere al momento de indicarlos tener en cuenta los criterios de elegibilidad y las posibles interacciones farmacológicas entre determinados tipos de fármacos anticonvulsivantes (principalmente las inductoras enzimáticas del sistema hepático P450 como: carbamacepina, fenitoína, fenobarbital, oxacarbamacepina, eslicarbazepina, rufinamida, lacosamida y topiramato en dosis altas) y ciertos métodos anticonceptivos (anticonceptivos orales combinados o solo con progesterona e implantes de progesterona subdérmicos) pudiendo acelerar el metabolismo de estas últimas con el consiguiente riesgo de fracaso o viceversa, reduciendo la concentración plasmática (como por ejemplo; lamotrigina) predisponiendo a crisis epilépticas, riesgo de embarazos no deseados, abortos, teratogenicidad por valproato, complicaciones materno fetal y dificultad en el manejo de la actividad epiléptica durante la gestación. En caso de asociarse ambas medicaciones, se debe considerar el uso combinado con un método de barrera u optar por la utilización de inyección de depósito de acetato de medroxiprogesterona o dispositivo intrauterino como anticoncepción. Está demostrado que el asesoramiento sobre planificación familiar en la primera consulta puede influenciar en la elección del método anticonceptivo y el inicio temprano de ácido fólico en caso de búsqueda de fertilidad. En conclusión, se debe analizar junto con las pacientes epilépticas las diferentes opciones terapéuticas con el fin de lograr y optimizar la mejor meta de cada uno.


Abstract The choice of a contraceptive method considered highly effective in epileptic women of childbearing age is important, since it requires taking into account the eligibility criteria and the possible pharmacological interactions between certain types of anti-seizure drugs (mainly enzyme inducers drugs of the hepatic system P450 such as: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, oxacarbamazepine, eslicarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and topiramate in high doses) and certain contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives combined or only with progesterone and subdermal progesterone implants), which may accelerate the metabolism of the latter with the consequent risk of failure or vice versa, reduction of plasma concentration (such as lamotrigine) predisposing to seizures, risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, teratogenicity due to valproato, maternalfetal complications and difficulty in the management of epileptic activity during pregnancy. In case of prescribing both medications, the combined use with a barrier method should be considered or the use of a depot injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate or intrauterine device as contraception should be considered. Family planning counseling at the first visit has been shown to influence the choice of the contraceptive method and the early initiation of folic acid in the search for fertility. In conclusion, the different therapeutic options should be analyzed together with the epileptic patients in order to achieve and optimize the best goal for each one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
10.
Femina ; 49(3): 173-176, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224083

ABSTRACT

A epilepsia, doença cerebral caracterizada pela predisposição à geração de crises epilépticas, representa a patologia neurológica grave mais frequente na gravidez. Quando não acompanhada corretamente, possui um acentuado nível de morbimortalidade materno-fetal, sendo especialmente relacionada a riscos de convulsão materna na gestação e malformações fetais. Este artigo discute o acompanhamento da gestante epiléptica, trazendo recomendações de cuidados no período pré-concepcional, manejo durante o pré-natal, condução do trabalho de parto, peculiaridades no puerpério e tratamento de crises convulsivas, quando necessário. Serão abordados tanto aspectos de tratamento farmacológico quanto de monitoramento e orientações gerais, com o objetivo de contribuir para um suporte mais abrangente e adequado a esse grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes sob o cuidado do médico ginecologista-obstetra e neurologista.(AU)


Epilepsy, which is a brain disease defined for a greater predisposition for epileptic crisis, represents the most frequent neurological pathology during pregnancy. Without proper monitoring it is related to high morbidity and mortality to both mother and baby, especially due to the risks of mother seizure during pregnancy and fetus malformation. This article discusses about health care giving and follow-up for the epileptic pregnant women, pointing recommendations for preconception care, prenatal management, labor conduct, peculiarities in puerperium and treatment of convulsive crisis when needed. There will be approached pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects, such as follow up exams and general orientations, having as a goal to contribute to an more abrangent and proper support of this more vulnerable group of patients under the care responsibility of obstetrician-gynecologist ad neurologist doctors.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Seizures/drug therapy , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Time-to-Pregnancy/drug effects , Lamotrigine/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
11.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(1): 145-152, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286170

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Epilepsy, a chronic neurological condition which is associated with neurobiological and psychosocial changes, affects 0.5 to 1% of the world's population, presenting in most cases a deficit in reasoning, memory and attention. Objective: To contribute to the implementation of screening strategies for cognitive decline and memory deficits in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Two questionnaires, MMSE and MoCA, were used in this cross-sectional and observational study. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with different types of epilepsy (55% refractory) were assessed; they were all over 18 years old, of both genders, with autonomy to answer the questionnaire. They were followed exclusively at an outpatient clinic of the Neurology Service Department, specialized in epilepsy, which is part of the tertiary healthcare level of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Results: The final sample consisted of 54 patients. There was a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the scores of both tests, indicating that low values in the MMSE score also corresponded to low values in the MoCA score. Sensitivity was 90% (ROC curve adjusted) and 87.5% of the patients with a normal score in the MMSE test obtained alterations in the MoCA scores. None of them showed a low MMSE score with a normal MOCA score. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.80. Also, there was a significant relationship between both immediate memory and delayed recall memory and the type of seizure (p<0.03) and level of schooling (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The MoCA is a well-suited test to be performed in epilepsy patients to evaluate their cognition as it seems more extensive and complete compared to MMSE.


RESUMO. A epilepsia, condição neurológica crônica associada a alterações neurobiológicas e psicossociais, afeta de 0,5 a 1% da população mundial. Na maior parte dos casos, há redução de raciocínio, memória e atenção. Objetivos: Contribuir para a implementação de estratégias de rastreio de declínio cognitivo e distúrbios na memória nos pacientes com epilepsia. Métodos: Estudo transversal observacional de 54 pacientes diagnosticados com epilepsia de diversos tipos (55% refratários) e com idade superior a 18 anos, de ambos os sexos, com autonomia para responder o questionário e em acompanhamento exclusivamente pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em um ambulatório especializado em epilepsia, do serviço de neurologia, que faz parte do nível terciário de atenção à saúde. Foram aplicados dois questionários: o MEEM e o MoCA. Resultados: Amostra final de 54 pacientes. Encontrou-se uma correlação significativa (p<0,001) entre os escores dos dois testes, o que significa que valores baixos do escore MEEM correspondem a valores baixos do escore MoCA. Sensibilidade de 90% (curva ROC ajustada). Verificou-se que dentre os pacientes considerados normais no MEEM, 87,5% deles obtiveram escore com alterações por meio do teste de rastreio MoCA. Não se obteve nenhum caso de escore no MEEM baixo com pontuação no MoCA normal. O coeficiente de correlação Spearman foi 0,80. Há relação significativa da memória imediata e evocação tardia com o tipo de crise (p<0,03) e escolaridade (p<0,001), respectivamente. Conclusão: Torna-se pertinente a adição do teste MoCA para rastreio cognitivo em pacientes com epilepsia por ser um instrumento mais extenso e preciso, minimizando as chances de "falsos-negativos" quando comparado ao MEEM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognition , Epilepsy , Memory Disorders
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 22, 2021. 79 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1253419

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos, pretenden establecer las disposiciones para la atención integral de la persona con epilepsia y crisis epilépticas, de acuerdo a la complejidad de la presentación clínica en el nivel de atención correspondiente de las instituciones del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS), a fin de estandarizar el manejo clínico


These Guidelines intend to establish the provisions for the comprehensive care of the person with epilepsy and epileptic seizures, according to the complexity of the clinical presentation at the corresponding level of care of the institutions of the National Integrated Health System (SNIS), to in order to standardize clinical management


Subject(s)
Seizures , Comprehensive Health Care , Epilepsy
13.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 242-247, 2021. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estado epiléptico (EE) es una afección potencialmente mortal con una morbilidad significativa en quienes sobreviven a esta entidad. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo de corte analítico con el objetivo de describir la prevalencia y la relación con variables sociodemográficas, electroencefalográficas, imagenológicas y desenlaces clínicos en los pacientes hospitalizados que fueron monitorizado por videoelectroencefalograma (VEEG), en el Hospital de San José de Bogotá, Colombia, entre agosto 2017 y agosto 2019. Resultados: de los 135 pacientes monitorizados por VEEG, 27,47% cumplieron con los criterios para EE. La edad promedio fue 48 (DE: 19,56) años, 54,05% (n=20) de sexo masculino y 75,67% (n=28) sin antecedentes de epilepsia. Predominaron las manifestaciones motoras (70,27%, n=26), en 59,46% en el puntaje STESS fue desfavorable, 64,86% (n=24) requirió inducción a coma y monitorización en la unidad de cuidados intensivos(UCI) y 37,84% (n=14) fallecieron durante su estancia intrahospitalaria. Se encontró una relación entre EE, requerimiento de UCI y muerte intrahospitalaria. Conclusiones: la prevalencia del EE en pacientes hospitalizados monitorizados por VEEG fue cercana a 28%, lo que sugiere una relación entre EE, requerimiento de UCI y muerte intrahospitalaria.


Introduction: status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening disorder associated with high morbidity in SE survivors. Patients and methods: descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study with the aim to characterize the prevalence and relation with socio-demographic, electroencephalography and neuro-image variables as well as clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients who received video-electroencephalogram (video-EEG) monitoring, at Hospital de San José in Bogotá, Colombia, between August 2017 and August 2019. Results: of the 135 patients who received video-EEG monitoring, 27.47% met the criteria for SE. The median age was 48 (SD: 19.56) years, 54.05% (n=20) were men and 75.67% (n=28) had no history of epilepsy. There was a predominance of motor manifestations (70.27%, n=26), 59.46% had an unfavorable STESS score, while 64.86% (n=24) required induced coma and monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 37.84 % (n=14) died during their hospital stay. A relationship was found between SE, requiring admission to the ICU and in-hospital death. Conclusions: the prevalence of SE in hospitalized patients monitored by video-EEG was close to 28%, and a relationship between SE, requiring ICU admission and in-hospital death is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Seizures , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Status Epilepticus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography , Monitoring Stations
14.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 166-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344802

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica frecuente que afecta a cerca de 50.000 millones de personas en el mundo. En Chile, la prevalencia estimada es de 10.8 a 17 por 1.000 habitantes. La primera opción para su tratamiento son los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) los cuales logran un aceptable control de enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, tienen la potencialidad de desencadenar una serie de efectos adversos destacando entre ellos el desarrollo de hipocalcemia (HC) secundaria a hipovitaminosis D (HD), alteración que por lo general es leve y asintomática. Presentamos el caso de una mujer perimenopausica con antecedente de epilepsia en tratamiento con anticonvulsivante que desarrolla hipocalcemia severa. Además revisamos los mecanismos descritos a través de los cuales los FAE afectan el metabolismo de esta vitamina.


Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects about 50,000 million people in the world. The estimated prevalence is 10.8 to 17 per 1.000 inhabitants in Chile. The first option for its treatment are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which achieve an acceptable control of the disease in most cases, however, they have the potential to trigger a series of adverse effects (AE) highlighting among them the development of hypocalcemia (HC) secondary to hypovitaminosis D (HD), an alteration that is generally mild and asymptomatic. We present the case of a perimenopausal woman with a history of epilepsy under treatment with an anticonvulsant who develops severe hypocalcemia. We also review the mechanisms described through which AEDs affect the metabolism of this vitamin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/etiology
15.
MedUNAB ; 24(2): 268-275, 20210820.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291948

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La Hiperglicinemia no Cetósica (HNC) es un error innato del metabolismo de herencia autosómica recesiva, cuya principal característica es la acumulación de glicina en los fluidos corporales, producido por una falla en el complejo de clivaje enzimático de este aminoácido. Presentación del caso. Presentamos el caso de un recién nacido de 36 semanas, con adaptación neonatal espontánea, sin historia de noxa perinatal ni hipoglicemia documentada, quien tras un corto período de 24 horas presentó deterioro neurológico progresivo, rápida alteración del estado de conciencia hasta el coma y falla ventilatoria. Llamó la atención al ingreso la hipotonía severa generalizada, hiporreflexia, ausencia de reflejos primitivos, con episodios de hipo aislado y movimientos oculares anormales. Ante la sospecha de un error innato del metabolismo se realizó el perfil de aminoácidos donde se evidenció elevación significativa de la glicina, 1417 mmol/L (referencia 94-553 umol/L). Se solicitaron aminoácidos en líquido cefalorraquídeo, glicina muy elevada 1263 mmol/L (referencia 3-7 umol/L), con lo que se confirma la sospecha de hiperglicinemia no cetósica. Se decidió iniciar manejo con benzoato de sodio y dextrometorfano. La resonancia magnética inicial fue normal, en estudio control se encontraron al igual que en el electroencefalograma hallazgos reportados previamente en la literatura para esta patología. Discusión. La mayoría de los niños con HNC se presentan en el período neonatal o en la primera infancia, y solo los casos más leves se presentan al final de la infancia o la niñez. En las presentaciones de inicio neonatal, el 85% tiene HNC grave y el 15% tiene forma atenuada, como este caso. El diagnóstico de la HNC se hace con base en la sospecha clínica, confirmada por los hallazgos de laboratorio, con la alteración característica de la glicina tanto en plasma como en el LCR y soportada por los hallazgos de las neuroimágenes y electroencefalograma (EEG). Conclusiones. La HNC no es una condición tan inusual, aunque sí posiblemente subdiagnosticada por la forma de presentación tan catastrófica, además porque no produce grandes desarreglos metabólicos de rápido diagnóstico. Por este motivo, ante un paciente con cuadro clínico sugestivo, con coma, alteración respiratoria y convulsiones de difícil manejo, y muy característicamente hipo, debe solicitarse el estudio de aminoácidos en plasma, neuroimágenes y EEG, con el fin de instaurar un manejo temprano.


Introduction. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive innate error of metabolism, whose main characteristic is the accumulation of glycine in body fluids, produced by a failure in the enzymatic cleavage complex of this amino acid. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 36-week-old newborn, with spontaneous neonatal adaptation, no history of perinatal noxa or documented hypoglycemia, who after a short period of 24 hours presented progressive neurological deterioration, rapid alteration of consciousness to coma and ventilatory failure. At admission the patient was noted for severe generalized hypotonia, hyporeflexia, absence of primitive reflexes, with episodes of isolated hiccups and abnormal eye movements. In view of the suspicion of an innate error of metabolism, an amino acid profile was performed, showing a significant elevation of glycine, 1417 umol/L (reference 94-553 umol/L). Amino acids were requested in cerebrospinal fluid, glycine very elevated 1263 umol/L (reference 3-7 umol/L), confirming the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. It was decided to start treatment with sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan. The initial MRI was normal; in the control study, findings previously reported in the literature for this pathology were found, as well as in the electroencephalogram. Discussion. Most children with NKH will display it in the neonatal period or early infancy, with only the mildest cases presenting in late infancy or childhood. In neonatal-onset cases, 85% have severe NKH and 15% have attenuated form, as in this case. The diagnosis of NKH is made based on clinical suspicion, confirmed by laboratory findings, with the characteristic alteration of glycine in both plasma and CSF and supported by neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Conclusions. NKH is not such an unusual condition, although it is possibly underdiagnosed because of its catastrophic presentation and because it does not produce major metabolic disorders that are quickly diagnosed. For this reason, in a patient with a suggestive clinical condition, with coma, respiratory alteration and unmanageable seizures, and very characteristically hiccups, the study of amino acids in plasma, neuroimaging and EEG should be requested, in order to establish early treatment.


Introdução. A hiperglicinemia não-cetótica (HNC) é um erro inato do metabolismo de herança autossômica recessiva, cuja principal característica é o acúmulo de glicina nos fluidos corporais, produzido por uma falha no complexo de clivagem enzimática deste aminoácido. Apresentação do caso. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido de 36 semanas, com adaptação neonatal espontânea, sem história de noxa perinatal nem hipoglicemia documentada, que após um curto período de 24 horas apresentou deterioração neurológica progressiva, alteração rápida de consciência até coma e falha ventilatória. Na admissão, eram notáveis a hipotonia grave generalizada, hiporreflexia, ausência de reflexos primitivos, com episódios de soluços isolados e movimentos oculares anormais. Diante da suspeita de erro inato no metabolismo, foi realizado o perfil de aminoácidos, onde foi constatada elevação significativa da glicina, 1417umol/L (referência 94-553 umol/L). Foram solicitados aminoácidos no líquido cefalorraquidiano, glicina muito alta 1263umol/L (referência 3-7 umol/L), confirmando a suspeita de hiperglicinemia não-cetótica. Foi decidido iniciar o tratamento com benzoato de sódio e dextrometorfano. A ressonância magnética inicial foi normal, tanto em estudo controle quanto no eletroencefalograma, foram encontrados achados previamente relatados na literatura para esta patologia. Discussão. A maioria das crianças com HNC estão no período neonatal ou na primeira infância, e apenas os casos mais leves ocorrem na infância ou na infância tardia. Nas apresentações de início neonatal, 85% têm HNC grave e 15% têm forma atenuada, como neste caso. O diagnóstico de HNC é feito com base na suspeita clínica, confirmada por achados laboratoriais, com alteração característica da glicina tanto no plasma quanto no LCR e apoiado por achados de neuroimagem e eletroencefalograma (EEG). Conclusões. A HNC não é uma condição tão incomum, embora possivelmente seja subdiagnosticada por sua apresentação catastrófica, também por não produzir grandes distúrbios metabólicos que possam ser diagnosticados rapidamente. Por esse motivo, em um paciente com quadro clínico sugestivo, com coma, distúrbios respiratórios e convulsões de difícil manejo, e soluços muito característicos, deve ser solicitado um estudo de aminoácidos no plasma, neuroimagem e EEG a fim de estabelecer um tratamento rápido.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic , Infant, Newborn , Epilepsy , Glycine , Hiccup
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278588

ABSTRACT

Pediatric epilepsy comprises chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. Sodium valproate is one of the common antiseizure medications used for treatment. Glucuronide conjugation is the major metabolic pathway of sodium valproate, carried out by the enzyme uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) whose gene polymorphisms may alter the clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the association between UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism and clinical outcome in terms of efficacy and tolerability in pediatric epileptic patients on sodium valproate monotherapy. Pediatric epileptic patients (n=65) aged 2-18 years receiving sodium valproate monotherapy for the past one month were included. Genetic polymorphism patterns of UGT1A6 (T19G, A541G, A552C) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Clinical outcome was seizure control during the 6 months observation period. Tolerability was measured by estimating the hepatic, renal, and other lab parameters. Out of 65 patients, TT (40%), TG (57%), and GG (3%) patterns were observed in UGT1A6 (T19G) gene, AA (51%), AG (40%), and GG (9%) in (A541G) gene, and AA (43%), AC (43%), and CC (14%) in (A552C) gene. No statistical difference in clinical outcome was found for different UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism patterns. We concluded that different patterns of UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism were not associated with the clinical outcome of sodium valproate in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Sodium valproate was well-tolerated among pediatric patients with epilepsy and can be used as an effective antiseizure medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180740

ABSTRACT

Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Peptides , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Neurons
18.
REVISA (Online) ; 10(1): 156-164, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177768

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar alterações no consumo alimentar e hábitos de vida em pacientes com fibrose cística brasileiros durante o período de isolamento social devido a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: pesquisa transversal com levantamento de dados por meio de questionário elaborado pela equipe de nutricionistas especialistas no tratamento de pacientes com fibrose cística, com questões referentes às manifestações respiratórias recentes de pacientes ou familiares, alterações nos hábitos de aquisição e compras de alimentos e alterações quanto ao consumo de grupos alimentares e suplementos. Os dados foram tabulados e foi realizada uma análise descritiva. Resultados: 40,34% das famílias de pacientes com fibrose cística mudaram os hábitos de compras de alimentos, cerca de 40% dos pacientes diminuíram a prática de atividade física e aumentaram o tempo de uso de telas em mais de 50% durante o período da pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusões: Apesar de algumas dificuldades relacionadas à aquisição dos alimentos e alterações em hábitos de vida, houve manutenção do consumo alimentar da maioria dos grupos alimentares e suplementos pelos pacientes pediátricos com fibrose cística brasileiros durante o isolamento social devido a pandemia de COVID-19


Objective: This study describes the creation of the first ketogenic diet-teaching kitchen at a ketogenic reference center in Brazil aimed at developing ketogenic recipes and holding keto-culinary workshops with caregivers. Method: In this prospective study, 26 recipes were tested and assessed by sensory panel testing. Eighteen recipes were selected to be prepared in culinary workshops with parents or legal guardians of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet as outpatients. All recipes were selected, calculated, and approved by registered dietitians. Results: Eight parents or legal guardians participated in four culinary workshops. The activities were extremely satisfactory: participants were able to clear out their doubts, learn, practice recipes, and develop new skills. In general, all participants enjoyed the prepared recipes and praised the culinary workshop. Conclusion: The ketogenic teaching kitchen enabled the development of ketogenic recipes adapted to Brazilian eating habits. Providing alternative meals to children is essential for enhancing compliance with the ketogenic diet because they contribute to expand the dietary repertoire of these patients. Future studies with high methodological quality should test the efficacy of the ketogenic kitchen in increasing compliance with the ketogenic diet in the long term.


Objetivo: Este estudio describe la creación de la primera cocina cetogénica para enseñar dieta cetogénica en un centro de referencia en Brasil, con el objetivo de desarrollar recetas cetogénicas y realizar talleres culinarios con los cuidadores. Método: En este estudio prospectivo, un panel sensorial probó y evaluó 26 recetas. Se seleccionaron dieciocho recetas para ser elaboradas en talleres de cocina con padres o tutores legales de niños con epilepsia refractaria que reciben una dieta cetogénica ambulatoria. Todas las recetas fueron seleccionadas, calculadas y aprobadas por nutricionistas. Resultados: Ocho padres o tutores participaron en cuatro talleres culinarios. Las actividades fueron sumamente satisfactorias: los participantes pudieron despejar sus dudas, aprender, practicar recetas y desarrollar nuevas habilidades. En general, a todos los participantes les gustaron las recetas elaboradas y elogiaron el taller de cocina. Conclusión: La cocina de enseñanza cetogénica permitió el desarrollo de recetas cetogénicas adaptadas a los hábitos alimentarios brasileños. Proporcionar comidas alternativas a los niños es fundamental para mejorar la adherencia a la dieta cetogénica, ya que contribuyen a ampliar el repertorio dietético de estos pacientes. Los estudios futuros con alta calidad metodológica deberían probar la efectividad de la cocina cetogénica para aumentar la adherencia a la dieta cetogénica a largo plazo.


Subject(s)
Food and Nutrition Education , Epilepsy , Diet, Ketogenic
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 17-20, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146467

ABSTRACT

Insulinoma es un tumor neuroendocrino que surge de las células ß del páncreas y produce hiperinsulinemia endógena. Son neoplasias raras con una incidencia reportada de 4 casos por millón de habitantes por año. La presentación clínica típicamente cursa con síntomas adrenérgicos y neuroglucopénicos secundarios a hipoglicemia. Requiere estudios de niveles séricos de insulina, pro-insulina y péptido C, además de imágenes diagnosticas que confirmen los hallazgos. La mayoría de los insulinomas son benignos, su sitio primario más común es el páncreas y pueden extirparse quirúrgicamente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 36 años con déficit cognitivo leve y episodios de diaforesis con deterioro neurológico hasta convulsiones tónico clónicas generalizadas que curiosamente resolvían con uso doméstico de "panela molida". Se ingresó a urgencias por ataques recurrentes de hipoglicemia severa con requerimiento de altas dosis de dextrosa al 50% por acceso central, hasta confirmación diagnóstica, intervención y resección de tumor neuroendocrino pancreático bien diferenciado (G1 según clasificación OMS) tipo insulinoma en la cola del páncreas.


Insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the ß cells of the pancreas and produces endogenous hyperinsulinemia. They are rare neoplasms with a reported incidence to 4 cases per million inhabitants per year. The clinical presentation typically presents with adrenergic and neuroglycopenic symptoms secondary to hypoglycemia. It requires studies of serum levels of insulin, pro-insulin and C-peptide, in addition to diagnostic images that confirm the findings. Most insulinomas are benign, their most common primary site is the pancreas, and they can be removed surgically. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with mild cognitive deficits and episodes of diaphoresis with neurological deterioration to generalized clonic tonic seizures that curiously resolved with domestic use of "ground brown sugar". He was admitted to the emergency department due to recurrent attacks of severe hypoglycemia with a high-dose requirement for 50% dextrose through central access, until diagnostic confirmation, intervention, and resection of a welldifferentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (G1 according to WHO classification) insulinoma in the tail of pancreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Insulinoma/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Glucose/therapeutic use , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Insulinoma/surgery , Insulinoma/complications
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