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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 199-207, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145501

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis límbica es una enfermedad infrecuente y potencialmente grave, que puede o no ser paraneoplásica y se caracteriza por déficit de la memoria reciente, alteraciones psiquiátricas y convulsiones. De origen autoinmunitario, está asociada a anticuerpos séricos e intratecales contra antígenos neuronales intracelulares y de superficie, con especial afectación de zonas límbicas. En este artículo se revisan aspectos históricos y epidemiológicos, patogenia, síndromes más frecuentes y mejor delimitados, histopatología y estudios complementarios. Se repasan también las dificultades del diagnóstico diferencial y la necesidad de descartar siempre un tumor subyacente. La detección de autoanticuerpos neuronales es importante para el diagnóstico, la planificación terapéutica y el pronóstico. La inmunoterapia y, si corresponde, el tratamiento de la neoplasia son cruciales para lograr una recuperación neurológica sustancial. La encefalitis límbica es una entidad probablemente subdiagnosticada, con un pronóstico más favorable si se trata de forma temprana. El actual conocimiento de su patogenia puede además aportar claridad para la mejor comprensión de otros síndromes neurológicos y psiquiátricos que puedan compartir mecanismos autoinmunitarios, como algunos trastornos psicóticos y epilepsias farmacorresistentes. (AU)


Limbic encephalitis is a rare and potentially serious disease, which may or may not be paraneoplastic and is characterized by recent memory deficits, psychiatric disturbances and seizures. Of autoimmune origin, it is associated with serum and intrathecal antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal antigens, with special involvement of limbic areas. This article reviews historical and epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, more frequent and better defined syndromes, histopathology and complementary studies. The difficulties of differential diagnosis and the need to always rule out an underlying tumor are also reviewed. Detection of neuronal autoantibodies is important for diagnosis, therapeutic planning and prognosis. Immunotherapy and, if appropriate, neoplasm treatment, are crucial to achieve substantial neurological recovery. Limbic encephalitis is probably an underdiagnosed entity, with a more favorable prognosis if treated early. The current knowledge of its pathogenesis may also provide clarity for a better understanding of other neurological and psychiatric syndromes that may share autoimmune mechanisms, such as some psychotic disorders and drug-resistant epilepsies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/pathology , Limbic Encephalitis/pathology , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Review Literature as Topic , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/etiology , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/therapy , Limbic Encephalitis/diagnosis , Limbic Encephalitis/etiology , Limbic Encephalitis/history , Limbic Encephalitis/therapy , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/etiology
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 37-41, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040548

ABSTRACT

Alrededor del 15% de las epilepsias en pediatría son fármaco-resistentes y en el 40% de este grupo la etiología es una malformación del desarrollo cortical (MDC). El esquema de clasificación actual de las MDC se basa en las etapas primarias de desarrollo de la proliferación celular, migración neuronal y organización cortical. Teniendo en cuenta la clínica y las alteraciones moleculares, se propuso una clasificación basada en la disrupción de las vías principales y el fenotipo neurorradiológico. Se dividió a las MDC en cuatro grupos: la megalencefalia y las displasias corticales focales; las tubulinopatías y lisencefalias; el espectro de las polimicrogirias y las heterotopías. Hasta el momento, más de 100 genes han sido asociados con uno o más tipos de MDC. Los mecanismos biológicos y genéticos incluyen la regulación del ciclo celular en varios estadios, división celular), apoptosis, diferenciación celular, función y estructura del citoesqueleto, migración neuronal y membrana basal. El espectro de síndromes epilépticos asociados con las MDC es amplio e incluye desde encefalopatías epilépticas de comienzo temprano a epilepsias focales de debut más tardío. Teniendo en cuenta que la evolución de la epilepsia hacia la refractariedad en las MDC es importante, el diagnóstico precoz y la elección de la mejor opción terapéutica influirán en el pronóstico de los pacientes.


Around 15% of childhood epilepsies are resistant to antiepileptic drugs, 40% of which are caused by malformations of cortical development (MCD). The current classification scheme for MCD is based on the primary developmental steps of cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and cortical organization. Considering the clinic and molecular alterations, a classification based on main pathways disruption and imaging phenotype has been proposed. MCD were divided into four groups: megalencephaly and focal cerebral dysplasia; tubulinopathies and lissencephalies; polymicrogyria syndromes and heterotopia syndromes. More than 100 genes have been reported to be associated with different types of MCD. Genetic and biological mechanisms include different stages of cell cycle regulation - especially cell division -, apoptosis, cell-fate specification, cytoskeletal structure and function, neuronal migration, and basement-membrane function. The associated epileptic syndromes are varied ranging from early-onset epileptic encephalopathies to focal epilepsies. As MCD are common causes of refractory epilepsy, a prompt diagnosis and the development of different therapeutic options in order to improve the outcome of the patients are essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Epilepsy/etiology , Malformations of Cortical Development/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Electroencephalography , Malformations of Cortical Development/classification , Malformations of Cortical Development/genetics , Malformations of Cortical Development/diagnostic imaging
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 20-24, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040544

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades neurometabólicas que manifiestan convulsiones y epilepsia constituyen un amplio grupo de trastornos hereditarios. Se pueden presentar a cualquier edad desde el período neonatal hasta la adolescencia. Las manifestaciones epilépticas pueden ser muy variadas y, en general, se trata de epilepsias refractarias a los fármacos antiepilépticos. La fenomenología epiléptica no contribuye al diagnóstico. Se deben conocer los errores innatos del metabolismo que responden al empleo de cofactores. En descompensaciones agudas es fundamental dar soporte nutricional, hidroelectrolítico y respiratorio. Es muy posible que en pocos años se pueda conocer el perfil metabolómico de estas enfermedades y así profundizar en el diagnóstico no invasivo y ofrecer mayores posibilidades terapéuticas para la epilepsia y especialmente para la enfermedad de base. No debemos olvidar los desórdenes metabólicos transitorios y los desequilibrios hidroelectrolíticos dentro de las causas de las convulsiones, en especial en el período neonatal, que se deben identificar y tratar precozmente para evitar daños mayores.


Neurometabolic diseases that manifest seizures and epilepsy are a large group of inherited disorders. They can present at any age from the neonatal period to adolescence. The epileptic manifestations can be very varied and, in general, they are epilepsies refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Epileptic phenomenology does not contribute to the diagnosis. The inborn errors of metabolism that respond to the use of cofactors should be known. In acute decompensation, it is essential to provide nutritional, hydroelectrolytic and respiratory support. It is possible that in a few years we can detect the metabolomic profile of these diseases, thus knowing better the diagnosis non-invasively and offering greater therapeutic possibilities for their epilepsy and especially for the underlying disease. We must not forget the transitory metabolic disorders and the electrolyte imbalances within the causes of seizures, especially in the neonatal period, and must be identified and treated early to avoid major damages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Epilepsy/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Seizures/classification , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/therapy , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/therapy
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 6-9, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040541

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia, modo de presentación y características de la epilepsia en niños con hemiparesia congénita (HC). Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y multicéntrico, basado en la recolección de datos de las historias clínicas de pacientes de 0 a 19 años con HC secundaria a infarto perinatal en diferentes centros de la comunidad de Cataluña. Se incluyeron 310 niños (55% varones y 45% mujeres) de un total de 13 centros de Cataluña. Edad media del debut de las crisis fue de 2 ± 1 año. Presentaron epilepsia el 29.5% (n = 76), el subtipo vascular más frecuente fue el infarto presumiblemente perinatal (51.3%), seguido del accidente isquémico arterial neonatal (18.4%), infarto hemorrágico venoso periventricular (15.8%), infarto hemorrágico neonatal (10.5%) y trombosis venosa neonatal (3.9%). La semiología de las crisis más frecuente fue la focal motora en un 82%, seguida de las focales motoras con bilateralización secundaria en el 23%, focales discognitivas en 13.5%, generalizadas 2% y espasmos 6.5%. El 67.3% se controló con monoterapia y los fármacos empleados fueron el valproato, levetiracetam o carbamacepina. Se identificó el antecedente de estatus eléctrico durante el sueño en 3 pacientes, todos asociados a lesiones extensas que incluían al tálamo. Del total con epilepsia, el 35% debutaron con convulsiones neonatales en los primeros 3 días de vida. El 30% con accidente cerebrovascular perinatal y HC presentan riesgo de padecer epilepsia durante la infancia. Aquellos con infartos isquémicos tienen el riesgo más alto, por lo que requerirán un seguimiento dirigido a detectar precozmente la epilepsia e iniciar tratamiento.


The objective was to describe the frequency, mode of presentation and characteristics of epilepsy in children with congenital hemiparesis (CH). It is a etrospective, descriptive and multicenter study, based on the collection of data from the clinical records of patients from 0 to 19 years with CH secondary to perinatal infarction in different centers of the community of Catalonia. A total of 310 children were included (55% males and 45% females), from a total of 13 centers in Catalonia. Average age of onset of the crises was 2 ± 1 year. Epilepsy was present in 29.5% (n = 76), among which the most frequent vascular subtype was arterial presumed perinatal ischemic stroke (51.3%), followed by neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (18.4%), periventricular venous infarction (15.8%), neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (10.5%) and neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (3.9%). Semiology of the most frequent seizures was motor focal in 82%, followed by focal motor with secondary bilateralization in 23%, focal discognitive in 13.5%, generalized by 2% and spasms in 6.5%. The 67.3% were controlled with monotherapy and the drugs used were valproate, levetiracetam or carbamazepine. The antecedent of electrical status during sleep was identified in 3 patients, all associated with extensive lesions that included the thalamus. Of the total number of children with epilepsy, 35% began with neonatal seizu res in the first 3 days of life. The 30% of children with perinatal stroke and CH present a risk of epilepsy during childhood. Children with ischemic strock have the highest risk, so they will require a follow-up aimed at detecting prematurely the epilepsy and start a treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Paresis/congenital , Paresis/etiology , Stroke/complications , Epilepsy/etiology , Seizures/etiology , Spain , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 783-790, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis is one of the most common risk factors for epilepsy but its association with drug-resistant epilepsy remains uncertain. Conjectures of an association with drug-resistant epilepsy have been fueled by reports of an association between calcific neurocysticercosis lesions (CNL) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from specialized epilepsy centers in Taenia solium-endemic regions. The debate arising from these reports is whether the association is causal. Evidence for the association is not high quality but sufficiently persuasive to merit further investigation with longitudinal imaging studies in population-based samples from geographically-diverse regions. The other controversial point is the choice of a surgical approach for drug-resistant epilepsy associated with CNL-HS. Three approaches have been described: standard anteromesial temporal lobectomy, lesionectomy involving a CNL alone and lesionectomy with anteromesial temporal lobectomy (for dual pathology); reports of the latter two approaches are limited. Presurgical evaluation should consider possibilities of delineating the epileptogenic zone/s in accordance with all three approaches.


RESUMO A neurocisticercose é um dos mais comuns fatores de risco para a epilepsia, mas sua associação com a epilepsia resistente a medicamentos (DRE) permanece incerta. Conjecturas de uma associação com a DRE têm sido alimentadas por relatos de uma associação entre lesões de neurocisticercose calcária (CNL) e esclerose hipocampal (HS) de centros especializados em epilepsia em regiões endêmicas de Taenia solium. O debate que surge desses relatórios é se a associação é causal. Se bem as evidências para a associação não são de alta qualidade, são suficientemente persuasivas para merecer mais investigação com estudos longitudinais de imagens em amostras de base populacional de regiões geograficamente diversas. O outro ponto controverso é a escolha da abordagem cirúrgica para a DRE associada à CNL-HS. Três abordagens têm sido descritas: lobectomia temporal ântero-mesial padrão, lesionectomia envolvendo apenas CNL e lesionectomia com lobectomia temporal ântero-mesial (para patologia dupla); os relatórios das duas últimas abordagens são limitados. A avaliação pré-cirúrgica deve considerar as possibilidades de delinear a (s) zona (s) epileptogênica (s) de acordo com as três abordagens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sclerosis/etiology , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Epilepsy/etiology , Hippocampus/pathology , Risk Factors , Taenia solium , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/etiology , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/complications , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/etiology
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 86-90, abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954955

ABSTRACT

El accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) es la causa más común de convulsiones y epilepsia observada en estudios poblacionales de adultos. Las convulsiones ocurren dentro de las 24 horas posteriores al ACV en un alto porcentaje de pacientes. La patogénesis de estas convulsiones de inicio temprano puede estar relacionada con cambios iónicos locales y liberación de altos niveles de neurotransmisores excito-tóxicos en el área lesionada. Una lesión permanente con cambios en la excitabilidad neuronal parece ser responsable de convulsiones de inicio tardío después del ACV. Los factores de riesgo más comúnmente identificados con el comienzo agudo o tardío de las convulsiones post ACV son la gravedad y la localización cortical. La mayoría de las convulsiones post ACV son focales al inicio pero pueden generalizarse secundariamente, el estatus epiléptico es poco frecuente. La eficacia de las drogas antiepilépticas para estas convulsiones no ha sido rigurosamente evaluada en estudios controlados, aunque la mayoría de las convulsiones pueden ser controladas con un solo agente. Dada la frecuencia relativamente baja de convulsiones recurrentes después del ACV y la ausencia de predictores absolutos de epilepsia post ACV, la decisión de cuándo tratar a los pacientes con una convulsión después de un ACV es difícil.


Stroke is the most common cause of seizures and epilepsy in population stuies of adults. Seizures occur within 24 hours of the stroke in a high percent of patients. The pathogenesis of these early-onset seizures may be related to local ion shifts and release of high levels of excitotoxic neurotransmitters in the area of ischemic injury. The risk of late-onset seizures may increase over time, an underlying permanent lesion that leads to persistent chnges in neuronal excitability appears to be responsible for late-onset seizures after stroke. The most consistently identified risk factors for acute and late post-stroke seizures are stroke severity and cortical location. Most seizures following stroke are focal at onset, but secondary generalization is common, particularly in patients with late-onset seizures. Status epilepticus is relatively uncommon. The efficacy of antiepileptic drugs for these post-stroke seizures has not been rigorously assessed in controlled trials, although most seizures can be controlled with a single agent. Given the relatively low frequency of recurrent seizures after stroke, and an absence of absolute predictors of poststroke epilepsy, the decision of when to treat patients for a post-stroke seizure is difficult.


Subject(s)
Humans , Seizures/etiology , Stroke/complications , Epilepsy/etiology , Seizures/prevention & control , Seizures/drug therapy , Brain/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/complications , Risk Factors , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 33(1): 25-33, jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283818

ABSTRACT

Development of neuroimaging in the last decades has revolutionized the neurological diagnosis, however for they interpretation clinical picture of the patient remains as a relevant aspect. Clinical case: a 30-year-old male patient with recent epileptic seizures, Jaksonian type, secondarily generalized, with no relevant history and normal neurological examination was presented. Initially a Magnetic Resonance of the brain was performed, the case was interpreted as Brain Abscess and treatment with intravenous antimicrobials was instituted for three weeks. A further analysis of the case revolves the diagnosis towards the possibility of a high degree malignant cerebral glioma, which was verified with the accomplishment of a craneotomy and biopsy. Conclusions: focal structural lesions of the brain, such as those caused by neuroepithelial tumors and abscesses, are among the most common causes of Epileptic Syndrome in adulthood. To date, there are no pathognomonic signs in the neuroimagenological differential diagnosis between the two entities. Despite the help of some advanced Magnetic Resonance techniques, the clinical correlation remains as the cornerstone for correct etiological interpretation, as well as pathological examination for the definitive diagnosis of both lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Glioma/surgery , Chile , Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy/etiology , Glioma/pathology
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(2): 146-149, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846293

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neurocysticercosis is prevalent in developing countries and manifests with several neurological signs and symptoms that may be fatal. The cysts may be parenchymal or extraparenchymal and therefore several signs and symptoms may occur. Depending on their location, neurosurgical procedures may be required, sometimes as emergencies. The aim here was to review 10-year statistics on all surgical neurocysticercosis cases at a large public tertiary-level hospital. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort at a large public tertiary-level hospital. METHODS: All surgical neurocysticercosis cases seen between July 2006 and July 2016 were reviewed. Parenchymal and extraparenchymal forms were considered, along with every type of surgical procedure (shunt, endoscopic third ventriculostomy and craniotomy). The literature was reviewed through PubMed, using the terms “neurocysticercosis”, “surgery”, “shunt” and “hydrocephalus”. RESULTS: 37 patients underwent neurosurgical procedures during the study period. Most were male (62.16%) and extraparenchymal cases predominated (81%). Patients aged 41 to 50 years were most affected (35.13%) and those 20 years or under were unaffected. Ventricular forms were most frequently associated with hydrocephalus and required permanent shunts in most cases (56.57%). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of neurocysticercosis depends on the impairment: the parenchymal type usually does not require surgery, which is more common in the extraparenchymal form. Hydrocephalus is a frequent complication because the cysts often obstruct the cerebrospinal flow. The cysts should be removed whenever possible, to avoid the need for permanent shunts.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A neurocisticercose é prevalente em países em desenvolvimento e manifesta-se com vários sinais e sintomas neurológicos que podem ser fatais. Os cistos podem ser parenquimatosos ou extraparenquimatosos, portanto vários sinais e sintomas podem estar presentes. Dependendo da sua localização, procedimentos neurocirúrgicos podem ser necessários, às vezes em caráter emergencial. O objetivo foi revisar dados estatísticos de um período de 10 anos de todos os casos cirúrgicos de neurocisticercose num grande hospital público terciário. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Coorte retrospectiva de um grande hospital público terciário. MÉTODOS: Todos os casos cirúrgicos de neurocisticercose de pacientes tratados entre julho 2006 e julho 2016 foram revisados. As formas parenquimatosas e extraparenquimatosas foram consideradas, assim como tipo de procedimento cirúrgico (derivação, terceiroventriculostomia endoscópica e craniotomia). A literatura foi revisada por meio da PubMed, utilizando-se os termos “neurocysticercosis”, “surgery”, “shunt” e “hydrocephalus”. RESULTADOS: 37 pacientes foram submetidos a procedimentos neurocirúrgicos nesse período, a maioria do sexo masculino (62.16%%) e casos extraparenquimatosos predominaram (81%). Pacientes com idade 41-50 anos foram os mais afetados (35,13%) e aqueles com 20 anos ou menos não foram afetados. As formas ventriculares mais frequentemente estiveram associadas a hidrocefalia e necessitaram da realização de shunts definitivos na maior parte dos casos (56,57%). CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento depende da forma de acometimento: o tipo parenquimatoso usualmente não necessita de cirurgia que é mais comum na forma extraparenquimatosa. Hidrocefalia é uma complicação frequente pois muitas vezes os cistos obstruem o fluxo liquórico. A remoção dos cistos deve ser realizada sempre que possível para evitar a necessidade de derivações definitivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Neurocysticercosis/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Hydrocephalus/etiology
10.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 53(1): 5-14, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-832724

ABSTRACT

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the brain infection caused by larval stages of the helminth Taenia solium. The embryos of Taenia travel through the bloodstream and can reach the brain, muscles, eyes, and various organs. In the brain, the psychiatric manifestations are mood disorders, depression and anxiety, which are commonly associated with epilepsy and sensory-motor deficits. Neurocysticercosis is a frequent parasitic disease in the world population; it is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In the present review, we report the major symptoms and signals of neurocysticercosis common to neurological and psychiatric illnesses. We briefly present Epidemiology of those manifestations and analyze the relationship between pathological changes and NCC symptomatology. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: A literature review was conducted to characterize epidemiological, neurological and psychiatric manifestations of NCC. The final 90 papers were selected of a set of 937 publications from 2010 to 2016. RESULTS: NCC is a major cause of epilepsy in endemic areas; further- more, leads to a diversity of motor and sensitive deficits, manifestations vary from headache to severe intracranial hypertension. Potentially fatal conditions include arteritis, encephalitis and hydrocephalus. Depression and cognitive decline remain among the most important psychiatric manifestations. Neuropsychiatric manifestations, Epidemiology, and neuroimaging provide diagnostic criteria. Brain scans may reveal one or diverse cysts filled with fluid within a scolex (parasite's head). CONCLUSION: NCC's diversity of presentations encourage health professionals to consider it in diagnoses, especially in endemic countries, and also in non-endemic areas because migrants and travelers are subject to contagious. Treatment consists in use of antiparasitic drugs (albendazol, praziquantel) and drugs to treat associated conditions (anticonvulsants, corticosteroids). Surgery is reserved to extirpate the parasite from particular locations (eyes, spinal cord, cerebral ventricles) or to differentiate NCC from tumors, tuberculosis, mycosis, etc. Prevention includes treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, sanitation in animal farming, food preparing hygiene, quality control of water and food.


Neurocisticercose é a infecção cerebral causada pelos estágios lar- vais do helminto Taenia solium. Os embriões da Taenia deslocam-se através da corrente sanguínea e podem atingir o cérebro, músculos, olhos e vários órgãos. No cérebro, as manifestações psiquiátricas são transtornos de humor, depressão e ansiedade, as quais estão comumente associados com epilepsia e deficiências sensório-motoras. Neurocisticercose é uma parasitose frequente na população mundial, é endêmica na América Central e do Sul, Ásia e África subsaariana. Na presente revisão, relatamos os principais sintomas e sinais de neurocisticercose pertinentes a doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas. Nós brevemente apresentamos a Epidemiologia dessas manifestações, e analisamos a relação entre alterações patológicas e sintomatologia da NCC. OBJETIVOS E METODOLOGIA: Uma revisão da literatura foi conduzida para caracterizar a epidemiologia, as manifestações neurológicas e psiquiátricas de NCC. Os 90 artigos finais foram selecionados de um conjunto de 937 publicações entre 2010 a 2016. RESULTADOS: NCC é uma importante etiologia de epilepsia em áreas endêmicas, além disso causa uma diversidade de deficiências motoras e sensoriais, as manifestações variam de cefaleia a severa hipertensão intracraniana. Condições potencialmente fatais incluem arterites, encefalites e hidrocefalia. Depressão e declíneo cognitive permanecem entre as mais importantes manifestações psiquiátricas. Manifestações neuropsiquiátricas, epidemiologia e neuroimagem provêm os critérios de diagnóstico. As imagens cerebrais podem revelar um ou diversos cistos preenchidos com líquido e o escólex (cabeça) do parasito. CONCLUSÕES: A diversidade de apresentações da NCC encoraja os profissionais de saúde a considerá-la dentre os diagnósticos, especialmente em países endêmicos; e também em áreas não-endêmicas, pois migrantes e viajantes estão sujeitos ao contágio. O tratamento consiste no uso de antiparasíticos (albendazol, praziquantel) e medicamentos para tratar condições associadas (anticonvulsivantes, corticosteróides). Cirurgia é reservada para remoção do parasito de locais particulares (olhos, medula espinhal, ventrículos cerebrais) ou para diferenciar NCC de tumores, tuberculose, micose, etc. Prevenção inclui o tratamento de helmintíases intestinais, sanidade animal, higiene ao preparar alimentos, controle da qualidade da água e alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Incidence , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Neurocysticercosis/drug therapy , Taenia solium/pathogenicity , Depression/etiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Hydrocephalus/etiology
11.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 52(4): 36-39, out.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831708

ABSTRACT

Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of neurologic and psychiatric disorders; it is a frequent etiology for acquired epilepsy worldwide. The parasitic infection of Taenia solium (including larval dissemination to the nervous system) can be avoided by effective means of prevention. Nonetheless, this disease remains endemic in many regions of the world. To demonstrate the importance of prophylaxis this paper reports the case of a patient without spleen, who was treated for neurocysticercosis manifested by epilepsy. In twenty years of follow up, the patient did not experience a repeat occurrence of neurocysticercosis, despite of immunological impairment (absence of spleen) and environmental exposure (living in an endemic area). Prevention was guided by a regular use of anthelmintic (Albendazole) and health education.


Neurocisticercose é uma importante causa de doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas, é uma frequente etiologia de epilepsia adquirida, no mundo. A infecção parasitária da Taenia solium (incluindo a disseminação das larvas para o sistema nervoso) pode ser evitada por meios eficazes de prevenção; no entanto, esta enfermidade ainda é endêmica em muitas regiões do mundo. Para demonstrar a importância da profilaxia relata-se o caso de um paciente sem baço, o qual foi tratado para a neurocisticercose manifestada por epilepsia. Em vinte anos de seguimento, o paciente não repetiu a ocorrência de neurocisticercose, apesar de dano imunológico (ausência de baço) e exposição ambiental (habitação em área endêmica). A prevenção foi guiada pelo uso regular de anti-helmíntico (Albendazole) e medidas educativas em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Young Adult , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Neurocysticercosis/chemically induced , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Splenectomy , Swine , Prevalence , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 19(2): 53-58, 2016.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271678

ABSTRACT

"Until recently; genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) was believed to be of presumed genetic etiology with no identifiable genetic mutation or demonstrable epigenetic abnormality. A wide range of epileptic disorders has clue for an inherited susceptibility. Monogenic disorders associated with epilepsy mental retardation and structural brain lesion typified by heterotopias; tuberous sclerosis; and progressive myoclonus epilepsies account for about 1 of epilepsies. This review focuses on the role of genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements in the pathophysiologic mechanism of GGE. To achieve this; PubMed; EMBASE; and Google Scholar were systematically and comprehensively searched using keywords (""epilepsy"" ""juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME);"" ""typical absences;"" ""idiopathic generalized epilepsy;"" ""JME;"" ""juvenile absence epilepsy;"" ""childhood absence epilepsy"" ""generalized tonic-clonic seizure"" ""GTCS""). Most GGE has evidence of underlying genetic inheritance. Recent animal studies have shown that early detection and treatment of genetic generalized epilepsies can alter the phenotypic presentation in rodents. These findings suggest a critical period in epileptogenesis; during which spike-and-wave seizures can be suppressed; leading to chronic changes in the brain (epileptogenesis) and the preceding dysfunctions may; therefore; be targeted using therapeutic approaches that may either delay or inhibit the transition to active epileptic attack. The interplay between genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements play important roles in the development of GCE and that this process; especially at crucial developmental periods; is very susceptible to environmental modulations"


Subject(s)
Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy/pathology , Review , Seizures
13.
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(6): 510-515, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748177

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy and epileptic seizures are common brain disorders in the elderly and are associated with increased mortality that may be ascribed to the underlying disease or epilepsy-related causes. Objective To describe mortality predictors of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients.Method Retrospective analysis was performed on hospitalized elderly who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled.Results The most common etiology was ischemic stroke (37%), followed by neoplasias (13%), hemorrhagic stroke (12%), dementias (11.4%) and metabolic disturbances (5.5%). In a univariate analysis, disease duration (p = 0.04), status epilepticus (p < 0.001) and metabolic etiology (p = 0.005) were associated with mortality. However after adjustment by logistic regression, only status epilepticus remained an independent predictor of death (odds ratio = 13; 95%CI = 2.3 to 72; p = 0.004).Conclusion In this study status epilepticus was an independent risk factor for death during hospitalization.


Epilepsia e crises epilépticas são transtornos cerebrais comuns em idosos e estão associadas com uma taxa de mortalidade elevada que pode ser atribuída à etiologia ou a causas relacionadas à epilepsia. Objetivo Descrever preditores de mortalidade em pacientes idosos internados com epilepsia e crise epiléptica.Método Estudo retrospectivo, envolvendo idosos hospitalizados, de 60 anos ou mais, que foram admitidos de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010 por terem apresentado epilepsia e crises epilépticas durante a hospitalização. Cento e vinte pacientes foram incluídos no estudo.Resultados A etiologia mais comum foi o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (37%), seguido por neoplasias (13%), acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico (12%), demências (11,4%) e distúrbios metabólicos (5,5%). Na análise univariada, duração da doença (p = 0,04), estado de mal epiléptico (p < 0,001) e etiologia metabólica (p = 0,005) estiveram associados com mortalidade. Entretanto, após ajuste por regressão logística, apenas estado de mal epiléptico permaneceu como preditor independente de morte (odds ratio = 13; IC95% = 2,3 a 72; p = 0,004).Conclusão Neste estudo, estado de mal epiléptico foi um fator independente de risco para morte durante hospitalização.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hospitalization , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications , Stroke/mortality
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(3): 142-151, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-760107

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Rett (SR) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que afecta casi exclusivamente a niñas y cursa secundariamente con autismo. Es poco frecuente y consta de 5 formas clínicas, una clásica y el resto atípicas que comprometen de manera general la habilidad manual, el lenguaje y la motricidad amplia unida a la aparición de estereotipias y epilepsia precoz. Con el objetivo de actualizar la información sobre SR, se aplicaron los descriptores de búsqueda Síndrome de Rett, genes y «Síndrome de Rett¼, «Rett Syndrome gene¼, «Rett Syndrome¼, «Rett Syndrome gene therapy¼ y «Rett Syndrome review¼. Se investigó en los archivos digitales PubMed, Hinari, SCIELO y Medline, y se consultaron los sitios web OMIM, ORPHANET, GeneMap, Genetests, Proteins y Gene, entre otros. Entre 1.348 artículos se seleccionaron 42, los cuales reportan 3 genes causantes del síndrome: MECP2, CDKL5 y FOXG. El gen MECP2 está mutado en el 80% de los pacientes con SR clásico así como en el 40% de los afectados con alguna de sus formas atípicas. El SR con epilepsia precoz y la variante congénita se deben fundamentalmente a variaciones en los genes CDKL5 y FOXG1 respectivamente. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico del SR se basa en criterios clínicos, sin embargo, los avances en la biología molecular y en la genética en particular han abierto el abanico de posibilidades diagnósticas a las diferentes formas clínicas que antes quedaban sin clasificar, a la vez que el análisis molecular permite confirmar el criterio clínico y aportar información en cuanto al pronóstico del paciente.


Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exclusively affects girls, and occurs along with autism. It is very uncommon, and has five distinct forms, one classic and the others atypical, which generally compromise manual skills, language, and mobility, and widely associated with the appearance of stereotypy and early epilepsy. With the aim of updating the information about RS, a search was performed in the computer data bases of PubMed, Hinari, SCIELO and Medline, as well as consulting other web sites including OMIM, ORPHANET, GeneMap, Genetests, Proteins and Gene, using the descriptors "Síndrome de Rett", "genes y Síndrome de Rett", "Rett Syndrome gene", "Rett Syndrome", "Rett Syndrome gene therapy", and "Rett Syndrome review". Of the 1,348 articles found, 42 articles were selected, which reported 3 genes causing the syndrome: MECP2, CDKL5 and FOXG. The MECP2 gene is mutated in 80% of patients with classic RS, as well as in 40% of those affected by any of its atypical forms. RS with early epilepsy and the congenital variant are mainly due to variations in the CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnosis of RS is based on clinical criteria. However, the advances in molecular biology and genetics have opened a wide range of possibilities for diagnosing the different clinical forms that could not be classified before. Molecular analysis can help confirm the clinical criteria and provided information as regards the prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rett Syndrome/physiopathology , Stereotypic Movement Disorder/etiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Prognosis , Rett Syndrome/diagnosis , Rett Syndrome/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Molecular Biology/methods , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 83-89, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741187

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy in the elderly has high incidence and prevalence and is often underecognized. Objective To describe etiological prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on elderly patients who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures during hospitalization, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled. They were divided into two age subgroups (median 75 years) with the purpose to compare etiologies. Results The most common etiology was ischemic stroke (36.7%), followed by neoplasias (13.3%), hemorrhagic stroke (11.7%), dementias (11.4%) and metabolic disturbances (5.5%). The analysis of etiological association showed that ischemic stroke was predominant in the younger subgroup (45% vs 30%), and dementias in the older one (18.9% vs 3.8%), but with no statistical significance (p = 0.23). Conclusion This study suggests that epilepsy and epileptic seizures in the elderly inpatients have etiological association with stroke, neoplasias and dementias. .


Epilepsia no idoso tem alta incidência e prevalência e é frequentemente sub diagnosticada. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência etiológica da epilepsia e crises epilépticas em idosos internados. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, envolvendo idosos hospitalizados, de 60 anos ou mais, que foram admitidos de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010 por terem apresentado epilepsia e crises epilépticas durante a hospitalização. Cento e vinte pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois subgrupos de idade (mediana 75 anos), com o propósito de comparar etiologias. Resultados A etiologia mais comum foi o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (36,7%), seguido por neoplasias (13,3%), acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico (11,7%), demências (11,4%) e distúrbios metabólicos (5,5%). A análise da associação etiológica mostrou que o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico predominou no subgrupo mais jovem (45% vs 30%), e as demências no subgrupo mais velho (18,9% vs 3,8%), contudo essa diferença não evidenciou significância estatística (p = 0,23). Conclusão Este estudo sugere que epilepsia e crise epiléptica em idosos internados têm associação etiológica com acidente vascular cerebral, neoplasias e demências. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/epidemiology , Age Factors , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
17.
In. Prinzo Yamurri, Humberto Diego. Neurocirugía funcional y estereotáxica: conceptos de interés general. Montevideo, s.n, 2015. p.155-178.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1368048
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(5): 383-390, 05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709371

ABSTRACT

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC.


A neurocisticercose (NC) ou infecção cerebral pela Taenia solium é importante problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo. Entre as sequelas neurológicas da NC, as crises convulsivas têm sido descritas como os sintomas mais frequentes. Crises convulsivas sintomáticas agudas resultam, muitas vezes, da degeneração de cistos viáveis; entretanto, nem todos os pacientes com NC e crises agudas ou provocadas desenvolvem epilepsia (i.e., crises recorrentes não provocadas). Pode haver uma relação entre epilepsia e NC, causal ou incidental, devido à alta prevalência de ambas. O potencial epileptogênico dos cistos calcificados assim como a possível associação entre NC e esclerose hipocampal ainda necessitam de futuras pesquisas. O tratamento anti-helmíntico da NC resulta no desaparecimento de cistos viáveis em cerca de 1/3 dos pacientes com a doença parenquimatosa, mas não foi demonstrada redução nas taxas de recorrência das crises convulsivas em estudos randomizados controlados. A prevenção é crítica para reduzir o contingente de crises convulsivas e epilepsia relacionadas à NC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Epilepsy/etiology , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Neurocysticercosis/drug therapy , Prognosis , Recurrence , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2014; 7 (6): 557-558
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149036
20.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 15(2): 142-153, mayo-ago. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-686474

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: la epilepsia es una enfermedad crónica no transmisible necesitada de control en la atención primaria de salud. Objetivos: determinar las características clínico epidemiológicas de los pacientes adultos con epilepsia en el municipio Sancti Spiritus. Metodología: se realizó una investigación descriptiva de corte transversal, desde enero a diciembre del año 2010; en el análisis de los datos se emplearon técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se registró una prevalencia de pacientes con epilepsia de 9,60 por cada 1000 habitantes, la que resultó mayor entre los 15 y 19 años de edad, con similar distribución en ambos sexos. Predominaron en estos pacientes las crisis focales. La mayoría de los enfermos estaban escolarizados y desarrollaban una vida laboral activa, pero solamente la tercera parte mantenía relaciones conyugales estables. Conclusiones: la epilepsia constituye una enfermedad frecuente en la población adulta del municipio Sancti Spíritus, donde se define como un importante problema de salud en el joven; debe prestarse atención diferenciada a los aspectos psicosociales relacionados con esta enfermedad así como un mayor esfuerzo para incrementar su control integral en el consultorio médico de la familia.


Background: epilepsy is a non transmissible chronic disease which needs control in the primary care of health. Objectives: to determine the clinical epidemiological characteristics of adult patients with epilepsy in Sancti Spíritus municipality. Methodology: a transversal descriptive investigation was carried out from January to December 2010; in the data analysis descriptive and statistical techniques were used. Results: there was a prevalence of patients with epilepsy of 9.60 per every 1000 inhabitants being the greater prevalence between 15 and 19 years old with the similar distribution in both sexes. There was a greater prevalence in focal crisis. Most of the patients had certain level of education and they had an active working life but only a third part had stable marital relations. Conclusions: epilepsy constitutes a frequent disease in the adult population of Sancti Spíritus municipality where it is defined as an important problem of health in young people. We must pay attention to psychosocial aspects related to this disease as well as a greater effort to increase its integral control in the family doctor office.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/etiology , Primary Health Care , Adult
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