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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828053

ABSTRACT

In this study, the growth index including plant height, compound leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf water content, number of branches, and leaf biomass per plant and the icariin flavonoids such as epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin of Epimedium pseudowushanense were determined on 30 d and 60 d under light intensity(18.2±2.5) μmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L1) and(90.9 ±2.5) μmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L2), and white light as control, red light, blue light and yellow light were used as three light quality treatments, to study the effect of light quality on the growth and flavonoids accumulation of E. pseudowushanense. The E. pseudowushanense was sui-table for growth under L1 light intensity, the blue light treatment significantly reduced the leaf area, but had little effect on the stem height, the red light treatment and the yellow light treatment had no obvious effect on the stem height and leaf area, but the yellow light treatment significantly increased the germination of new branches, and had a sustained promoting effect, and the biomass was significantly higher than the white light treatment at 60 d. The content of icariin flavonoids in red light, blue light and yellow light treatment was higher than that in white light treatment at 30 d and 60 d under L1 light intensity, while yellow light treatment promoted the synthesis of icariin flavonoids to the largest extent, which was 1.8 and 1.9 times of white light treatment(30 d and 60 d).Under L2 light intensity, the effect of strong light on promoting stem germination became the main factor, while the yellow light treatment showed no significant effect on promoting stem germination, and the red light treatment exhibited a significant effect on reducing leaf area. Icariin flavonoids under red light, blue light and yellow light treatment were all lower than that under white light treatment, that is, the effect of white light treatment on the synthesis of icariin flavonoids is better than red light, blue light and yellow light treatment. When the time of strong light treatment was longer, the degradation range of icariin flavonoids in other light treatment appeared, while red light treatment promotes the synthesis of icariin flavonoids. Therefore, the influence of light quality on E. pseudowushanense is quite different under different light intensity, no matter from growth index or flavonoid content index. The results support that the biomass and icariin flavonoid content can be increased by providing appropriate red and yellow light.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Flavonoids , Plant Leaves
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773178

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium,a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine,has the effect of tonifying kidney Yang,strengthening bones and treating rheumatism. However,in recent years,the number of reports on adverse reactions of Epimedii Folium and its Chinese patent medicines such as Xianling Gubao Capsules and Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills has been gradually increased,and the toxicity of Epimedii Folium has attracted more and more attention. In this article,the ancient and modern literature on Epimedii Folium was traced through a comprehensive and systematic literature analysis method. According to the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,Epimedii Folium refers to the dried leaves of Epimedii Folium brevicomu,E. sugittutum,E. pubescens or E. koreuuum. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia also includes E. wushanense of Wushan Epimedium,which is the same plant variety as Epimedium. The study showed that there were differences in the geographical distribution,composition and toxicity among five species of Epimedium. This paper also explained the toxicity mechanism as well as efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing effects of Epimedii Folium,and reported its related adverse reaction cases. Through a retrospective comparative study on the toxicity of the modern Chinese patent medicines Xianling Gubao Capsules and Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills containing Epimedii Folium,it was believed that Epimedii Folium had cardiovascular system toxicity,neurotoxicity,hepatotoxicity,long-term toxicity,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and special toxicity; its safe medication factors included patient syndrome,doctor factors,drug factors,processing and compatibility factors. Meanwhile,strategies were proposed to improve patient safety medication awareness,standardize Epimedii Folium varieties and quality supervision,and the toxicity of Epimedii Folium was studied,hoping to draw attention from scholars to the safety of Epimedii Folium,improve the safe use of Epimedii Folium,and prevent adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773156

ABSTRACT

The change of icariin( ICA) content in thirty-three samples of five Epimedium species listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),including E. brevicornu,E. sagittatum,E. pubescens,E. koreanum,and E. wushanense has been investigated in this study. The results indicated that the optimized process procedure was baking at 150 ℃ for 30 min,and 3'''-carbonyl-2″-β-L-quinovosyl icariin( CQICA) could not be translated into ICA and ICA could be converted under this heating process condition. ICA increased remarkably after the heating process by 1-3 times in E. brevicornu,E. wushanense and E. koreanum,and increased lightly in E. brevicornum and E. pubescens,while ICA slightly increased or decreased in E. sagittatum and E. wushanense.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Hot Temperature , Phytochemicals , Specimen Handling
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771680

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium is a commonly used traditional Chinese drug, and now still depends on the wild resource. In recent years, with the surge in consumption, the resources are declining, the use of market varieties are constantly changing. In this paper, Production and sales situation of the five species contained in pharmacopoeia(Epimedium brevicornu, E. sagittatum, E. pubescens, E. koreanum and E. wushanense) have been studied on the basis of the existing researches, in-depth investigation and collection of accurate plant specimens and samples. And the origins of Epimedii Folium regulated by the pharmacopoeia have been discussed. At the same time, more exclusive and practical features have been summarized on the basis of observation and comparison with the stereo, optical and stereo-fluorescence microscopy technologies, and refering the related literatures on leaf structure and anatomy.The results of this study will provide a useful reference for the clinical medication, supervision, inspection, and standard drafting and so on.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Epimedium , Chemistry , Classification , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Classification
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771529

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to find out the active components of Epimedium brevicornum using network pharmacology, and find the potential targets and mechanisms. The TCMSP database was used to screen the active ingredients, and TTD and DrugBank databases were used to predict the potential targets with the literature mining. The pathway annotation was used to enrich and analyze the active ingredients and potential targets of E. brevicornum. The results showed that E. brevicornum had34 potential target active ingredients, including 21 flavones components, such as icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, Yinyanghuo A, Yinyanghuo C and so on, 2 lignans involved in (+)-cycloolivil and olivil, 3 sterols consisting of sitosterol, 24-epicampesterol and poriferast-5-en-3beta-ol. The main predicted targets included Ptgs2, NCOA6, RANK, OPG, WNT9B, PTH1R, BMPs, SMAD4A and so on. There were 88 signaling pathways involved in 10 signaling pathways which was related to inflammation, such as NF-kappa B signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway and 10 pathways which was related to cancer included breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer and so on, and estrogen related signaling pathways included estrogen signaling pathway. This laid the foundation for the discovery of the active components of Epimedium and the study on its mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Epimedium , Classification , Metabolism , Estrogens , Flavonoids , Signal Transduction
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222836

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the protective effect of a mixture of 2 herbal extracts, KH-465, which consisted of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Angelica gigas Nakai, on spermatogenesis in a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist-induced rat model of male infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, containing 15 rats each: a normal control group that received no treatment and 4 experimental groups (I, II, III, and IV) in which an LHRH agonist was administered for 4 weeks to induce spermatogenic failure. Group I received distilled water, and groups II, III, and IV received 200 mg/kg/day of KH-465, 400 mg/kg/day KH-465, and depo-testosterone for 4 weeks, respectively. Weight changes of the testis and epididymis, sperm count motility, and levels of testosterone (T), free T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated. RESULTS: Body, testis, and epididymis weight showed no significant differences among the control and experimental groups. Treatment with KH-465 increased the sperm count and motility. Serum hormone levels of T, free T, and FSH were not significantly different in the experimental groups, while the LH level was higher than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group, but not to a significant extent. Levels of SOD were higher and 8-OHdG were lower in the groups that received KH-465 than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that KH-465 increased sperm production via reducing oxidative stress and had a positive effect in a male infertility model.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Animals , Epididymis , Epimedium , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Infertility, Male , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Male , Models, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sperm Count , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Superoxide Dismutase , Testis , Testosterone , Water
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222403

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an increase in bone resorption relative to bone formation. The most current therapies for osteoporosis have focused on inhibiting bone resorption by osteoclasts. The purpose of this study is to develop new anabolic agents for treatment of osteoporosis that have fewer risks compared to conventional therapies. We searched the natural products that were derived from the traditional Asian medicines which have been used for treatment of bone related diseases. Icaritin is a flavonoid glycoside derived from the herb Epimedium which has beneficial effects on bone formation. To determine the effect of icaritin on bone formation, we examined the effect of icaritin on MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation. For determining the effects of icaritin on proliferation, we performed the MTT assay using MC3T3-E1 cells. To evaluate whether icaritin could promote the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expressions of Runx2, osteocalcin (OCN), RANKL, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined. Icaritin increased MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Icaritin increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on 72 hour culture in osteogenic media. mRNA expression of Runx2 was increased after 24 hour culture with icaritin. mRNA expression of osteocalcin was increased after 72 hour culture with icaritin. In addition, icaritin increased the mRNA expressions of OPG and RANKL. However, icaritin increased the mRNA expression of OPG much more than that of RANKL, and then, it increased the OPG/RANKL ratio. These results suggest that icaritin promotes osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and decreases osteoclast formation regulated by osteoblasts.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Anabolic Agents , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biological Products , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Resorption , Cell Proliferation , Epimedium , Humans , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Osteoprotegerin , RNA, Messenger
8.
Singapore medical journal ; : 115-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304075

ABSTRACT

Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Cordyceps , Databases, Factual , Deer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Glucocorticoids , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mineralocorticoids , Panax , Plant Preparations , Risk , Singapore , Steroids , Tissue Extracts
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328251

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of total flavonoids of Herba Epimedium (FHE) on BMP-2/RunX2/OSX signaling pathway in promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Passage 3 BMSCs were randomly divided into the control group, the experimental group, and the inhibitor group. BMSCs in the control group were cultured in 0.2% dimethyl sulfoxide + Osteogenuxic Supplement (OS) fluid + DMEM/F12 culture media. BMSCs in the experimental group were intervened by 20 microg/mL FHE. BMSCs in the inhibitor group were intervened by 20 microg/mL FHE and 1 microg/mL NOGGIN recombinant protein. At day 9 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured. Calcium nodules were stained by alizarin red staining and the density was observed. The transcription expression of osteogenic differentiation-related proteins (type I collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin) and related factors of BMP-2/RunX2/OSX signaling pathway was assayed by RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, ALP activities were enhanced and the density of calcium nodules significantly increased; type I collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin expression levels were increased in the experimental group. The expression of osteogenesis-related transcription factor was also increased in the experimental group. Noggin recombinant protein inhibited FHE promoting BMSCs osteogenesis in the inhibitor group. Compared with the experimental group, ALP activity decreased (P < 0.05), the density of calcium nodules was lowered, expression levels of type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the inhibitor group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>20 microg/mL FHE promoted osteogenic differentiation process of BMSCs by BMP-2/RunX2/OSX signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Osteocalcin , Metabolism , Osteogenesis , Osteopontin , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sp7 Transcription Factor , Transcription Factors , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812579

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes and has become a major health problem worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Herba Epimedii, HE) and its main constituent icariin on the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HE extract and icariin significantly reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. They also inhibited fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-Co A synthase (ACS1), and perilipin. Moreover, HE extract and icariin markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicated that HE extract and icariin can inhibit the adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors, suggesting that HE containing icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and prevention of obesity.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha , Genetics , Metabolism , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Mice , PPAR gamma , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284811

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the characteristics of the spray drying of total flavonoids of Epimedium extracts assisted with soybean polysaccharide, a certain percentage of soybean polysaccharide or polyvidone were added to the total flavonoids of Epimedium extract to conduct the spray drying. The effect of soybean polysaccharides against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying was detected, as well as the powder property of total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component. Compared with the total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder, soybean polysaccharide revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect. The spray drying power which had no notable change in the grain size made a increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior. It was worth further studying the application of soybean polysaccharide in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Particle Size , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Powders , Soybeans , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246073

ABSTRACT

The formulation for sustained release tablet of Epinedium component was selected and the evaluation equation of in vitro release was established. The liquidity of component was improved with the help of colloidal silica aided by spray drying, which would be the main drug in the sustained release tablets. Dissolution was selected as an evaluation index to investigate skeletal material type, fillers, impact porogen, lubricants and other materials on the quality of sustained release tablet. The sustained release tablets were prepared by dry compression. Formulation of sustained release preparations was main drug 35%, HPMC K(4M) 20% and HPMC K(15M) 10% as skeleton material, MCC 31% as filler, PEG6000 2% as porogen and magnesium stearate 2% as lubricant. The sustained release tablets released up to 80% in 8 h. The zero order equation, primary equation and Higuchi equation could simulate the release characteristics of sustained release tablets in vitro, the correlation coefficients r were larger than 0.96. The primary equation was most similar in vitro release characteristics and its correlation coefficient r was 0.9950. The preparation method is simple and the results of formulation selection are reliable. It can be used to guide the production of Epimedium component sustained release preparations.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Delayed-Action Preparations , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Kinetics , Tablets , Chemistry
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287183

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether Epimedium brevicornu Maxim (EB) and icariin could exert their protective effects on hydrocortisone induced (HCI) rats by regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endocrine system and the possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male 10-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allotted to 6 groups (A-F) with 12 each, group A was injected normal saline (NS) 3 mL/kg day intraperitoneally, group A and B were given NS 6 mL/kg day by gastrogavage, group B-F were injected hydrocortisone 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally, group C and D were given EB 8 or 5 g/(kg day) by gastrogavage, group E and F were given icariin 25 or 50 mg/(kg day) by gastrogavage. Gene expressions of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein of pituitary POMC by Western-blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum T4, testosterone, cortisol and POMC mRNA expression were increased after treatment with EB or icariin in HCI rats, the serum CRH and the hypothalamus CRH mRNA expression released from hypothalamus corticotropin decreased compared with group B (P<0.05).The treatment with only icariin increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) compared with group B (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EB and icariin might be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of HCI rats through attuning the HPA axis and endocrine system which was involved in the release of CRH in hypothalamic, and the production of POMC-derived peptide ACTH in anterior pituitary, the secretion of corticosteroids in adrenal cortex.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blood , Animals , Blotting, Western , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Blood , Genetics , Epimedium , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Gene Expression , Hydrocortisone , Pharmacology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Hypothalamus , Chemistry , Male , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Chemistry , Genetics , Proteins , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351285

ABSTRACT

Epmedii Folium is a commonly used traditional Chinese drug, and is beneficial for the "liver" and "kidney" s function in Chinese medicine. Recently, the origin of this drug is more complex. Most of the identification studies are emphasized on the species certified by the pharmacopoeia and other related species from the same genus of Epimedium, but few was emphasized on the counterfeit. In this paper, one counterfeit of Epmedii Folium, identified as the dried leaf of Quercus variabilis (Fam. Fagaceae), has been reported based on field investigation, comparing specimen of Epmedii Folium and Q. variabilis,using the macroscopic, microscopic and TmC methods. It is resulted that they could be identified clearly not only by the macroscopic features, such as the vein character and the tooth apex, but also by the microscopic features, such as the vascular bundles of the midrib, the non-glandular hair, the anticlinal wall of the epidermis cell and the calcium oxalate crystal. Furthermore their TLC chromatograms showed also difference. This study will give reference for the identification of Epmedii Folium and the related supervision and inspection work.


Subject(s)
China , Discriminant Analysis , Epimedium , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quercus , Chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351277

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the characteristic of porous starch (PS) as the solid dispersions carrier of the total Epimedium flavonoids (TEF), the PS was used. The dissolution of icariin was selected as an indicator to analyze the differences of dissolution between TEF and its solid dispersion. TEF was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Solid dispersion was irregular block and no powder characteristics of TEF and PS could be seen in SEM, DSC and XRD analysis suggested that TEF may be present in solid dispersion as amorphous substance. The dissolution rate of icariin has been improved significantly when the proportion of TEF and PS was 1:2. PS as a traditional solid dispersion carrier is worthy of further study.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Porosity , Solubility , Starch , Chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351276

ABSTRACT

The study was using the orthogonal test and making the extraction rates of icariin, ferulic acid, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, baohuoside I and ligustilide determinated by HPLC multiwavelength switch, gradient elution and multi-index comprehensive weighted scoring method (weight coefficient was 0.47: 0.16: 0.07: 0.07: 0.08: 0.06: 0.09) as evaluation index, combine with SPSS 16.0 software to optimizing the best extraction. It was Yinpian soak 1 h, 12 times more than the volumn of 50% ethanol solution, by heating reflux extraction for 60 min. The compliance test indicates that the optimized compatibility extraction technology is stable and practical, and it has provided an experimental basis for compound preparation technology research of Epimedium brevicornu and Ligusticum chuanxiong.


Subject(s)
Chemical Fractionation , Methods , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Ligusticum , Chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812470

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to systematically investigate the ESI-MS(n) behavior of a complex 3, 7-O-glycosyl flavonol, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-[2,3-di-O-β-D-(6-E-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranosyl]-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (KO) isolated from Epimedium wushanense, and to address the elimination priority among different glycosylation sites and different sugars/substituents. The direct-infusion ESI-MS(n) experiment of KO was performed on a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer in both negative and positive ion modes by three different fragmentation mechanisms (CID, HCD, and PQD). The CID, HCD, and PQD analyses of KO exhibited remarkable discrimination in respect of the scan range, richness, and distribution of product ions through the entire spectra. KO experienced different fragmentation pathways between two ionization modes: the negative mode CID of KO eliminated the glycosyl portions (priority: 7-sugar > 3-substituent and terminal substituents > inner sugar) and produced aglycone product ions at m/z 284.03/285.04; however, abundant sodium-adduct B(3)2 together with subsequent (i,j)X(3)0 cleavages were found characteristic for the positive mode CID-MS(n). The fragmentation pathways by CID for KO were proposed by analyzing the high accuracy ESI-MS(n) data. Complementary structural information of KO regarding the aglycone and glycosyl portions was obtained by analyzing the ESI-MS(n) data in both ionization modes. In conclusion, the LTQ-Orbitrap method facilitates highly reliable qualitative analysis of bioactive flavonoids with three alternative fragmentation modes.


Subject(s)
Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonols , Glycosides , Glycosylation , Herbal Medicine , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244581

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the action of suet oil in the preparation of self-assembled micelles of the active flavonoids in Epimedium in the simulated human environment was researched. Twelve suet oil samples were collected from different growing areas and different positions of sheep or goat to simulate the formation of micelles. Then the effects of the fatty acids in suet oil on the preparation of self-assembled micelles were studied furthermore. The results showed that the micelles had a dispersed state and spherical smooth surface. To compare the diameter, potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the 12 batches micelles, the micelles prepared by the suet oil from Qinghai were more stable and had a higher encapsulation efficiency. The fatty acids in suet oil could promote the formation of self-assembled micelles, but the whole suet oil had a better effect. Above all the study, we confirmed that the suet oil promoted the formation of self-assembled micelles of the flavonoids in Epimedium, it laid foundation for further research about increasing the efficacy of Epimedium and improved the absorption of the active flavonoids in Epimedium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , China , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Electric Conductivity , Epimedium , Chemistry , Fatty Acids , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Geography , Goats , Humans , Micelles , Oils , Chemistry , Sheep
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236318

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of total flavonoids of epimedium (TFE) on the streptozocin (STZ)-induced kidney injury in diabetic rats and discuss the possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Diabetes was produced by a single injection of streptozocin (40 mg/kg, iv) in male SD rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, model group and TFE group (100 mg/kg, ig). Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks later. The level of blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) as well as the renal index were determined. Detect the specific biochemical of renal tissue: superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA). Use masson staining to observe the morphology of the renal tissue. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to control group, the enhancement of blood glucose, renal index, BUN and Cr was found in model group, which was significantly attenuated by treatment with TFE. Meanwhile, elevated MDA level in renal tissue as well as decreased SOD activities in renal tissue were significantly remitted by TFE. Furthermore, TFE decreased the expression of TGF-beta1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TFE can evidently relieve renal damage in rats with diabetic nephropathy induced by STZ, which might be related to antioxidation and modulating the expression of TGF-beta1 protein.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies , Metabolism , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327897

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of total flavones of Epimedium leptorrhizum (YYH-C) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided into the model group, YYH-C lower, middle and high dose (0.7, 1.4, 2.8 g x kg(-1)) groups, the positive drug Bujiale (0.15 mg x kg(-1)) group, and the sham group. The rats were orally ad-ministrated with drugs for three months. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), procollagen I N-terminal peptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca) and phosphrous (P) in serum were detected. Femur bones and vertebrae bones of left side were collected to determined bone metrological indexes, including bone mineral density (BMD), bone Ca, and bone ash weight/dry weight percentage. Femur bones of right side were collected to for a morphological observation of bone.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the sham group, the model group showed significantly higher PTH and ALP content but obviously lower PINP and Ca content. The three YYH-C 3 groups could resist the decrease of PINP. Specifically, low and middle dose groups could remarkably inhibit the increase of PTH, and the high dose group could increase the Ca content in serum, but without significant effect on the rise in ALP. There was no significant difference in P content in serum in each group. BMD, ash weight/dry weight percentage, Ca and P content of the model group were significantly lower than those in the sham group. The high dose YYH-C group could significantly increase BMD. All of the three YYH-C groups could notably increase ash weight/dry weight percentage and Ca, P content in femur bones and vertebrae bones. YYH-C could significantly increase average thickness, area, area percentage of bony trabeculae, cortical bone area percentage of femoral shaft and the number of osteoblasts on the surface of bony trabeculae, and decrease the number of osteoclasts.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>YYH-C can effectively control the bone mass loss of rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, prevent the changes in bone microstructure, and inhibit bone absorption, so as to resist high turn-over osteoporosis after ovariectomy. [Key words] total flavones of Epimedium leptorrhizum; ovariectomized rat; osteoporosis</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Metabolism , Animals , Bone Density , Calcium , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Chemistry , Female , Flavones , Humans , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Ovariectomy , Parathyroid Hormone , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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