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Rev. flum. odontol ; 1(60): 15-22, jan.-abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1411181


A epilepsia configura-se como sendo uma patologia crónica oriunda de manifestação elétrica cerebral de caráter anormal, que ocasiona repercussões neurológicas. O tratamento da epilepsia emprega a administração medicamentosa e também pode utilizar o recurso da dieta cetogénica. Sabe-se que o recurso da utilização da dieta cetogênica para enfrentamento da epilepsia promove repercussões a nível da saúde bucal dos enfermos em tratamento. O objetivo deste artigo foi evidenciar como o emprego da dieta cetogênica na terapia utilizada para enfrentamento da epilepsia pode influenciar na saúde bucal dos indivíduos em tratamento. O tratamento medicamentoso da epilepsia emprega anticonvulsivantes e muitas vezes requer o uso de mais de um medicamento para tratamento, o que pode acarretar efeitos adversos a nível sistêmico e oral. Merecem atenção e cuidados odontológicos comumente o tratamento com fármacos por intermédio da administração da fenitoína, geralmente utilizada para tratamento da epilepsia, que pode trazer repercussões odontológicas e alterações periodontais, como a hiperplasia gengival. O conhecimento e a conscientização por parte dos cirurgiões dentistas acerca dos cuidados odontológicos que devem ser adotados para esses pacientes especiais portadores de epilepsia são de suma importância para realização de uma abordagem odontológica. Concluiu-se que as repercussões bucais oriundas da epilepsia devem ser identificadas e tratadas imediatamente, ao passo que o cirurgião dentista contata os pacientes enfermos, uma vez que caso contrário pode-se conviver com agravantes e piora no quadro odontológico apresentado, portanto deve-se primar por impedir a evolução desfavorável do estado de saúde bucal dos pacientes.

Epilepsy is a chronic pathology arising from an abnormal electrical brain manifestation, which causes neurological repercussions. The treatment of epilepsy employs drug administration and can also use the ketogenic diet. It is known that the use of the ketogenic diet to cope with epilepsy promotes repercussions in terms of the oral health of patients undergoing treatment. The objective of this article was to show how the use of the ketogenic diet in the therapy used to cope with epilepsy can influence the oral health of individuals undergoing treatment. Drug treatment of epilepsy uses anticonvulsants and often requires the use of more than one drug for treatment, which can lead to adverse systemic and oral effects. Treatment with drugs through the administration of phenytoin, generally used for the treatment of epilepsy, which can bring dental repercussions and periodontal changes, such as gingival hyperplasia, deserves attention and dental care. Knowledge and awareness on the part of dental surgeons about the dental care that should be adopted for these special patients with epilepsy are of paramount importance for carrying out a dental approach. It was concluded that the oral repercussions arising from epilepsy should be identified and treated immediately, while the dental surgeon contacts sick patients, since otherwise one can live with aggravating factors and worsening of the dental condition presented, therefore, one should excel in preventing the unfavorable evolution of the patients' oral health status.

Oral Health , Dentistry , Epilepsy/therapy , Diet, Ketogenic
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2985-2991, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921244


BACKGROUND@#The scale assessment was helpful in predicting the presence of antibodies to autoimmune encephalitis. This study aimed to evaluate the application of antibody prevalence in Chinese patients with epilepsy and encephalopathy (APE2-CHN) and response to immunotherapy in Chinese patients with epilepsy and encephalopathy (RITE2-CHN) for patients with different neuronal surface antibodies.@*METHODS@#A total of 1365 patients with epileptic seizures as the prominent feature in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, from June 2016 to June 2020 were enrolled in our study. Of these, 915 patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology whose serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples were examined for autoimmune antibodies were selected. All patients were scored with antibody prevalence in patients with epilepsy and encephalopathy (APE2), response to immunotherapy with epilepsy and encephalopathy (RITE2), APE2-CHN, and RITE2-CHN scores.@*RESULTS@#Of the 915 patients, 191 patients were positive for neural-surface specific antibodies (115 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) Ab, 47 leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) Ab, 8 contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) Ab, 4 AMPA2R-Ab, and 11 GABAR-B-Ab; 3 CASPR2-Ab and LGI1-Ab, 2 NMDAR-Ab and CASPR2-Ab, and 1 NMDAR-Ab and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG] Ab). The sensitivity and specificity of APE2 ≥4 in predicting the presence of neural-surface specific antibodies in our study were 74.35% and 81.77%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of APE2-CHN ≥4 were 75.92% and 84.53%, respectively. Eight cases had an APE2 score <4 and APE2-CHN score ≥5; all these patients had memory decline as the prominent manifestation. We divided the patients into six groups according to the different antibodies. APE2-CHN scores showed higher sensitivity for the prediction of NMDAR-Ab, but lower sensitivity for LGI1-Ab. A total of 187/191 (97.91%) patients received immunotherapy and 142/191 (74.35%) patients benefited from the treatments. The patients who were positive for LGI1-Ab with RITE2-CHN ≥8 responded well to immunotherapy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#APE2-CHN had the highest value for predicting the positivity of NMDAR-Ab and RITE2-CHN evaluated the response of immunotherapy for anti-LGI1 encephalitis appropriately. However, RITE2 and RITE2-CHN do not appear to be good predictors of immunotherapy outcomes for patients with specific neuronal-surface antibodies and high APE2-CHN scores are often indicative of a poor response to immunotherapy.

Autoantibodies , China , Epilepsy/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Prevalence , Seizures
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 326-333, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878020


BACKGROUND@#Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method of controlling epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis and progression of epilepsy, but the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS in the chronic stage of epilepsy and the potential underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS, as well as potential signaling pathways by a kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic model.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to control, epilepsy (EP), EP-sham-DBS, and EP-DBS groups. KA was injected to establish the chronic epileptic model. The left ATN was implanted with a DBS lead and stimulated for 8 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate MFS and levels of potential molecular mediators in the hippocampus. One-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey post hoc correction, was used to analyze the statistical significance of differences among multiple groups.@*RESULTS@#ATN-DBS is found to significantly reduce seizure frequency in the chronic stage of epilepsy. The number of ectopic granule cells was reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P < 0.0001). Levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in the hippocampus, together with Akt phosphorylation, were noticeably reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0001, respectively). ATN-DBS also significantly reduced MFS scores in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA3 sub-regions (all P < 0.0001).@*CONCLUSION@#ATN-DBS is shown to down-regulate the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation and to reduce the number of ectopic granule cells, which may be associated with the reduced MFS in chronic epilepsy. The study provides further insights into the mechanism by which ATN-DBS reduces epileptic seizures.

Adenosine Monophosphate , Anterior Thalamic Nuclei , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Deep Brain Stimulation , Epilepsy/therapy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/therapy , Hippocampus , Humans , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal , Signal Transduction
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395608


La pandemia de COVID-19, nos ha enfrentado una situación de emergencia que ha impactado múltiples aspectos de la vida diaria y además dificultades asociadas al manejo de las enfermedades crónicas como la epilepsia, en la cual la adherencia al tratamiento, los costos y las comorbilidades, juegan un rol importante. También el personal que trabaja o que atiende a los pacientes con epilepsia, su entorno y familiares han debido modificar su accionar. Hay pacientes, que han mejorado el control de sus crisis por diferentes motivos y otros en cambio, han empeorado y además han evolucionado con mayor ansiedad. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar diferentes elementos a considerar en el manejo de las epilepsias en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19.

The COVID-19 pandemic has faced us with an emergency situation that has impacted multiple aspects of daily life and also difficulties associated with the management of chronic diseases such as epilepsy, in which adherence to treatment, costs and comorbidities, play an important role. Also, the staff who work with or care for patients with epilepsy, their environment and family members have had to modify their actions. There are patients, who have improved the control of their seizures for different reasons while others have worsened and have also presented with greater anxiety. The objective of this article is to review different elements to consider in the management of epilepsy in the context of the Pandemic by COVID-19.

Humans , Child , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Stress, Psychological , Quarantine , Mental Health , Telemedicine , Epilepsy/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 20-24, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040544


Las enfermedades neurometabólicas que manifiestan convulsiones y epilepsia constituyen un amplio grupo de trastornos hereditarios. Se pueden presentar a cualquier edad desde el período neonatal hasta la adolescencia. Las manifestaciones epilépticas pueden ser muy variadas y, en general, se trata de epilepsias refractarias a los fármacos antiepilépticos. La fenomenología epiléptica no contribuye al diagnóstico. Se deben conocer los errores innatos del metabolismo que responden al empleo de cofactores. En descompensaciones agudas es fundamental dar soporte nutricional, hidroelectrolítico y respiratorio. Es muy posible que en pocos años se pueda conocer el perfil metabolómico de estas enfermedades y así profundizar en el diagnóstico no invasivo y ofrecer mayores posibilidades terapéuticas para la epilepsia y especialmente para la enfermedad de base. No debemos olvidar los desórdenes metabólicos transitorios y los desequilibrios hidroelectrolíticos dentro de las causas de las convulsiones, en especial en el período neonatal, que se deben identificar y tratar precozmente para evitar daños mayores.

Neurometabolic diseases that manifest seizures and epilepsy are a large group of inherited disorders. They can present at any age from the neonatal period to adolescence. The epileptic manifestations can be very varied and, in general, they are epilepsies refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Epileptic phenomenology does not contribute to the diagnosis. The inborn errors of metabolism that respond to the use of cofactors should be known. In acute decompensation, it is essential to provide nutritional, hydroelectrolytic and respiratory support. It is possible that in a few years we can detect the metabolomic profile of these diseases, thus knowing better the diagnosis non-invasively and offering greater therapeutic possibilities for their epilepsy and especially for the underlying disease. We must not forget the transitory metabolic disorders and the electrolyte imbalances within the causes of seizures, especially in the neonatal period, and must be identified and treated early to avoid major damages.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Epilepsy/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Seizures/classification , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/therapy , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/therapy
Afr. j. neurol. sci. (Online) ; 38(1): 19-27, 2019. ilus
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1257445


Description: L'épilepsie-absence est un syndrome épileptique généralisé, fréquent, de cause présumée génétique, caractérisé par la survenue d'épisodes fréquents de rupture brutale et complète du contact sans perte de tonus. Objectif: L'objectif était de décrire l'épidémiologie et les caractéristiques cliniques de l'épilepsie-absence chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. Méthode: Nous avons mené une étude transversale longitudinale, portant sur 53 patients, de décembre 2003 à mars 2014 en colligeant les données épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives. L'analyse des données s'est faite avec le logiciel statistique CSPro 5.0 avec calcul de fréquences et moyennes. Résultats: Cinquante trois patients dont 42 enfants et 11 adolescents ont été colligé avec un âge moyen de 10 ans. L'âge moyen de début des crises était de 6,8 ans chez les enfants et 12,4 ans chez les adolescents. On notait une prédominance féminine à 52,4 % chez les enfants et masculine à 63,6 % chez les adolescents. Une consanguinité parentale était retrouvée dans 55,5 % chez l'enfant et 37,5 % chez l'adolescent. Quarante pourcent des enfants présentaient des antécédents familiaux d'épilepsie. Les crises survenaient spontanément dans 86,8 % des cas avec une durée moyenne de 10 secondes environ. Le Valproate de sodium a été utilisé chez tous nos patients avec une maitrise dans 81,6 % à trois mois. L'évolution de l'épilepsie-absence était globalement satisfaisante avec des difficultés d'apprentissage observées chez 22,6 % des patients. Conclusion: L'épilepsie-absence est fréquente, de causes multifactorielles et peut retentir sur le devenir psychosocial

Adolescent , Child , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Prognosis , Senegal
S. Afr. fam. pract. (2004, Online) ; 60(4): 22-27, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1270069


Epilepsy is a chronic condition whose building blocks are recurrent seizures. It is this varied presentation that at times poses a challenge to making a diagnosis. The response to treatment is also not uniform, making it necessary to individualise. This article discusses the various seizure types, the latest classification by the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE), treatment and prognosis of the condition

Epilepsy/classification , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/therapy , Seizures , South Africa
Iatreia ; 30(1): 47-55, ene. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-834664


Las personas con epilepsia tienden a ser más sedentarias que la población general. Las causas para ello son ignorancia, prejuicio, sobreprotección, temor o vergüenza. No existe sustentación científica que oriente a una limitación del ejercicio en dichas personas. Los estudios indican que son enormes los beneficios del deporte en los individuos afectados de epilepsia. Los aspectos positivos del ejercicio son acondicionamiento físico, protección para la aparición de crisis, alivio emocional, mejores destrezas sociales, mayor adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico, prevención de la osteoporosis y mejora en la calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus familias. De manera sensata y acorde con las particularidades de cada paciente, se debe prescribir u orientar el tipo de actividad física que se va a realizar. La evidencia disponible sitúa a la actividad física y el deporte en la categoría de terapia complementaria para las personas con epilepsia, que a un bajo costo, logra grandes beneficios. El llamado es a promover estas herramientas como una indicación habitual en los pacientes con epilepsia.

People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

As pessoas com epilepsia tendem ser mais sedentárias do que a população em geral. As causas para isto são ignorância, preconceito, sobre proteção, temor ou vergonha. Não existe sustentação científica que oriente a uma limitação do exercício em ditas pessoas. Os estudos indicam que são enormes os benefícios do esporte nos indivíduos afetados de epilepsia. Os aspectos positivos do exercício são acondicionamento físico, proteção para a aparição de crise, alívio emocional, melhores destrezas sociais, maior aderência ao tratamento farmacológico, prevenção da osteoporose e melhora na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e suas famílias. De maneira sensata e acorde com as particularidades de cada paciente, se deve prescrever ou orientar o tipo de atividade física que irá realizar A evidência disponível situa à atividade física e o esporte na categoria de terapia complementária para as pessoas com epilepsia, que a um baixo custo, consegue grandes benefícios. O chamado é a promover estas ferramentas como uma indicação habitual nos pacientes com epilepsia.

Humans , Motor Activity , Epilepsy/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Nervous System Diseases
Porto Alegre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Telessaúde; 2017.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995637


Na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) são comuns os atendimentos para avaliação de quadros por suspeita de epilepsia após um episódio paroxístico de abalos musculares ou por perda súbita de consciência. Entretanto, nem todo paroxismo é uma crise epiléptica e nem toda crise epiléptica é epilepsia. A epilepsia apresenta uma prevalência mundial em torno de 0,5% a 1%, sendo que 30% dos pacientes são considerados refratários, apesar de tratamento adequado com anticonvulsivante. O diagnóstico de epilepsia pode ser estabelecido clinicamente quando houver recorrência de crises epilépticas não provocadas em pessoa sem fatores desencadeantes agudos ou potencialmente reversíveis como febre, intoxicações e acidente vascular cerebral. Esta guia apresenta informação que orienta a conduta para casos de epilepsia no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde, incluindo: Avaliação e classifica da crise epiléptica, Crise epiléptica reativa, Diagnósticos diferenciais de crises epilépticas, Exames complementares, Diagnóstico de epilepsia, Indicação de tratamento, Escolha do anticonvulsivante e dose otimizada, Cuidados integrais para pacientes com epilepsia, Encaminhamento para serviço especializado.

Humans , Seizures/etiology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/therapy , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(12): 1031-1034, Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828007


ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a potentially devastating brain disorder characterized by a predisposition to spontaneous epileptic seizures. In patients with medically refractory epilepsy, new non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches may be considered. In this scenario, palliative surgery such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be indicated in a subset of patients. In this paper we make recommendations for the use of VNS and DBS in patients in Brazil with refractory epilepsy.

RESUMO Epilepsia é uma doença cerebral potencialmente devastadora caracterizada por predisposição em gerar crises epilépticas espontâneas. Em pacientes com epilepsia refratária novas abordagens terapêuticas, não farmacológicas, podem ser consideradas. Neste cenário, cirurgias paliativas, como a estimulação do nervo vago (VNS) ou estimulação cerebral profunda (DBS) podem ser indicadas em um subgrupo de pacientes. Neste trabalho sugerimos recomendações sobre as indicações de uso do VNS e do DBS em pacientes com epilepsia refratária no Brasil.

Humans , Deep Brain Stimulation/standards , Epilepsy/therapy , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/standards , Brazil , Drug Resistance
Rev. bras. enferm ; 69(4): 804-810, jul.-ago. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-789033


ABSTRACT Objective: to present a brief history of Spiritism, the vision of epilepsy by Spiritism, and the potential of spirituality and religiosity care as complementary and coadjutants treatments in epilepsy. Method: this is a brief review about the impact of faith, spirituality, and religiosity, particularly the Spiritism philosophy as complementary treatment to neurological disorders (particularly focusing on epilepsy) and mental health. We conduct a review of published articles (about religion/spirituality and epilepsy) in the Pubmed and SciELO databases. Conclusion: the exercise of spirituality and religiosity can be a positive coping strategy to support the traditional therapy of patients with epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, it is necessary to demystify myths and beliefs about the epilepsy and improve knowledge about this important health dimension among professionals, patients, and caregivers to explore their full treatment and supportive potential.

RESUMO Objetivo: apresentar uma breve história do Espiritismo, a visão da epilepsia pelo Espiritismo e o potencial dos cuidados de espiritualidade e religiosidade como tratamentos complementares e coadjuvantes na epilepsia. Método: trata-se de uma breve revisão sobre o impacto da fé, da espiritualidade, da religiosidade, particularmente da filosofia espírita, como tratamento complementar dos distúrbios neurológicos (particularmente com foco na epilepsia) e da saúde mental. Para isso, fizemos uma revisão, sobre religiosidade/espiritualidade e epilepsia, na base de dados do Pubmed e SciELO. Conclusão: o exercício da espiritualidade e da religiosidade pode ser uma estratégia de enfrentamento positiva para apoiar a terapia tradicional no tratamento de pacientes com epilepsia. No entanto, é preciso desmistificar mitos e crenças sobre a epilepsia e melhorar o conhecimento deste aspecto importante da dimensão da saúde entre profissionais, pacientes e cuidadores para explorar todo o potencial de tratamento e suporte.

RESUMEN Objetivo: presentar una breve historia del Espiritismo, la visión de la epilepsia por el Espiritismo, y el potencial de la espiritualidade y religiosidad como tratamientos complementarios y coadyuvantes de la epilepsia. Método: esta es una breve revisión del impacto de la fe, la espiritualidad y religiosidad, en particular la filosofía espiritual como tratamiento complementario de los trastornos neurológicos (centrada especialmente en la epilepsia) y la salud mental. Para esto, se realizó una revisión de la religiosidad/espiritualidad y la epilepsia en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO. Conclusión: el ejercicio de la espiritualidad y la religiosidad puede ser una estrategia de afrontamiento y tratamiento positivo para apoyar la terapia tradicional de los pacientes con epilepsia y otros trastornos neurológicos. Sin embargo, es necesario desmitificar muchas creencias sobre la epilepsia así como mejorar el conocimiento sobre este importante aspecto de la dimensión de salud entre profesionales, cuidadores y pacientes para explorar su potencial para el tratamiento y el apoyo.

Humans , Spiritual Therapies , Epilepsy/therapy , Spirituality
Rev. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(1): 31-41, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-786595


Hasta un tercio de individuos diagnosticados de epilepsia continúan teniendo crisis a pesar del tratamiento antiepiléptico apropiado. Estos pacientes pueden ser referidos para evaluación pre-quirúrgica y la cirugía es considerada un tratamiento efectivo para epilepsia relacionada a localización refractaria. Los factores que predicen un mejor resultado de la cirugía son contradictorios, y las recomendaciones incluyen evaluación detallada del rendimiento cognitivo antes y después de la cirugía; sin embargo no se considera la evaluación de la reserva cognitiva (RC). La incorporación de un instrumento que valore la RC de los pacientes permitiría incrementar la fuerza predictiva de la evaluación neuropsicológica respecto al pronóstico post-quirúrgico y aportaría a la investigación de los factores neuroprotectores en aquellos pacientes con un perfil de rendimiento cognitivo post-quirúrgico superior a la etapa pre-quirúrgica, y además permitiría conocer cómo la actividad educacional, ocupacional, y de tiempo libre de los pacientes se ven afectadas por la epilepsia y su variación después de la cirugía.

Up to one-third of individuals diagnosed as having epilepsy continue to have seizures despite appropriate antiepileptic drug treatment. Patients with refractory localization-related epilepsy can be referred for presurgical evaluation, and resective surgery is considered an effective treatment for such cases. Predictive factors of a better outcome for epilepsyÆs surgery are contradictory, and recomendations include a detailed assessment of cognitive performance before and after surgery; this process, however does not consider the evaluation of Cognitive Reserve (CR). The use of an instrument that assesses the CR of patient-candidates would increase the predictive power of neuropsychological assessment regarding post-surgical prognosis and outcome; in turn, it could contribute to research of neuroprotective factors in patients with a superior pre- and post-surgical profile of cognitive performance, and also allow knowing how the patientÆs educational and occupational activity, and use of leisure time are affected by epilepsy and its post-surgical variations.

Humans , Epilepsy/surgery , Epilepsy/therapy
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-9, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774430


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore epilepsy-related mechanism so as to figure out the possible targets for epilepsy treatment. METHODS: The gene expression profile dataset GES32534 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. We identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by Affy package. Then the DEGs were used to perform gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with the DEGs followed by co-expression modules construction and analysis. RESULTS: Total 420 DEGs were screened out, including 214 up-regulated and 206 down-regulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that down-regulated genes were mainly involved in the process of immunity regulation and biological repairing process while up-regulated genes were closely related to transporter activity. PPI network analysis showed the top ten genes with high degrees were all down-regulated, among which FN1 had the highest degree. The up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs in the PPI network generated two obvious sub-co-expression modules, respectively. In up-co-expression module, SCN3B (sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit) was enriched in GO:0006814 ~ sodium ion transport. In down-co-expression module, C1QB (complement C1s), CIS (complement component 1, S subcomponent) and CFI (complement factor I) were enriched in GO:0006955 ~ immune response. CONCLUSION: The immune response and complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Additionally, C1QB, C1S, CFI, SCN3B and FN1 may be potential therapeutic targets for epilepsy.

Humans , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/therapy , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Transcriptome , Databases, Genetic , Down-Regulation , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Gene Targeting , Protein Interaction Maps , Up-Regulation
Rev. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 130-139, jul.-sept.2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-781623


Las epilepsias resistentes a fármacos son aquellas donde hay persistencia de crisis pese a un tratamiento farmacológico óptimo. En niños su tratamiento es diferente al de los adultos, ya que las crisis producen daños encefálicos irrecuperables en un cerebro en desarrollo, por lo que se recomienda plantearla cirugía lo más precoz posible en casos de epilepsia refractaria y con alternativa terapéutica quirúrgica, incluso aunque las crisis lleven pocos meses de evolución. Entre el 25 al 33% de los niños presentan epilepsias resistentes a fármacos y la mitad de ellos son candidatos para iniciar un estudio prequirúrgico. En Perú aproximadamente 650 niños al año necesitarían cirugía, pero solo se operan unos pocos casos al año, si a esto agregamos los casos rezagados de los años anteriores, significa que hay miles de niños que esperan por una cirugía de la epilepsia. Este artículo revisa el estado del arte actual...

Drug resistant epilepsy is defined as the persistence of seizures, despite the optimal antiepileptic treatment. However the approach is different in children because they have a brain that is still developing. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed for these children to ôeliminate seizures as soon as possible to optimize cognitive development, and improve behavior and quality of lifeõ. About 25 to 33% of epileptic children have refractory epilepsy and half of them require a pre-surgical evaluation. Around 650 children in Peru need epilepsy surgery treatment every year, but few patients get access to it. If we include cases of previous years, the waiting list in Peru is over 1,000 children. This paper analyzed the state of art in epilepsy surgery in children...

Humans , Child , Epilepsy , Epilepsy/surgery , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Peru
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 393-401, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755056


Levetiracetam (LEV), an antiepileptic drug (AED) with favorable pharmacokinetic profile, is increasingly being used in clinical practice, although information on its metabolism and disposition are still being generated. Therefore a simple, robust and fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography method is described that could be used for both pharmacokinetic and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) purposes. Moreover, recovery rates of LEV in plasma were compared among LLE, stir bar-sorptive extraction (SBSE), and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Solvent extraction with dichloromethane yielded a plasma residue free from usual interferences such as commonly co-prescribed AEDs, and recoveries around 90% (LLE), 60% (SPE) and 10% (SBSE). Separation was obtained using reverse phase Select B column with ultraviolet detection (235 nm). Mobile phase consisted of methanol:sodium acetate buffer 0.125 M pH 4.4 (20:80, v/v). The method was linear over a range of 2.8-220.0 µg mL-1. The intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were studied at three concentrations; relative standard deviation was less than 10%. The limit of quantification was 2.8 µg mL-1. This robust method was successfully applied to analyze plasma samples from patients with epilepsy and therefore might be used for pharmacokinetic and TDM purposes...

Levetiracetam, fármaco antiepiléptico com perfil farmacocinético favorável, tem sido cada vez mais utilizado na prática clínica, embora informações sobre seu metabolismo e disposição cinética ainda estejam sendo geradas. Um método simples, robusto e rápido de extração líquido-líquido seguido por análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência é aqui descrito para servir tanto a investigações farmacocinéticas quanto à monitorização terapêutica. Além disso, as taxas de recuperação do levetiracetam em plasma foram comparadas entre a extração líquido-líquido, a extração sortiva em barra de agitação e a extração em fase sólida. Extração com o solvente diclorometano resultou em plasma livre de interferentes, tais como fármacos antiepilépticos co-prescritos, e apresentou taxas de recuperação em torno de 90% (extração líquido-líquido), 60% (extração em fase sólida) e 10% (extração sortiva em barra de agitação). A separação foi obtida utilizando-se coluna de fase reversa Select B e detecção ultravioleta (235 nm). A fase móvel foi composta por metanol:tampão acetato de sódio 0,125 M pH 4,4 (20:80, v/v). O método mostrou-se linear para o intervalo de 2,8 a 220,0 µg mL-1. Precisão intra- e interdias e a exatidão foram avaliadas em três concentrações; o desvio padrão relativo foi inferior a 10%. O limite de quantificação foi 2.8 µg mL-1. Este método foi aplicado para análise de amostras de plasma de pacientes com epilepsia e, desta forma, pode ser utilizado satisfatoriamente tanto para fins de farmacocinética quanto de monitorização terapêutica...

Humans , Anticonvulsants/analysis , Anticonvulsants/pharmacokinetics , Environmental Monitoring , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/therapy
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257799


Background: Epilepsy is a common disorder in South Africa and the literature indicates that many patients do not access treatment. The reasons are complex and include a poor knowledge about causes; symptoms; diagnosis and treatment (medical knowledge). This study aimed to assess the medical knowledge of isiZulu-speaking people with epilepsy (PWE) who attend a combination regional and district hospital in the eThekwini district in KwaZulu-Natal Province.Method: This was a prospective; cross-sectional; descriptive study. Data were collected using a validated data collection tool for assessing the medical knowledge of PWE and analysed descriptively.Results: The questionnaires were completed by 199 PWE; with the general level of schooling being low and half being unemployed. Knowledge around causes; symptoms; diagnosis and treatments was good; but there were significant gaps in knowledge that may affect morbidity and mortality.Discussion: The findings will serve as a useful guide to develop both preventive and educational interventions to enhance knowledge around the causes and treatment of epilepsy in this population. It is important that such interventions also consider family and healthcare providers.Conclusion: There were considerable gaps in the medical knowledge of isiZulu-speaking PWE's; indicating the need for an educational intervention to improve their understanding of epilepsy. Further research is needed-using a range of tools to ensure that the data is reliable and valid-if the results are to be generalisable to the rest of the province and South Africa

Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/therapy , Hospitals, Community , Knowledge , South Africa