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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 48-55, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy has neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Drugs that target epilepsy may also be useful for its neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the seizures in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or saline 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. Behavioral seizures were assessed by the Racine's scale. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and brain tissue were determined by ELISA. Results: Serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, alleviated PTZ-induced seizures by prolonging onset times of myoclonic-jerk and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The anti-seizure effect of fluoxetine was greater than that of serotonin. Likewise, serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, reduced PTZ-induced increases in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in both serum and brain tissue. None of the administered drugs including PTZ affected TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that endogenous and exogenous serotonin exhibits anticonvulsant effects by suppressing the neuroinflammation. It seems that 5-HT1B/D receptors do not mediate anticonvulsant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of serotonin.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A epilepsia apresenta comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas como depressão, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade. Os medicamentos que visam o tratamento da epilepsia podem ser úteis para a epilepsia e suas comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da modulação serotonérgica em citocinas pró-inflamatórias e as convulsões no modelo de convulsão induzida por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram injetados intraperitonealmente com serotonina, inibidor seletivo da recaptação da serotonina fluoxetina, sumatriptano agonista do receptor 5-HT1B / D ou solução salina 30 min antes do tratamento com PTZ. As crises comportamentais foram avaliadas pela escala de Racine. As concentrações de IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α no soro e tecido cerebral foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: A serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, aliviaram as convulsões induzidas por PTZ ao prolongar os tempos de início das convulsões mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas generalizadas. O efeito anticonvulsivo da fluoxetina foi maior do que o da serotonina. Da mesma forma, a serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, reduziram os aumentos induzidos por PTZ nos níveis de IL-1β e IL-6 no soro e no tecido cerebral. Nenhum dos medicamentos administrados, incluindo PTZ, alterou as concentrações de TNF-α. Conclusões: Nossos achados sugerem que a serotonina endógena e exógena exibe efeitos anticonvulsivantes por suprimir a neuroinflamação. Aparentemente, os receptores 5-HT1B / D não medeiam os efeitos anticonvulsivantes e anti-neuroinflamatórios da serotonina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Serotonin/adverse effects , Fluoxetine/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Sumatriptan/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 23-30, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359223

ABSTRACT

There is a close association between sleep and epilepsy, and this literature review aims to raise issues regarding sleep time control, circadian and ultradian rhythms, epilepsy and its interaction with sleep and circadian rhythm, epilepsy and sleep disorders, and finally epilepsy management and medications. It is mentioned that sleep may provide a hypersynchronous state, as occurs in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), and hyperexcitability, in cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), allowing more frequent interictal epileptiform abnormalities and seizures. In some epilepsy syndromes, seizures occur broadly / or entirely during sleep or on awakening, mainly in childhood, and maybe exacerbated in adults during the sleep or sleep-deprived, and there are the so-called Sleep-related epilepsies that are divided as sleep-associated, sleep-accentuated and arousal/awakening related. Sleep quality may be reduced in patients with epilepsy also due to nocturnal seizures or concomitant sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are common in patients with epilepsy and treatment of them mainly sleep-disordered breathing may improve seizure control. Besides, some parasomnias may mimic seizures, and also they can adversely affect the quality and quantity of sleep whereas antiepileptic therapy can have a negative or positive effect on sleep. Nocturnal epileptic seizures may be challenging to discern from parasomnias, in particular NREM parasomnias such as night terrors, sleepwalking and confusional arousals.


Há uma estreita associação entre sono e epilepsia, e esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo levantar questões relacionadas ao controle do tempo do sono, ritmos circadianos e ultradianos, epilepsia e sua interação com sono e ritmo circadiano, epilepsia e transtornos do sono e, finalmente, o tratamento e medicamentos para epilepsia. Menciona-se que o sono pode proporcionar um estado hipersincrônico, como ocorre no sono "non-rapid eye movement" (NREM), e hiperexcitabilidade, no "cyclic alternating pattern" (CAP), permitindo anormalidades epileptiformes interictais e crises epilépticas mais frequentes. Em algumas síndromes epilépticas, as crises ocorrem ampla / ou inteiramente durante o sono ou despertar, principalmente na infância, e podem ser exacerbadas em adultos durante o sono ou privação de sono, e as chamadas epilepsias relacionadas ao sono se dividem em sono associadas, sono acentuadas e relacionadas com o despertar. A qualidade do sono pode ser reduzida em pacientes com epilepsia também devido a crises epilépticas noturnas ou transtornos do sono concomitantes. Esses são comuns em pacientes com epilepsia e o seu tratamento, principalmente dos transtornos respiratórios do sono, pode melhorar o controle das crises epilépticas. Além disso, algumas parassonias podem mimetizar crises epilépticas, e também elas podem afetar adversamente a qualidade e a quantidade do sono, enquanto a terapia antiepiléptica pode ter um efeito negativo ou positivo sobre o sono. Pode ser difícil discernir as crises epilépticas noturnas das parassonias, em particular das parassonias NREM, como terrores noturnos, crises de sonambulismo e despertares confusionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Circadian Rhythm , Epilepsy/drug therapy
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1084-1089, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Although epilepsy is primarily known as a cortical disorder, there is growing body of research demonstrating white matter alterations in patients with epilepsy. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and its association with seizure characteristics in patients with epilepsy. Methods: The prevalence of WMH in 94 patients with epilepsy and 41 healthy controls were compared. Within the patient sample, the relationship between the presence of WMH and type of epilepsy, frequency of seizures, duration of disease and the number of antiepileptic medications were investigated. Results: The mean age and sex were not different between patients and healthy controls (p>0.2). WMH was present in 27.7% of patients and in 14.6% of healthy controls. Diagnosis of epilepsy was independently associated with the presence of WMH (ß=3.09, 95%CI 1.06-9.0, p=0.039). Patients with focal epilepsy had higher prevalence of WMH (35.5%) than patients with generalized epilepsy (14.7%). The presence of WMH was associated with older age but not with seizure characteristics. Conclusions: WMH is more common in patients with focal epilepsy than healthy controls. The presence of WMH is associated with older age, but not with seizure characteristics.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Embora a epilepsia seja principalmente conhecida como um distúrbio cortical, há um crescente corpo de pesquisas que demonstra alterações na substância branca em pacientes com epilepsia. Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de hiperintensidades da substância branca (WMH) e sua associação com características das crises em pacientes com epilepsia. Métodos: A prevalência de WMH em 94 pacientes com epilepsia e 41 controles saudáveis ​​foi comparada. Na amostra de pacientes, foi investigada a relação entre a presença de WMH e o tipo de epilepsia, a frequência das crises, a duração da doença e o número de medicamentos antiepilépticos. Resultados: A média de idade e o sexo não diferiram entre pacientes e controles saudáveis ​​(p>0,2). WMH estava presente em 27,7% dos pacientes, enquanto em 14,6% dos controles saudáveis. O diagnóstico de epilepsia foi independentemente associado à presença de WMH (ß=3,09, IC95% 1,06-9,0, p=0,039). Pacientes com epilepsia focal apresentaram maior prevalência de WMH (35,5%) do que pacientes com epilepsia generalizada (14,7%). A presença de WMH foi associada à idade avançada, mas não a características das crises. Conclusões: Pacientes com epilepsia focal têm WMH mais comum do que controles saudáveis. A presença de WMH está associada à idade avançada, mas não a características das crises epilépticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 521-526, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy is highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders and a significant amount of the morbidity related to epilepsy is in fact a result of psychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the frequency of different psychiatric comorbidities in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods: We present preliminary observational data from a series of patients (n=82) examined in the psychiatric branch of a tertiary epilepsy center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients were classified as presenting autism spectrum disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, disruptive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual development disorder, psychotic episode, dissociative/conversive disorders or others. We determined the frequency of each disorder, along with demographic data, medications prescribed, electroencephalogram findings and additional medical examinations and consultations. Results: The most common comorbidities in our sample were autism spectrum disorders and ADHD. Antipsychotics and selective serotonin uptake inhibitors were the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications. Conclusions: Knowledge about the prevalence of such comorbidities may provide more targeted interventions in Psychiatry and Psychology services linked to epilepsy centers.


RESUMO Introdução: Epilepsia é altamente comórbida, com transtornos psiquiátricos, e uma parte significativa da morbidade da epilepsia se associa com os transtornos psiquiátricos comórbidos. Objetivo: Investigar a frequência de diferentes comorbidades psiquiátricas em crianças com epilepsia refratária. Métodos: Apresentamos dados observacionais preliminares de uma amostra de pacientes (n=82) avaliados no setor de Psiquiatria de um centro terciário de tratamento de epilepsia no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Pacientes foram classificados como apresentando transtorno do espectro autista, transtorno do humor, transtorno de ansiedade, transtornos disruptivos, transtorno do déficit de atenção de hiperatividade (TDAH), transtorno do desenvolvimento intelectual, episódio psicótico, transtornos dissociativos/conversivos e outros. Foram determinados frequência de cada transtorno, bem como dados demográficos, medicações prescritas e achados de eletroencefalograma. Resultados: As comorbidades mais comuns na nossa amostra foram transtornos do espectro autista e TDAH; antipsicóticos e inibidores seletivos da recaptura de serotonina (ISRS) foram as medicações psiquiátricas mais comumente prescritas. Conclusões: Conhecimento acerca da prevalência dessas comorbidades pode facilitar a instituição de intervenções mais precisas em serviços de Psiquiatria e Psicologia vinculados a centros de tratamento de epilepsia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 62-68, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287242

ABSTRACT

Resumen La elección de un método anticonceptivo considerado como altamente efectivo en mujeres epilépticas en edad fértil es importante, ya que requiere al momento de indicarlos tener en cuenta los criterios de elegibilidad y las posibles interacciones farmacológicas entre determinados tipos de fármacos anticonvulsivantes (principalmente las inductoras enzimáticas del sistema hepático P450 como: carbamacepina, fenitoína, fenobarbital, oxacarbamacepina, eslicarbazepina, rufinamida, lacosamida y topiramato en dosis altas) y ciertos métodos anticonceptivos (anticonceptivos orales combinados o solo con progesterona e implantes de progesterona subdérmicos) pudiendo acelerar el metabolismo de estas últimas con el consiguiente riesgo de fracaso o viceversa, reduciendo la concentración plasmática (como por ejemplo; lamotrigina) predisponiendo a crisis epilépticas, riesgo de embarazos no deseados, abortos, teratogenicidad por valproato, complicaciones materno fetal y dificultad en el manejo de la actividad epiléptica durante la gestación. En caso de asociarse ambas medicaciones, se debe considerar el uso combinado con un método de barrera u optar por la utilización de inyección de depósito de acetato de medroxiprogesterona o dispositivo intrauterino como anticoncepción. Está demostrado que el asesoramiento sobre planificación familiar en la primera consulta puede influenciar en la elección del método anticonceptivo y el inicio temprano de ácido fólico en caso de búsqueda de fertilidad. En conclusión, se debe analizar junto con las pacientes epilépticas las diferentes opciones terapéuticas con el fin de lograr y optimizar la mejor meta de cada uno.


Abstract The choice of a contraceptive method considered highly effective in epileptic women of childbearing age is important, since it requires taking into account the eligibility criteria and the possible pharmacological interactions between certain types of anti-seizure drugs (mainly enzyme inducers drugs of the hepatic system P450 such as: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, oxacarbamazepine, eslicarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and topiramate in high doses) and certain contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives combined or only with progesterone and subdermal progesterone implants), which may accelerate the metabolism of the latter with the consequent risk of failure or vice versa, reduction of plasma concentration (such as lamotrigine) predisposing to seizures, risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, teratogenicity due to valproato, maternalfetal complications and difficulty in the management of epileptic activity during pregnancy. In case of prescribing both medications, the combined use with a barrier method should be considered or the use of a depot injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate or intrauterine device as contraception should be considered. Family planning counseling at the first visit has been shown to influence the choice of the contraceptive method and the early initiation of folic acid in the search for fertility. In conclusion, the different therapeutic options should be analyzed together with the epileptic patients in order to achieve and optimize the best goal for each one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
6.
Femina ; 49(3): 173-176, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224083

ABSTRACT

A epilepsia, doença cerebral caracterizada pela predisposição à geração de crises epilépticas, representa a patologia neurológica grave mais frequente na gravidez. Quando não acompanhada corretamente, possui um acentuado nível de morbimortalidade materno-fetal, sendo especialmente relacionada a riscos de convulsão materna na gestação e malformações fetais. Este artigo discute o acompanhamento da gestante epiléptica, trazendo recomendações de cuidados no período pré-concepcional, manejo durante o pré-natal, condução do trabalho de parto, peculiaridades no puerpério e tratamento de crises convulsivas, quando necessário. Serão abordados tanto aspectos de tratamento farmacológico quanto de monitoramento e orientações gerais, com o objetivo de contribuir para um suporte mais abrangente e adequado a esse grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes sob o cuidado do médico ginecologista-obstetra e neurologista.(AU)


Epilepsy, which is a brain disease defined for a greater predisposition for epileptic crisis, represents the most frequent neurological pathology during pregnancy. Without proper monitoring it is related to high morbidity and mortality to both mother and baby, especially due to the risks of mother seizure during pregnancy and fetus malformation. This article discusses about health care giving and follow-up for the epileptic pregnant women, pointing recommendations for preconception care, prenatal management, labor conduct, peculiarities in puerperium and treatment of convulsive crisis when needed. There will be approached pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects, such as follow up exams and general orientations, having as a goal to contribute to an more abrangent and proper support of this more vulnerable group of patients under the care responsibility of obstetrician-gynecologist ad neurologist doctors.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Seizures/drug therapy , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Time-to-Pregnancy/drug effects , Lamotrigine/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 166-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344802

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica frecuente que afecta a cerca de 50.000 millones de personas en el mundo. En Chile, la prevalencia estimada es de 10.8 a 17 por 1.000 habitantes. La primera opción para su tratamiento son los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) los cuales logran un aceptable control de enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, tienen la potencialidad de desencadenar una serie de efectos adversos destacando entre ellos el desarrollo de hipocalcemia (HC) secundaria a hipovitaminosis D (HD), alteración que por lo general es leve y asintomática. Presentamos el caso de una mujer perimenopausica con antecedente de epilepsia en tratamiento con anticonvulsivante que desarrolla hipocalcemia severa. Además revisamos los mecanismos descritos a través de los cuales los FAE afectan el metabolismo de esta vitamina.


Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects about 50,000 million people in the world. The estimated prevalence is 10.8 to 17 per 1.000 inhabitants in Chile. The first option for its treatment are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which achieve an acceptable control of the disease in most cases, however, they have the potential to trigger a series of adverse effects (AE) highlighting among them the development of hypocalcemia (HC) secondary to hypovitaminosis D (HD), an alteration that is generally mild and asymptomatic. We present the case of a perimenopausal woman with a history of epilepsy under treatment with an anticonvulsant who develops severe hypocalcemia. We also review the mechanisms described through which AEDs affect the metabolism of this vitamin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/etiology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278588

ABSTRACT

Pediatric epilepsy comprises chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. Sodium valproate is one of the common antiseizure medications used for treatment. Glucuronide conjugation is the major metabolic pathway of sodium valproate, carried out by the enzyme uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) whose gene polymorphisms may alter the clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the association between UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism and clinical outcome in terms of efficacy and tolerability in pediatric epileptic patients on sodium valproate monotherapy. Pediatric epileptic patients (n=65) aged 2-18 years receiving sodium valproate monotherapy for the past one month were included. Genetic polymorphism patterns of UGT1A6 (T19G, A541G, A552C) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Clinical outcome was seizure control during the 6 months observation period. Tolerability was measured by estimating the hepatic, renal, and other lab parameters. Out of 65 patients, TT (40%), TG (57%), and GG (3%) patterns were observed in UGT1A6 (T19G) gene, AA (51%), AG (40%), and GG (9%) in (A541G) gene, and AA (43%), AC (43%), and CC (14%) in (A552C) gene. No statistical difference in clinical outcome was found for different UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism patterns. We concluded that different patterns of UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism were not associated with the clinical outcome of sodium valproate in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Sodium valproate was well-tolerated among pediatric patients with epilepsy and can be used as an effective antiseizure medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180740

ABSTRACT

Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Peptides , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Neurons
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e461, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144489

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms - DRESS, constituye una grave reacción adversa a medicamentos, principalmente a fármacos anticonvulsivantes. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica de un síndrome de DRESS en una paciente atendida en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". Caso Clínico: Paciente femenina de 27 años de edad con antecedentes patológicos personales de epilepsia. Tres meses luego de iniciada terapia con difenilhidantoína aparece fiebre, exantema maculopapular que progresa a eritrodermia exfoliativa, signos de daño hepático, adenopatías cervicales y eosinofilia. Se diagnosticó síndrome de DRESS secundaria al uso de anticonvulsivantes. Conclusiones: La evolución clínica resultó favorable, luego de la retirada del fármaco y la aplicación de esteroides por vía oral(AU)


Introduction: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms - DRESS, syndrome constitutes a serious adverse reaction to medications, mainly anticonvulsant drugs. Objective: To describe the clinical evolution of DRESS syndrome in a patient treated at the Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto". Case Report: 27-year-old female patient with a personal pathological history of epilepsy. Three months after initiation of diphenylhydantoin therapy, fever appeared maculopapular rash that progressed to exfoliative erythroderma, signs of liver damage, cervical adenopathies and eosinophilia. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed secondary to the use of anticonvulsants. Conclusions: The clinical evolution was favorable, after the withdrawal of the drug and the application of steroids orally(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Exanthema/chemically induced
11.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(2): 20-29, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102906

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the pandemic disease designated COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown to be able to cause severe illness in some patients. Recent studies have hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells and so reach the central nervous system1. Amid this context, we have about 50 million people with epilepsy taking antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and or other medications (eg.: steroids, Cannabidiol, etc.) that are at risk to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus. So, we did an extensive review in the literature searching for recent studies that had explored the effects of the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection and epilepsy. We did not find evidence of poor outcomes between epilepsy and COVID-19. Regarding ASDs, we have found that enzyme inducers and inhibitors can have significant interactions with drugs that have been used to treat COVID-19 such as antiretrovirals, antibiotics, and antimalarial drugs. In contrast, others have fewer or no interactions with them as such as benzodiazepines, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Topiramate, Perampanel, and so on. Besides that, the management of seizures in epileptic patients and status epilepticus should not be different from the usual protocol. However, the acknowledgment of these potential drug interactions could help in the right choice of ASDs, and also be aware of potential risk drug combinations and the importance in some cases of close monitoring of serum levels and adverse events.


Desde de Fevereiro de 2020, a doença pandêmica conhecida como COVID-19, causada pelo Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tem se mostrado capaz de acometer gravemente alguns pacientes. Estudos recentes levantaram hipóteses de que o SARSCoV-2 explora o receptor da enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 (ACE2) para entrar no interior das células e atingir o sistema nervoso central1 . Nesse contexto, temos cerca de 50 milhões de pessoas com epilepsia em uso de medicações antiepilépticas (DAEs) e ou outras medicações (como corticoesteroides, Canabidiol, etc.). Por isso, fizemos uma extensa revisão na literatura, buscando estudos recentes que exploraram os efeitos do papel da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e da epilepsia. Até o momento, não há evidências de que pessoas com epilepsia apresentam prognóstico ruim no que se refere ao COVID-19. No que se refere aos antiepilépticos, foi encontrado que indutores e inibidores enzimáticos são os que apresentam mais interação medicamentosa com drogas utilizadas no tratamento do COVID-19, tais como antirretrovirais, antibióticos, e drogas antimaláricas, enquanto outras apresentam pouca ou nenhuma interação com esses. Além disso, o manejo de crises epilépticas e estado de mal epiléptico não deve diferente do protocolo usual. No entanto, o reconhecimento das potenciais interações medicamentosas nesse contexto pode auxiliar na escolha correta do antiepiléptico, e alertar sobre os potenciais riscos de combinação entre drogas e a importância de em alguns casos monitorizar de perto os níveis séricos e eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Drug Interactions , Epilepsy/complications , COVID-19/complications , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 197-203, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La fenitoína es usada con mucha frecuencia en nuestro medio, por lo que se requiere hacer estudios de monitorización terapéutica, que contribuya a minimizar los efectos adversos y optimizar la terapia farmacológica. En ese contexto, nuestro objetivo ha sido determinar el índice nivel/dosis de la fenitoína en pacientes epilépticos voluntarios de Mérida. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y por reclutamiento consecutivo concurrente, conformado por 30 pacientes voluntarios con diagnóstico de epilepsia. Las muestras de suero se obtuvieron en niveles mínimos de pacientes que estaban en tratamiento con fenitoína durante 1 mes. Los niveles del fármaco se cuantificaron por el método de Inmunoensayo de enzima donante clonada en el equipo Indiko Thermo Scientific. RESULTADOS El índice nivel/dosis fue de 1,4 y 1,6, la concentración plasmática de 4,8mg/l y 8,0mg/l, la capacidad metabólica de 388,4 y 462,9mg/día, respectivamente en mujeres y hombres. Mientras que el nivel de la concentración plasmática en el estado estacionario fue de 6,5mg/l y 5,5mg/l, la dosis de carga máxima de 237,3mg y de 395,6mg, respectivamente en mujeres y hombres con epilepsia de la ciudad de Mérida. CONCLUSIONES Nuestros resultados sugieren que se debe individualizar la dosis en base al índice nivel/dosis de cada paciente, ya que no se puede extrapolar para todos los pacientes con epilepsia, debido a diversos factores como al fenotipo metabólico y al uso de fármacos inductores e inhibidores enzimáticos.


INTRODUCTION Phenytoin is used very frequently in our environment, so it is necessary to do studies of therapeutic monitoring, which helps to minimize adverse drug reaction and optimize pharmacological therapy. In this context, our objective was to determine the level/dose index of phenytoin in volunteer epileptic patients from Mérida. METHODS A descriptive, observational and consecutive concurrent recruitment study was carried out, consisting of 30 volunteer patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy. The serum samples were obtained in minimum levels from patients who were in treatment with phenytoin for 1 month. The levels of the drug were quantified by the method of donor enzyme immunoassay cloned in the Indiko Thermo Scientific equipment. RESULTS The level/dose index was 1,4 and 1,6, the plasma concentration of 4,8mg/l and 8,0mg/l, the metabolic capacity of 388,4 and 462,9mg/day, respectively in women and men. While the level of plasma concentration at steady state was 6,5mg/l and 5,5mg/l, the maximum loading dose of 237,3mg and 395,6mg, respectively in women and men with epilepsy of the city of Mérida. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the dose should be individualized based on the level/dose index of each patient, since it can not be extrapolated for all patients with epilepsy, due to various factors such as the metabolic phenotype and the use of enzyme-inducing drugs and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/blood , Phenytoin/pharmacokinetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Monitoring , Anticonvulsants/blood , Anticonvulsants/pharmacokinetics
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 58-62, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125108

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia y el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) son condiciones frecuentes en pediatría y suelen presentarse asociadas en muchos pacientes. Su relación es compleja y comparten comorbilidad psiquiátrica. Los pacientes con ambas condiciones conjuntas, epilepsia y TDAH, se presentan con igual frecuencia en ambos géneros, predominando la presentación inatenta. El déficit cognitivo incrementa el riesgo de asociar TDAH en pacientes con epilepsia. No hay evidencia suficiente para otros factores de riesgo, sin embargo, se puede anticipar su presencia en pacientes con algunos tipos de epilepsia y con modelos neuropsicológicos que evidencian la disfunción de redes subyacentes. Se revisa la relación con el control de crisis, las alteraciones electroencefalográficas y los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs). Se describen las recomendaciones para reducir efectos adversos de FAEs. El diagnóstico de TDAH en pacientes con epilepsia debe partir por la sospecha, a través de instrumentos clínicos y valoraciones de funcionamiento cognitivo. El tratamiento multimodal es recomendado para pacientes con TDAH con y sin epilepsia. Los psicoestimulantes se pueden usar con seguridad. La calidad de vida se afecta en pacientes y sus familias, por lo que la educación, pesquisa precoz y referencia para rehabilitación, están encaminadas a resolver las dificultades de estos pacientes. En caso contrario, se generan consecuencias negativas escolares, sociales y emocionales, que pueden ser relevantes y persistentes.


Epilepsy and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequent conditions in pediatrics. Their association is frequent and complex, often sharing psychiatric comorbidity. Patients who present epilepsy and ADHD, show equal frequency in both genders, with the inattentive type, as predominant presentation. Cognitive deficit increases the risk of associating ADHD in patients with epilepsy. There is not enough evidence for other risk factors, however there is enough information that allows to ant icipate its presence in some types of epilepsy, with neuropsychological models that evidence the underlying network dysfunction. The relationship with frequency and seizure control, electroencephalographic alterations and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is also reviewed. Recommendations to reduce adverse effects of AEDs are described. The diagnosis must therefore be based on suspicion, through clinical instruments and assessments of cognitive functioning. Multimodal treatment is also recommended in patients with ADHD with and without epilepsy. Psych stimulants can be used safely. The quality of life of the patients and their families is affected, so it is advisable for them to be supported by a specialized team that could provide education, early assessment and therapy. If they are omitted, the consequences can be negative at school, social environment and emotional development, which could be relevant and become persistent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/etiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 48-53, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040550

ABSTRACT

Los fármacos antiepilépticos constituyen el tratamiento inicial en pacientes con epilepsia. Los antIepilépticos producidos después del año 2000 se conocen como fármacos de tercera generación. Estas drogas ofrecen nuevos mecanismos de acción y una farmacocinética más favorable, minimizando efectos adversos o interacciones medicamentosas. Las drogas de amplio espectro como brivaracetam y clobazam son una buena opción en casos de crisis generalizadas y poseen un grado de tolerabilidad muy aceptable. Los nuevos antiepilépticos bloqueadores de canales de sodio, como lacosamida y eslicarbazepina tienen un perfil de efectos adversos más favorable que los bloqueadores de sodio de primera o segunda generación. Estos nuevos medicamentos pueden utilizarse en pacientes con epilepsia de difícil control. Cannabidiol y fenfluramina son muy útiles en el tratamiento del síndrome de Dravet o Lennox Gastaut. La Alopregnenolona y ganaxolona demuestran buena eficacia en casos de estado epiléptico y podrían en el futuro cercano tener un papel importante en este escenario clínico.


Antiepileptic drugs are the first treatment option in patients with epilepsy. Drugs developed after 2000 are known as third generation antiepileptic drugs. These medications offer new mechanisms of action and favorable pharmacokinetics, decreasing the occurrence of side effects and drug-drug interactions. Broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, such as brivaracetam and clobazam are good choices for generalized tonic colonic seizures and are well tolerated.New sodium channel blockers such as lacosamide and eslicarbazepine, have a more "benign" side effect profile than the first or second generation of sodium channel blockers. These new drugs are useful therapies in patients with epilepsy of difficult control. Cannabidiol and fenfluramine are useful in the treatment of Dravet or Lennox Gastaut syndrome. Allopregnenolona and ganaxolone showed good efficacy in status epilepticus and could play an important future role in this clinical scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Anticonvulsants/classification
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 6-9, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040541

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia, modo de presentación y características de la epilepsia en niños con hemiparesia congénita (HC). Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y multicéntrico, basado en la recolección de datos de las historias clínicas de pacientes de 0 a 19 años con HC secundaria a infarto perinatal en diferentes centros de la comunidad de Cataluña. Se incluyeron 310 niños (55% varones y 45% mujeres) de un total de 13 centros de Cataluña. Edad media del debut de las crisis fue de 2 ± 1 año. Presentaron epilepsia el 29.5% (n = 76), el subtipo vascular más frecuente fue el infarto presumiblemente perinatal (51.3%), seguido del accidente isquémico arterial neonatal (18.4%), infarto hemorrágico venoso periventricular (15.8%), infarto hemorrágico neonatal (10.5%) y trombosis venosa neonatal (3.9%). La semiología de las crisis más frecuente fue la focal motora en un 82%, seguida de las focales motoras con bilateralización secundaria en el 23%, focales discognitivas en 13.5%, generalizadas 2% y espasmos 6.5%. El 67.3% se controló con monoterapia y los fármacos empleados fueron el valproato, levetiracetam o carbamacepina. Se identificó el antecedente de estatus eléctrico durante el sueño en 3 pacientes, todos asociados a lesiones extensas que incluían al tálamo. Del total con epilepsia, el 35% debutaron con convulsiones neonatales en los primeros 3 días de vida. El 30% con accidente cerebrovascular perinatal y HC presentan riesgo de padecer epilepsia durante la infancia. Aquellos con infartos isquémicos tienen el riesgo más alto, por lo que requerirán un seguimiento dirigido a detectar precozmente la epilepsia e iniciar tratamiento.


The objective was to describe the frequency, mode of presentation and characteristics of epilepsy in children with congenital hemiparesis (CH). It is a etrospective, descriptive and multicenter study, based on the collection of data from the clinical records of patients from 0 to 19 years with CH secondary to perinatal infarction in different centers of the community of Catalonia. A total of 310 children were included (55% males and 45% females), from a total of 13 centers in Catalonia. Average age of onset of the crises was 2 ± 1 year. Epilepsy was present in 29.5% (n = 76), among which the most frequent vascular subtype was arterial presumed perinatal ischemic stroke (51.3%), followed by neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (18.4%), periventricular venous infarction (15.8%), neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (10.5%) and neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (3.9%). Semiology of the most frequent seizures was motor focal in 82%, followed by focal motor with secondary bilateralization in 23%, focal discognitive in 13.5%, generalized by 2% and spasms in 6.5%. The 67.3% were controlled with monotherapy and the drugs used were valproate, levetiracetam or carbamazepine. The antecedent of electrical status during sleep was identified in 3 patients, all associated with extensive lesions that included the thalamus. Of the total number of children with epilepsy, 35% began with neonatal seizu res in the first 3 days of life. The 30% of children with perinatal stroke and CH present a risk of epilepsy during childhood. Children with ischemic strock have the highest risk, so they will require a follow-up aimed at detecting prematurely the epilepsy and start a treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Paresis/congenital , Paresis/etiology , Stroke/complications , Epilepsy/etiology , Seizures/etiology , Spain , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 412-417, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant agent that modulates 5-HT receptors and inhibits the serotonin transporter. It is indicated especially in cases of major depressive disorder related to cognitive dysfunction. There are many studies investigating the effects of antidepressants on the seizure threshold and short-term epileptic activity. However, the effect of vortioxetine on epileptic seizures is not exactly known. Our aim was to investigate the effects of vortioxetine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-control group, positive control group (diazepam), and vortioxetine group. After a penicillin-induced epilepsy model was formed in each of the three groups of animals, 0.1 ml of saline was administered to the control group, 0.1 ml (10 mg/kg) vortioxetine was administered in the vortioxetine group, and 0.1 mL (5 mg/kg) of diazepam was administered in the positive control group, intraperitoneally. The epileptic activity records were obtained for 120 minutes after the onset of seizure. There was no significant difference in spike wave activity between the vortioxetine and diazepam groups, whereas this was significantly reduced in the vortioxetine group compared with the controls. The administration of vortioxetine at a dose of 10 mg/kg immediately after the seizure induction significantly decreased the spike frequencies of epileptiform activity compared with the control group. No significant difference was found between the vortioxetine and positive controls. This study showed that vortioxetine reduces the number of acutely-induced epileptic discharges. Vortioxetine may be an important alternative for epileptic patients with major depressive disorder-related cognitive dysfunction.


RESUMO A vortioxetina é um agente antidepressivo multimodal que modula os receptores 5HT e inibe o transportador de serotonina. Está indicada, principalmente nos casos de transtorno depressivo maior (TDM), relacionado à disfunção cognitiva. Existem muitos estudos que investigam os efeitos dos antidepressivos no limiar convulsivo e na atividade epiléptica de curto prazo. No entanto, o efeito da vortioxetina nas crises epilépticas não é exatamente conhecido. Nosso objetivo é investigar os efeitos da vortioxetina sobre a atividade epileptiforme induzida pela penicilina. Vinte e sete ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos, grupo controle-sham, grupo controle positivo (Diazepam) e grupo vortioxetina. Depois, 0,1 mg (10 mg / kg) de vortioxetina foi administrado no grupo vortioxetina, e 0,1 ml (5 mg / kg) / kg) de diazepam foi administrado no grupo de controle positivo intraperitonealmente. Os registros de atividade epiléptica foram obtidos durante 120 minutos após o início da convulsão. Não houve diferença significativa na atividade de pico entre o grupo de voritoxetina e diazepam, embora tenha sido significativamente reduzida no grupo de vortioxetina em comparação com os controles. A administração de vortioxetina na dose de 10 mg / kg imediatamente após a indução das convulsões diminuiu significativamente as frequências de espícula da atividade epileptiforme em comparação com o grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre a vortioxetina e controles positivos. Este estudo mostrou que a vortioxetina reduz o número de descargas epilépticas agudamente induzidas. A vortioxetina pode ser uma alternativa importante para pacientes epilépticos com disfunção cognitiva relacionada à TDM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Vortioxetine/pharmacology , Penicillins , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Electrocorticography
18.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991131

ABSTRACT

La ética médica aborda, entre otros aspectos, la relación médico-paciente, de la cual se deriva el término consentimiento informado como su máxima expresión. La epilepsia afecta al 1-2 por ciento de la población mundial, y en la búsqueda de soluciones a esta enfermedad los sujetos son involucrados en diferentes tipos de estudios. En el presente trabajo se realiza una breve revisión de algunos aspectos éticos relacionados con la aprobación dada por los pacientes que padecen epilepsia o su representante legal para participar en estudios que presuponen la realización de exámenes diagnósticos y el empleo de formas novedosas de tratamiento, lo que se materializa a través del consentimiento informado. Especialmente, se hace referencia a la participación de los pacientes en ensayos clínicos y el manejo de las pacientes que quedan embarazadas en el transcurso del ensayo clínico, los efectos adversos de la medicación y de la cirugía de epilepsia(AU)


Medical Ethics addresses, among other aspects, the doctor-patient relationship from which the term informed consent is derived as its maximum expression. Epilepsy affects 1-2 percent of the world population, and in the search for solutions to this disease the subjects are involved in different types of studies. In the present paper, a brief review of some ethical aspects related to the approval given by patients suffering from epilepsy or their legal representative to participate in studies that presuppose the performance of diagnostic tests and the use of novel forms of treatment. This is materialized through informed consent. Especially, there is a reference to the participation of patients in clinical trials, and the management of patients who become pregnant during the clinical trial, the adverse effects of medication, and epilepsy surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Epilepsy/surgery , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Informed Consent/psychology , Informed Consent/ethics
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e7374, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011596

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association of serum high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions with the risk of epilepsy as well as their correlations with disease severity and resistance to anti-epilepsy drugs. One hundred and five epilepsy patients and 100 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this case-control study, and serum samples were collected from all participants to assess the HMGB1 and TLR4 expressions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both serum HMGB1 (P<0.001) and TLR4 (P<0.001) expressions were higher in epilepsy patients than in HCs, and they displayed good predictive values for risk of epilepsy. Moreover, HMGB1 was positively correlated with TLR4 level (r=0.735, P<0.001). HMGB1 and TLR4 levels were both elevated in patients with an average seizure duration >5 min compared to patients with a seizure duration ≤5 min (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively). Also, HMGB1 and TLR4 were increased in patients with seizure frequency >3 times per month compared to patients with seizure frequency ≤3 times per month (both P=0.001). In addition, HMGB1 and TLR4 expressions were higher in intractable cases compared to drug-responsive cases (P<0.001). In conclusion, both HMGB1 and TLR4 expressions were correlated with increased risk and severity of epilepsy and their level was higher in patients resistant to anti-epilepsy drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Epilepsy/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 4/blood , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Epilepsy/drug therapy
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 265-272, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990037

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Currently many people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Moreover various antiepileptics have adverse cognitive impact with other side effect. Thus, need for new antiepileptic drugs still remains challenge. However, many of the natural components have antiepileptic action and this fact remains scientifically unexplored. This study was designed to check the behavioral and neuro-pathological outcome of 1-Triacontanol cerotate (1TAC), isolated from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) on chronic Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in rats. Two-month-old adult male Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly divided into six groups; Group I (Cage Control), II (Vehicle Control), III (Positive Control), IV (Standard drug treated), V (1TAC: 40 mg/kg) & VI (1TAC: 80 mg/kg). To induce kindling a 35 mg/kg dose of PTZ was injected i.p. in every 48 hrs for 30 days in Group III to VI. Spatial memory performance was tested using Morris water maze, following which brains were further processed for histopathological investigations. Interestingly, 1TAC was able to minimize the loss of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA3 region. These cellular changes were behaviorally responded as improved special learning and memory, a better spatial navigation and object place configuration. The current study strongly implicates that 1TAC from MQ has potent neuroprotective role and augments special memory deficit in chronic epileptic rats. The isolated component which attenuates spatial memory performance could be beneficial outcome to retain cognitive blunting in chronic epilepsy.


RESUMEN: Actualmente, muchas personas con epilepsia no cuentan con un control adecuado de las convulsiones, incluso con los mejores medicamentos disponibles. Además, varios antiepilépticos tienen un impacto cognitivo adverso además de efectos secundarios. Por lo tanto, la necesidad de nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos sigue siendo un desafío. Sin embargo, muchos de los componentes naturales tienen acción antiepiléptica y este hecho permanece científicamente inexplorado. Este estudio se diseñó para verificar el resultado conductual y neuro-patológico del cerotato de 1-triacontanol (1TAC), aislado de Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) en el modelo de epilepsia en ratas del pentilenetetrazol (PTZ) crónico (PTZ). Ratas Wistar adultas de dos meses de edad (n = 60) se dividieron aleatoriamente en seis grupos; Grupo I (Control de jaula), II (Control de vehículo), III (Control positivo), IV (Medicamento estándar de tratamiento), V (1TAC: 40 mg / kg) y VI (1TAC: 80 mg / kg). Para inducir la inflamación se inyectó una dosis de 35 mg / kg de PTZ i.p. en cada 48 horas durante 30 días en los grupos III a VI. El rendimiento de la memoria espacial se probó utilizando el laberinto de agua de Morris, después de lo cual se procesaron los cerebros para investigaciones histopatológicas. Curiosamente, 1TAC pudo minimizar la pérdida de células piramidales en la región CA3 del hipocampo. Estos cambios celulares respondieron de manera conductual como una mejora del aprendizaje especial y la memoria, una mejor navegación espacial y la configuración del lugar del objeto. El estudio actual implica fuertemente que 1TAC de MQ tiene un potente papel neuroprotector y mejora el déficit de memoria especial en ratas epilépticas crónicas. El componente aislado que atenúa el rendimiento de la memoria espacial podría ser un resultado beneficioso para retener la reducción cognitiva en la epilepsia crónica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Marsileaceae/chemistry , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Fatty Alcohols/administration & dosage , CA3 Region, Hippocampal/drug effects , Spatial Memory/drug effects , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Rats, Wistar , Pyramidal Cells , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Fatty Acids , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Morris Water Maze Test , Hippocampus/drug effects
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