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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 207-212, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287823

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a common disorder that affects the nervous systems of 1% of worldwide population. In epilepsy, one-third of patients are unresponsive to current drug therapies and develop drug-resistant epilepsy. Alterations in ghrelin, nesfatin-1, and irisin levels with epilepsy were reported in previous studies. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is among the most common neuropeptides in the hippocampus, which is the focus of the seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. However, there is also lack of evidence of whether these four neuropeptide levels are altered with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy or not. The aim herein was the evaluation of the serum levels of nesfatin-1, ghrelin, irisin, and Vasoactive intestinal peptide in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without drug resistance, and to compare them to healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study group included 58 temporal lobe epilepsy patients (24 with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and 34 with temporal lobe epilepsy who were not drug-resistant) and 28 healthy subjects. Nesfatin-1, ghrelin, irisin, and Vasoactive intestinal peptide serum levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The serum ghrelin levels of patients with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy were seen to have significantly decreased when compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). Serum nesfatin-1, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and irisin levels were seen to have decreased in the drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy group when compared to those of the control and temporal lobe epilepsy groups; however, the difference was non-significant (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results herein suggested that ghrelin might contribute to the pathophysiology of drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. However, further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Fibronectins , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Ghrelin , Nucleobindins , Drug Resistance , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1163-1172, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921858

ABSTRACT

Entropy model is widely used in epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, but there are few reports on how to objectively select the parameters to compute the entropy model in the analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Therefore, an optimization algorithm to confirm the parameters in multi-scale entropy (MSE) model was proposed, and the location of epileptogenic hemisphere was taken as an example to test the optimization effect by supervised machine learning. The rfMRI data of 20 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with hippocampal sclerosis, positive on structural magnetic resonance imaging, were divided into left and right groups. Then, the parameters in MSE model were optimized by the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and area under ROC curve (AUC) values in sensitivity analysis, and the entropy value of the brain regions with statistically significant difference between the groups were taken as sensitive features to epileptogenic hemisphere lateral. The optimized entropy values of these bio-marker brain areas were considered as feature vectors input into the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, combining optimized MSE model with SVM could accurately distinguish epileptogenic hemisphere in TLE at an average accuracy rate of 95%, which was higher than the current level. The results show that the MSE model parameter optimization algorithm can accurately extract the functional imaging markers sensitive to the epileptogenic hemisphere, and achieve the purpose of objectively selecting the parameters for MSE in rfMRI, which provides the basis for the application of entropy in advanced technology detection.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Entropy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1845-1854, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seizure-suppressing effects but the molecular mechanisms underlying its therapeutic action remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically elucidate the mechanisms underlying DBS-induced seizure suppression at a molecular level.@*METHODS@#We established a macaque model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), and continuous high-frequency hippocampus DBS (hip-DBS) was applied for 3 months. The effects of hip-DBS on hippocampus gene expression were examined using high-throughput microarray analysis followed by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, the microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that chronic hip-DBS modulated the hippocampal gene expression. We identified 4119 differentially expressed genes and assigned these genes to 16 model profiles. Series test of cluster analysis showed that profiles 5, 3, and 2 were the predominant expression profiles. Moreover, profile 5 was mainly involved in focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway. Nine dysregulated genes (Arhgap5, Col1a2, Itgb1, Pik3r1, Lama4, Fn1, Col3a1, Itga9, and Shc4) and three genes (Col1a2, Itgb1, and Flna) in these two pathways were further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively, which showed a concordance.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that hip-DBS could markedly reverse mTLE-induced abnormal gene expression. Findings from this study establish the basis for further investigation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms of DBS for mTLE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deep Brain Stimulation , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/therapy , Hippocampus , Humans , Macaca , Seizures
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 326-333, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method of controlling epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis and progression of epilepsy, but the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS in the chronic stage of epilepsy and the potential underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS, as well as potential signaling pathways by a kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic model.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to control, epilepsy (EP), EP-sham-DBS, and EP-DBS groups. KA was injected to establish the chronic epileptic model. The left ATN was implanted with a DBS lead and stimulated for 8 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate MFS and levels of potential molecular mediators in the hippocampus. One-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey post hoc correction, was used to analyze the statistical significance of differences among multiple groups.@*RESULTS@#ATN-DBS is found to significantly reduce seizure frequency in the chronic stage of epilepsy. The number of ectopic granule cells was reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P < 0.0001). Levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in the hippocampus, together with Akt phosphorylation, were noticeably reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0001, respectively). ATN-DBS also significantly reduced MFS scores in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA3 sub-regions (all P < 0.0001).@*CONCLUSION@#ATN-DBS is shown to down-regulate the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation and to reduce the number of ectopic granule cells, which may be associated with the reduced MFS in chronic epilepsy. The study provides further insights into the mechanism by which ATN-DBS reduces epileptic seizures.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Anterior Thalamic Nuclei , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Deep Brain Stimulation , Epilepsy/therapy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/therapy , Hippocampus , Humans , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To comprehensively analyze the characteristics of cognitive impairment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to explore the effects of different lateral patients' cognitive impairment and different clinical factors on cognitive impairment of TLE.@*METHODS@#A total of 84 patients, who met the diagnostic criteria for TLE in the Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, were collected as a patient group, with 36 cases of left TLE and 48 cases of right TLE. A total of 79 healthy volunteers with matching gender, age and education level were selected as a control group. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the scores of Arithmetic Test, Information Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Block Design Test (BDT), Hayling Test and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) of the revised Chinese Adult Wechsler Intelligence scale were retrospectively analyzed in the 2 groups.Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the clinical factors and the cognitive impairment score.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the TLE patient group had low scores in all neuropsychological tests, with significant difference (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#There are multiple cognitive domain dysfunctions in TLE, including language, short-term memory, long-term memory, attention, working memory, executive function and visual space function. Left TLE has greater impairment of executive function and right TLE has greater damage in working memory. Long pathography of disease, hippocampal sclerosis and a history of febrile convulsions may lead to more severe cognitive impairment. Earlier identification and earlier intervention are needed to improve prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/complications , Executive Function , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies
6.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 31-34, out.-dez. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140812

ABSTRACT

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most commom form of focal epilepsy in adults. Its clinical features include focal seizure, dysmnestic symptoms ­ such as déjà vu or jamais vu ­ and autonomic or psychic aura. We reported two cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with similar clinical features, but with entirely different etiologies. Mesial temporal sclerosis contributes up to 70% of all mesial temporal lobe epilepsy cases and MRI usually shows reduced hippocampal volume and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Incomplete hippocampal inversion has uncertain relation with epilepsy and is characterized by an atypical verticalized and medially positioned anatomical pattern of the hippocampus and also a deep collateral sulcus.


A epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial é a forma mais comum de epilepsia focal em adultos. Suas características clínicas incluem crises focais, sintomas dismnésicos - como déjà vu ou jamais vu - e aura autonômica ou psíquica. Relatamos dois casos de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial com manifestações clínicas semelhantes, mas com etiologias completamente diferentes. A esclerose mesial temporal contribui com até 70% de todos os casos de epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial e, geralmente, na ressonância magnética, apresenta atrofia do hipocampo e hipersinal na imagem ponderada em T2. A rotação incompleta do hipocampo possui uma relação incerta com a epilepsia e é caracterizada por alteração da estrutura interna do hipocampo, com um sulco colateral verticalizado e profundo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/diagnosis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Seizures , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Hippocampus/abnormalities , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9000, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132554

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a caregiver intensive education program (CIEP) on anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) who underwent cortico-amygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Ninety patients with drug-resistant TLE-MTS who underwent CAH and their caregivers were recruited and randomly allocated to the CIEP group or control group as 1:1 ratio. Caregivers received the CIEP program or routine guidance/education (control group). Anxiety/depression and QOL in patients at month (M)0, M1, M3, and M6 were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scale and the QOL in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31), respectively. Treatment efficacy at M6 was assessed by Engel classification. The HADS-anxiety score at M3 (P=0.049) and M6 (P=0.028), HADS-anxiety score change (M6-M0) (P=0.001), percentage of anxiety patients at M6 (P=0.025), and anxiety severity at M6 (P=0.011) were all decreased in the CIEP group compared with the control group. The HADS-depression score at M6 (P=0.033) and HADS-depression score change (M6-M0) (P=0.022) were reduced, while percentage of depression patients at M6 (P=0.099) and depression severity at M6 (P=0.553) showed no difference in the CIEP group compared with the control group. The QOLIE-31 score at M6 (P=0.043) and QOLIE-31 score change (M6-M0) (P=0.010) were both elevated in the CIEP group compared with the control group. In conclusion, CIEP for caregivers contributed to the recovery of anxiety and depression as well as the improvement of QOL in patients with drug-resistant TLE-MTS who underwent CAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Caregivers/education , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Anxiety , Sclerosis , Depression
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787136

ABSTRACT

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Calcineurin , Calcium , Cell Death , Diazepam , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Neuropil , Oxidative Stress , Pilocarpine , RNA, Messenger , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Up-Regulation , Viola
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 68-72, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) originating from different seizure onset zones had distinct electrophysiological characteristics and surgical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the origin and prognosis of TLE, and the stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) features.@*METHODS@#Thirty patients with TLE, who underwent surgical treatment in our functional neurosurgery department from January 2016 to December 2017, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy after an invasive pre-operative evaluation with SEEG. Depending on the epileptic focus location, patients were divided into those with medial temporal lobe seizures (MTLS) and those with lateral temporal lobe seizures (LTLS). The Engel classification was used to evaluate operation effectiveness, and the Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to detect seizure-free duration.@*RESULTS@#The mean follow-up time was 25.7 ± 4.8 months. Effectiveness was 63.3% for Engel I (n = 19), 13.3% for Engel II, 3.3% for Engel III, and 20.0% for Engel IV. According to the SEEG, 60.0% (n = 18) had MTLS, and 40.0% (n = 12) had LTLS. Compared with the MTLS group, the operation age of those with LTLS was significantly greater (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 29.9 ± 12.5 years, t = -0.840, P = 0.009) with longer epilepsy duration (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 17.9 ± 12.1 years, t = -1.801, P = 0.038). Patients with MTLS had a longer time interval between ictal onset to seizure (67.3 ± 59.1 s vs. 29.3 ± 24.4 s, t = 2.017, P = 0.008). The most common SEEG ictal pattern was a sharp/spike-wave rhythm in the MTLS group (55.6%) and low-voltage fast activity in the LTLS group (58.3%). Compared with the LTLS group, patients with MTLS had a more favorable prognosis (41.7% vs. 77.8%, P = 0.049). Post-operative recurrence was more likely to occur within three months after the operation for both groups, and there appeared to be a stable long-term outcome.@*CONCLUSION@#Patients with MTLS, who accounted for three-fifths of patients with TLE, showed a more favorable surgical outcome.


Subject(s)
Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Humans , Stereotaxic Techniques , Treatment Outcome
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9175, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089352

ABSTRACT

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the predominant mediators of glutamate-induced excitatory neurotransmission. It is widely accepted that AMPA receptors are critical for the generation and spread of epileptic seizure activity. Dysfunction of AMPA receptors as a causal factor in patients with intractable epilepsy results in neurotransmission failure. Brain-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (SAD-B), a serine-threonine kinase specifically expressed in the brain, has been shown to regulate AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission through a presynaptic mechanism. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, the overexpression of SAD-B significantly increases the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Here, we showed that SAD-B downregulation exerted antiepileptic activity by regulating AMPA receptors in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic model. We first used immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analysis to demonstrate that SAD-B expression was increased in the epileptic rat brain. Subsequently, to explore the function of SAD-B in epilepsy, we used siRNA to knock down SAD-B protein and observed behavior after PTZ-induced seizures. We found that SAD-B downregulation attenuated seizure severity and susceptibility in the PTZ-induced epileptic model. Furthermore, we showed that the antiepileptic effect of SAD-B downregulation on PTZ-induced seizure was abolished by CNQX (an AMPA receptor inhibitor), suggesting that SAD-B modulated epileptic seizure by regulating AMPA receptors in the brain. Taken together, these findings suggest that SAD-B may be a potential and novel therapeutic target to limit epileptic seizures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/metabolism , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Pentylenetetrazole , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/chemically induced
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765344

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy surgery that eliminates the epileptogenic focus or disconnects the epileptic network has the potential to significantly improve seizure control in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has been an established option for epilepsy surgery since the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the use of MRgLITT in neurosurgery in 2007. MRgLITT is an ablative stereotactic procedure utilizing heat that is converted from laser energy, and the temperature of the tissue is monitored in real-time by MR thermography. Real-time quantitative thermal monitoring enables titration of laser energy for cellular injury, and it also estimates the extent of tissue damage. MRgLITT is applicable for lesion ablation in cases that the epileptogenic foci are localized and/or deep-seated such as in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma. Seizure-free outcomes after MRgLITT are comparable to those of open surgery in well-selected patients such as those with mesial temporal sclerosis. Particularly in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma. In addition, MRgLITT can also be applied to ablate multiple discrete lesions of focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex without the need for multiple craniotomies, as well as disconnection surgery such as corpus callosotomy. Careful planning of the target, the optimal trajectory of the laser probe, and the appropriate parameters for energy delivery are paramount to improve the seizure outcome and to reduce the complication caused by the thermal damage to the surrounding critical structures.


Subject(s)
Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Craniotomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hamartoma , Hot Temperature , Humans , Laser Therapy , Malformations of Cortical Development , Neurosurgery , Sclerosis , Seizures , Thermography , Tuberous Sclerosis , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788772

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy surgery that eliminates the epileptogenic focus or disconnects the epileptic network has the potential to significantly improve seizure control in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has been an established option for epilepsy surgery since the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the use of MRgLITT in neurosurgery in 2007. MRgLITT is an ablative stereotactic procedure utilizing heat that is converted from laser energy, and the temperature of the tissue is monitored in real-time by MR thermography. Real-time quantitative thermal monitoring enables titration of laser energy for cellular injury, and it also estimates the extent of tissue damage. MRgLITT is applicable for lesion ablation in cases that the epileptogenic foci are localized and/or deep-seated such as in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma. Seizure-free outcomes after MRgLITT are comparable to those of open surgery in well-selected patients such as those with mesial temporal sclerosis. Particularly in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma. In addition, MRgLITT can also be applied to ablate multiple discrete lesions of focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex without the need for multiple craniotomies, as well as disconnection surgery such as corpus callosotomy. Careful planning of the target, the optimal trajectory of the laser probe, and the appropriate parameters for energy delivery are paramount to improve the seizure outcome and to reduce the complication caused by the thermal damage to the surrounding critical structures.


Subject(s)
Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Craniotomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hamartoma , Hot Temperature , Humans , Laser Therapy , Malformations of Cortical Development , Neurosurgery , Sclerosis , Seizures , Thermography , Tuberous Sclerosis , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774173

ABSTRACT

Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is widely used to record the electrical activity of patients' brain in clinical. The SEEG-based epileptogenic network can better describe the origin and the spreading of seizures, which makes it an important measure to localize epileptogenic zone (EZ). SEEG data from six patients with refractory epilepsy are used in this study. Five of them are with temporal lobe epilepsy, and the other is with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. The node outflow (out-degree) and inflow (in-degree) of information are calculated in each node of epileptic network, and the overlay between selected nodes and resected nodes is analyzed. In this study, SEEG data is transformed to bipolar montage, and then the epileptic network is established by using independent effective coherence (iCoh) method. The SEEG segments at onset, middle and termination of seizures in Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rhythms are used respectively. Finally, the K-means clustering algorithm is applied on the node values of out-degree and in-degree respectively. The nodes in the cluster with high value are compared with the resected regions. The final results show that the accuracy of selected nodes in resected region in the Delta, Alpha and Beta rhythm are 0.90, 0.88 and 0.89 based on out-degree values in temporal lobe epilepsy patients respectively, while the in-degree values cannot differentiate them. In contrast, the out-degree values are higher outside the temporal lobe in the patient with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Based on the out-degree feature in low-frequency epileptic network, this study provides a potential quantitative measure for identifying patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in clinical.


Subject(s)
Brain Waves , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Diagnosis , Humans
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring focused on the transcranial motor-evoked potential (MEP) in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: We compared postoperative neurological deficits in patients who underwent TLE surgery with or without transcranial MEPs combined with somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring between January 1995 and June 2018. Transcranial motor stimulation was performed using subdermal electrodes, and MEP responses were recorded in the four extremity muscles. A decrease of more than 50% in the MEP or the SSEP amplitudes compared with baseline was used as a warning criterion. RESULTS: In the TLE surgery group without MEP monitoring, postoperative permanent motor deficits newly developed in 7 of 613 patients. In contrast, no permanent motor deficit occurred in 279 patients who received transcranial MEP and SSEP monitoring. Ten patients who exhibited decreases of more than 50% in the MEP amplitude recovered completely, although two cases showed transient motor deficits that recovered within 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative transcranial MEP monitoring during TLE surgery allowed the prompt detection and appropriate correction of injuries to the motor nervous system or ischemic stroke. Intraoperative transcranial MEP monitoring is a reliable modality for minimizing motor deficits in TLE surgery.


Subject(s)
Electrodes , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Extremities , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Muscles , Nervous System , Stroke , Temporal Lobe
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761788

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, are responsible for lymphangiogenesis in both embryos and adults. In epilepsy, the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated in the human brains affected with temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF receptors after acute seizures could suppress the generation of spontaneous recurrent seizures, suggesting a critical role of VEGF-related signaling in epilepsy. Therefore, in the present study, the spatiotemporal expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was investigated in C57BL/6N mice using immunohistochemistry. At 1 day after SE, hippocampal astrocytes and microglia were activated. Pyramidal neuronal death was observed at 4 days after SE. In the subpyramidal zone, VEGF-C expression gradually increased and peaked at 7 days after SE, while VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated at 4 days after SE and began to decrease at 7 days after SE. Most VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-expressing cells were pyramidal neurons, but VEGF-C was also observed in some astrocytes in sham-manipulated animals. However, at 4 days and 7 days after SE, both VEGFR-3 and VEGF-C immunoreactivities were observed mainly in astrocytes and in some microglia of the stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, respectively. These data indicate that VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 can be upregulated in hippocampal astrocytes and microglia after pilocarpine-induced SE, providing basic information about VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 expression patterns following acute seizures.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Astrocytes , Brain , Embryonic Structures , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphangiogenesis , Mice , Microglia , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 783-790, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis is one of the most common risk factors for epilepsy but its association with drug-resistant epilepsy remains uncertain. Conjectures of an association with drug-resistant epilepsy have been fueled by reports of an association between calcific neurocysticercosis lesions (CNL) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from specialized epilepsy centers in Taenia solium-endemic regions. The debate arising from these reports is whether the association is causal. Evidence for the association is not high quality but sufficiently persuasive to merit further investigation with longitudinal imaging studies in population-based samples from geographically-diverse regions. The other controversial point is the choice of a surgical approach for drug-resistant epilepsy associated with CNL-HS. Three approaches have been described: standard anteromesial temporal lobectomy, lesionectomy involving a CNL alone and lesionectomy with anteromesial temporal lobectomy (for dual pathology); reports of the latter two approaches are limited. Presurgical evaluation should consider possibilities of delineating the epileptogenic zone/s in accordance with all three approaches.


RESUMO A neurocisticercose é um dos mais comuns fatores de risco para a epilepsia, mas sua associação com a epilepsia resistente a medicamentos (DRE) permanece incerta. Conjecturas de uma associação com a DRE têm sido alimentadas por relatos de uma associação entre lesões de neurocisticercose calcária (CNL) e esclerose hipocampal (HS) de centros especializados em epilepsia em regiões endêmicas de Taenia solium. O debate que surge desses relatórios é se a associação é causal. Se bem as evidências para a associação não são de alta qualidade, são suficientemente persuasivas para merecer mais investigação com estudos longitudinais de imagens em amostras de base populacional de regiões geograficamente diversas. O outro ponto controverso é a escolha da abordagem cirúrgica para a DRE associada à CNL-HS. Três abordagens têm sido descritas: lobectomia temporal ântero-mesial padrão, lesionectomia envolvendo apenas CNL e lesionectomia com lobectomia temporal ântero-mesial (para patologia dupla); os relatórios das duas últimas abordagens são limitados. A avaliação pré-cirúrgica deve considerar as possibilidades de delinear a (s) zona (s) epileptogênica (s) de acordo com as três abordagens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sclerosis/etiology , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Epilepsy/etiology , Hippocampus/pathology , Risk Factors , Taenia solium , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/etiology , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/complications , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/etiology
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(9): 575-581, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973950

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sleepiness and cognitive impairment are common symptoms observed in patients with epilepsy. We investigate whether self-reported sleepiness is associated with cognitive performance in patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Seventy-one consecutive patients with MTLE-HS were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) before neuropsychological evaluation. Their mean SSS scores were compared with controls. Each cognitive test was compared between patients with (SSS ≥ 3) or without sleepiness (SSS < 3). Imbalances were controlled by regression analysis. Patients reported a significantly higher degree of sleepiness than controls (p < 0.0001). After multiple linear regression analysis, only one test (RAVLT total) remained associated with self-reported sleepiness. Conclusion: Self-reported sleepiness was significantly higher in MTLE-HS patients than controls, but did not affect their cognitive performance. If confirmed in other populations, our results may have implications for decision making about sleepiness screening in neuropsychological settings.


RESUMO A sonolência e o comprometimento cognitivo são queixas comuns na epilepsia. Investigamos se a sonolência relatada pelo paciente está associada ao desempenho cognitivo na epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial refratária com esclerose do hipocampo (ELTM-EH). 71 pacientes com ELTM-EH foram avaliados pela Escala de Sonolência de Stanford (ESS) antes da avaliação neuropsicológica. A média na ESS foi comparada com a de controles. Cada teste foi comparado entre os pacientes com sonolência (ESS ≥ 3) ou sem sonolência (ESS <3). Diferenças foram controladas por regressão logística múltipla. Os pacientes relataram uma sonolência maior do que os controles (p <0,0001). Após a regressão, a sonolência relatada pelos pacientes mostrou-se associada a apenas um teste (RAVLT total). Os pacientes com ELTM-EH referem mais sonolência do que os controles, mas esta não foi associada com a cognição. Se confirmado em outras populações, nossos resultados implicarão na tomada de decisão sobre o impacto da sonolência no contexto neuropsicológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cognition/physiology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/psychology , Self Report , Sleepiness , Neuropsychological Tests , Sclerosis/complications , Case-Control Studies , Demography , Educational Status , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/physiopathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(supl.2): 18-24, set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955009

ABSTRACT

Las crisis febriles están asociadas a fiebre en niños entre 6 y 60 meses de edad, sin infección del sistema nervioso central u otras causas de crisis sintomáticas agudas y sin historia de crisis afebriles previas. Ocurren en aproximadamente el 2-5% de los niños. Se debe considerar la posibilidad de una infección del sistema nervioso, a pesar de que la frecuencia es extremadamente baja cuando el examen físico posterior a la crisis no es orientador. Mientras que el manejo clínico de los niños con crisis febriles simples está bien definido, considerándolas como eventos benignos auto-limitados, la conducta en los niños con crisis febriles complejas es controvertida. Se asocian con un aumento relativamente pequeño del riesgo de epilepsia, el cual no puede ser prevenido mediante ninguna forma de tratamiento. El rol del electroencefalograma también es controvertido. Analizamos los datos de varios estudios y concluimos que las descargas epileptiformes tienen valores predictivos positivos bajos e implican pequeñas variaciones entre la probabilidad pre y post-prueba para el desarrollo de epilepsia posterior. Se ha propuesto realizar resonancias magnéticas encefálicas para detectar cambios a nivel hipocampal previos, agudos o posteriores a crisis focales o estatus febriles que pudieran relacionarse con el riesgo de esclerosis mesial temporal y de epilepsia temporal. La relación etiológica entre estas entidades continúa siendo un tema controvertido. En cualquier caso, los estudios alterados no van a cambiar el manejo clínico de las crisis febriles y pueden contribuir al sobre-diagnóstico.


A febrile seizure occurs in association with fever in a child aged 6 to 60 months, without central nervous system infection or other known cause of acute seizures in a child without a prior history of afebrile seizures. Febrile seizures occur in about 2-5% of children. Central nervous system infections should be considered in patients with febrile seizures, even though the frequency of this possibility is low, especially when patients do not return to baseline. Simple febrile seizures are considered benign events and there are clear guidelines about evaluation and management, but the evaluation of complex febrile seizures is controversial. They are associated with a small increased risk of epilepsy which cannot be prevented. The role of electroencephalography is controversial. We analyzed the data of many studies and concluded that epileptiform discharges have poor positive predictive value. Neuroimaging is recommended to look for acute or pre-existing hippocampal abnormalities following febrile status or focal febrile seizures that could be associated to the risk of developing mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. The relationship between these disorders and febrile seizures remains a controversial issue. An abnormal electroencephalography or magnetic resonance imaging studies will not change the clinical management and could contribute to overdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Seizures, Febrile/diagnosis , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Risk Factors , Seizures, Febrile/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/diagnosis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/etiology
19.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 39(1): 281-292, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910840

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: O tratamento inicial de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal é feito com drogas antiepilépticas, porém grande parte destes apresenta epilepsia refratária aos medicamentos e, portanto, devem ser avaliados para cirurgia de ressecção. Para tanto, este artigo fornece informações para avaliação cirúrgica e uma análise do tratamento cirúrgico nestes casos refratários da doença. Métodos: As buscas foram realizadas na base de dados MEDLINE. A estratégia de busca foi desenvolvida utilizando-se os seguintes termos de pesquisa: "temporal lobe epilepsy" AND "epilepsy surgery". Cada termo foi revisado individualmente e sinônimos de cada termo foram combinados. Os critérios de elegibilidade foram estudos realizados em humanos e com texto disponível, publicados em português ou inglês, atualizado. Resultados: De um total de 1330 artigos que foram encontrados na base de dados, 6 artigos foram incluídos nessa revisão, além das referências de livros-texto do tema. Conclusões: Surgical evaluation requires the identification of the early focus of seizures, and if that focus is in an area of the brain that can be removed with a low risk of new neurological deficits. The surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial, allowing potentially curative ducts in patients who previously would be resistant to pharmacological treatment.


Aims: The initial treatment of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is made with antiepileptic drugs, but a large part of these presents refractory to drugs and therefore should be evaluated for resection surgery. For both, this article provides information for surgical evaluation and an analysis of surgical treatment in these cases of refractory disease. Methods: The searches were conducted on MEDLINE database. The search strategy was developed using the following search terms: "temporal lobe epilepsy" AND "epilepsy surgery". Each term has been reviewed individually and each term synonyms were combined. The eligibility criteria were studies in humans and with text available, published in Portuguese or English, updated. Results: From 1330 articles found in the database, 6 articles were included in this review, in addition to the references to textbooks. Conclusions: Surgical evaluation requires the identification of the early focus of seizures, and if that focus is in an area of the brain that can be removed with a low risk of new neurological deficits. The surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial, allowing potentially curative ducts in patients who previously would have been by the failure of chronic drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 226-237, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714905

ABSTRACT

An abnormal reorganization of the dentate gyrus and neurotoxic events are important phenotypes in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effects of morin, a bioflavonoid constituent of many herbs and fruits, on epileptic seizures have not yet been elucidated, though its beneficial effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, are well-described in various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with morin hydrate (MH) can reduce the susceptibility to seizures, granule cell dispersion (GCD), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, and the increases in the levels of apoptotic molecules and inflammatory cytokines in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure mouse model. Our results showed that oral administration of MH could reduce susceptibility to seizures and lead to the inhibition of GCD and mTORC1 activity in the KA-treated hippocampus. Moreover, treatment with MH significantly reduced the increased levels of apoptotic signaling molecules and pro-inflammatory mediators in the KA-treated hippocampus compared with control mice, suggesting a neuroprotective role. Therefore, these results suggest that morin has a therapeutic potential against epilepsy through its abilities to inhibit GCD and neurotoxic events in the in vivo hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cytokines , Dentate Gyrus , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fruit , Hippocampus , Humans , Kainic Acid , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Phenotype , Seizures , Sirolimus
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