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Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341236


Abstract Introduction Vasopressors are essential in the management of various types of shock. Objective To establish the trend of vasopressors use in the intensive care units (ICU) in a population of patients affiliated with the Colombian Health System, 2010-2017. Methods Observational trial using a population database of patients hospitalized in eleven ICUs in various cities in Colombia. The drugs dispensed to hospitalized patients over 18 years old, from January 2010 until December 2017 were considered. A review and analysis of the vasopressors dispensed per month was conducted, taking into account sociodemographic and pharmacological variables (vasopressor used and daily doses defined per 100/beds/day (DBD). Results 81,348 dispensations of vasopressors, equivalent to 26,414 treatments in 19,186 patients receiving care in 11 hospitals from 7 cities were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 66.3±18.1 years and 52.6 % were males. Of the total number of treatments recorded, 17,658 (66.8 %) were with just one vasopressor. Norepinephrine was the most frequently prescribed drug (75.9 % of the prescriptions dispensed; 60.5 DBD), followed by adrenaline (26.6 %; 41.6 DBD), dopamine (19.4%), dobutamine (16.0 %), vasopressin (8.5 %) and phenylephrine (0.9 %). The use of norepinephrine increased from 2010 to 2017 (+6.19 DBD), whilst the use of other drugs decreased, particularly the use of adrenaline (-60.6 DBD) and dopamine (-10.8 DBD). Conclusions Norepinephrine is the most widely used vasopressor showing a growing trend in terms of its use during the study period, which is supported by evidence in favor of its effectiveness and safety in patients with shock.

Resumen Introducción Los fármacos vasopresores son fundamentales en el manejo de los diferentes tipos de choque. Objetivo Determinar la tendencia de utilización de fármacos vasopresores en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en una población de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia, 2010-2017. Métodos Estudio observacional, a partir de una base de datos poblacional con pacientes hospitalizados en once UCI de diferentes ciudades de Colombia. Se obtuvieron las dispensaciones de pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2017. Se hizo revisión y análisis de la dispensación mensual de vasopresores. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas y farmacológicas (medicamento vasopresor usado y dosis diarias definidas por 100 camas/día [DCD]). Resultados Se revisaron 81.348 dispensaciones de vasopresores, equivalentes a 26.414 terapias en 19.186 pacientes atendidos en 11 hospitales de 7 ciudades, cuya edad promedio fue 66,3±18,1 años y el 52,6 % eran hombres. Del total de terapias registradas, 17.658 (66,8 %) fueron con un solo vasopresor. La norepinefrina fue el más comúnmente prescrito (75,9 % de las dispensaciones; 60,5 DCD), seguido por adrenalina (26,6 %; 41,6 DCD), dopamina (19,4 %), dobutamina (16,0 %), vasopresina (8,5 %) y fenilefrina (0,9 %). El uso de norepinefrina se incrementó de 2010 a 2017 (+6,19 DCD), mientras que el de otros fármacos disminuyó, especialmente adrenalina (-60,6 DCD) y dopamina (-10,8 DCD). Conclusiones La norepinefrina es el fármaco vasopresor más utilizado y el que ha demostrado una tendencia de uso incremental durante el periodo de estudio, lo cual está respaldado por evidencia a favor de su efectividad y seguridad en pacientes con choque.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasopressins , Intensive Care Units , Phenylephrine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Epinephrine , Norepinephrine , Dobutamine , Drug Utilization , Dosage , Prescriptions
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850


Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.

Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.

Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 1-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785464


BACKGROUND: In the Emergency Department (ED), diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis are challenging with at least 50% of anaphylaxis episodes misdiagnosed when the diagnostic criteria of current guidelines are not used.OBJECTIVE: Objective of our study was to assess anaphylaxis diagnosis and management in patients presenting to the ED.METHODS: Retrospective chart review conducted on patients presenting to The Medical City Hospital ED, the Philippines from 2013–2015 was done. Cases were identified based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision coding for either anaphylaxis or other allergic related diagnosis. Cases fitting the definition of anaphylaxis as identified by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network (NIAID/FAAN) were included. Data collected included demographics, signs and symptoms, triggers and management.RESULTS: A total of 105 cases were evaluated. Incidence of anaphylaxis for the 3-year study period was 0.03%. Of the 105 cases, 35 (33%) were diagnosed as “urticaria” or “hypersensitivity reaction” despite fulfilling the NIAID/FAAN anaphylaxis criteria. There was a significant difference in epinephrine administration between those given the diagnosis of anaphylaxis versus misdiagnosed cases (61 [87%] vs. 12 [34%], χ² = 30.77, p < 0.01); and a significant difference in time interval from arrival at the ED to epinephrine administration, with those diagnosed as anaphylaxis (48%) receiving epinephrine within 10 minutes, versus ≥ 60 minutes for most of the misdiagnosed group (χ² = 52.97, p < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Despite current guidelines, anaphylaxis is still misdiagnosed in the ED. Having an ED diagnosis of anaphylaxis significantly increases the likelihood of epinephrine administration, and at a shorter time interval.

Anaphylaxis , Classification , Clinical Coding , Communicable Diseases , Demography , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Food Hypersensitivity , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Philippines , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW5055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056057


ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of different doses, times for infusion of the first dose, intervals of administration of subsequent doses, and number of epinephrine doses in the survival of children and adolescents who went into cardiorespiratory arrest. It is a review study with data from the PubMedⓇ/MEDLINEⓇdatabase. The search was for articles published from January 1st, 2000 to February 10, 2019, with a sample of patients aged under 18 years, published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. We found 222 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria of the study. The first dose should be given as soon as possible. The standard dose (0.01mg/kg) has a better outcome when compared to the higher dose (0.1mg/kg). There is an iⓇverse relation between the number of epinephrine doses and survival. The interval currently recommended between doses has lower survival when compared to larger intervals. The dosage recommended by the American Heart Association presents a better outcome for survival, but the interval between doses and the maximum number of doses should be better assessed.

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de diferentes doses, tempos para infusão da primeira dose, intervalos de administração de doses subsequentes e número de doses de epinefrina na sobrevida de crianças e adolescentes que sofreram parada cardiorrespiratória. Trata-se de estudo de revisão, cujas buscas foram feitas na base de dados PubMedⓇ /MEDLINEⓇ. Foram selecionados artigos publicados de 1° de janeiro de 2000 até 10 de fevereiro de 2019, realizados em menores de 18 anos de idade, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram encontrados 222 artigos, dos quais 16 atenderam os critérios de inclusão no estudo. A primeira dose deve ser aplicada o mais rápido possível. A dose padrão (0,01mg/kg) apresenta melhor desfecho quando comparada à dose alta (0,1mg/kg). Houve relação inversa entre número de doses de epinefrina e sobrevida. O intervalo entre doses recomendado atualmente apresenta menor sobrevida quando comparado a intervalos maiores. A dose recomendada pela American Heart Association apresenta melhor desfecho para sobrevida, porém o intervalo entre doses e o número máximo de doses devem ser melhor avaliados.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/administration & dosage , Heart Arrest/drug therapy , Time Factors , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Heart Arrest/mortality
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1192-1204, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094122


RESUMEN Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta ocurre por una lesión sangrante localizada entre el esfínter esofágico superior y el ángulo de Treitz. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento del tratamiento endoscópico del sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica, en el departamento de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez". Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para evaluar el resultado del tratamiento endoscópico en el sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica en el Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez" de Matanzas, de enero del 2016 a febrero del 2018. El tratamiento endoscópico fue la inyectoterapia con epinefrina al 1:10000. Se analizaron las variables: grupo de edades, sexo, resultado del tratamiento endoscópico, estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado, recidiva hemorrágica, mortalidad directa, necesidad de cirugía, estadía hospitalaria y cantidad de unidades transfusionales. Resultados: se constató un predominio de pacientes masculinos (87.5 %), menores de 60 años (70%). Prevalecieron los pacientes con estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado activo venoso (45%). La terapia endoscópica tuvo un resultado satisfactorio (92.5%) en su mayoría. La ocurrencia de resangrado (45%), mortalidad directa por hemorragia digestiva, promedio de estadía hospitalaria, cantidad de unidades transfusionales y necesidad de intervención quirúrgica de urgencia (17.5%), resultó similar a los estudios reportados, demostrando que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los casos tratados con inyectoterapia endoscópica tuvieron un sangrado activo venoso o Forrest IB que fue satisfactoria. La inyectoterapia no satisfactoria fue en pacientes con sangrado activo. La mortalidad directa relacionada con el sangrado fue infrecuente y en relación con el sangrado arterial. Se demostró que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas (AU).

SUMMARY Introduction: high digestive bleeding happens due to a bleeding lesion located between the upper anatomical sphincter of the esophagus and the angle of Treitz. Objective: to determine the endoscopic treatment behavior of high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer, in the department of Gastroenterology of the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez". Materials and methods: a prospective descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the result of the endoscopic treatment in high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer in the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez", of Matanzas, from January 2016 to February 2018. The endoscopic treatment was injecto-therapy with epinephrine at 1:10000. The analyzed variables were: age group, sex, result of the endoscopic treatment, bleeding endoscopic stigma, hemorrhagic relapse, direct mortality, surgery necessity, hospital staying, and quantity of transfusion units. Results: male patients (87.5 %), aged less than 60 years predominated. Patients with endoscopic stigma of venous active bleeding (45 %) prevailed. In most of cases, endoscopic therapy achieved satisfactory results (92.5 %). The authors found that bleeding relapse (45 %), direct mortality by digestive hemorrhage, average hospital staying, quantity of transfusion units and necessity of urgent surgeries (17.5 %) were similar to those reported in other studies. Conclusions: most cases treated with endoscopic injectotherapy had active venous or Forrest IB bleeding and treatment was satisfactory. Therapy was unsatisfactory in patients with active bleeding. The direct mortality related to bleeding was infrequent, and related to arterial bleeding. It was showed that endoscopic injectotherapy is still an efficacious option if other endoscopic therapies are not available (AU).

Middle Aged , Aged , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhage/therapy , Peptic Ulcer/etiology , Behavior , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/epidemiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 444-450, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020503


Abstract Objectives: Postoperative arrhythmia is an important complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgeries among patients. It seems that opioid usage is implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition due to its impacts on different organ systems, such as the autonomic nervous system. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of opium use on postoperative arrhythmia in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Methods: Study participants were selected via convenience sampling from patients undergoing CABG surgery in a referral hospital. Study variables, including use of inotropic drugs, vital signs monitoring parameters and postoperative arrhythmia were observed and recorded at baseline and at follow-up time after surgery. Results: Sixty-five (14.8%) patients had postoperative arrhythmia, and 104 participants were addicted. Prevalence of postoperative arrhythmia was the same among addict and non-addict patients. According to the regression analysis model, only serum level of epinephrine in operating room, heart rate and central venous pressure at baseline and 48 hours after operation are known as independent predictors of postoperative arrhythmia among study population. Conclusion: This study showed that although opium addiction increased postoperative arrhythmia among patients undergoing CABG surgery, this difference was not significant, and this association is probably mediated by other study variables.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Opioid-Related Disorders/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Epinephrine/adverse effects , Central Venous Pressure , Heart Rate , Intensive Care Units
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 6(1): 36-46, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023753


Los anestésicos locales han cambiado de manera destacada la historia y la práctica de la medicina, la evolución en los métodos de desarrollo de anestésicos ha hecho posible el desarrollo de anestésicos convencionales para uso común en procedimientos médicos quirúrgicos locales, hablando en especial de dos anestésicos que se utilizan diariamente en los diferentes niveles de atención de salud mundial, la lidocaína y posteriormente la lidocaína con epinefrina. Es por el uso cotidiano de estos anestésicos que ahora es posible hacer procedimientos menores en los pacientes sin exponer a los mismos al dolor de los procedimientos propiamente dicho o la causa de dolor no procedimental. Se utiliza cada uno de acuerdo al efecto deseado que se requiera en el paciente, teniendo en cuenta las diversas precaucio-nes dada la potencial toxicidad que poseen, así como la técnica que se va a utilizar. En este artículo de revisión bibliográfica, se presentan las generalidades de ambos anestésicos, las indicaciones, precauciones, efectos adversos y comparación de toxici-dad entre ambos anestésicos. Esta revisión bibliográfica se realizó a partir de 36 artícu-los tomando como referencia los siguientes: literatura médica, artículos de revistas cien-tíficas y otras revisiones bibliográficas menores de 5 años de haber sido publica-dos o aquellos con relevancia histórica...(AU)

Humans , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local , Lidocaine/pharmacokinetics , Review
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 22(1): e001077, abr. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015125


La bronquiolitis es una infección respiratoria aguda baja de causa viral, de aparición invernal, que es común en bebés de 0a 12 meses de edad. Conduce a que las vías respiratorias pequeñas se inflamen y se llenen de desechos, obstruyéndose.El bebé tiene una tos fuerte, secreción nasal, generalmente fiebre y puede presentar sibilancias dificultad respiratoria ydesaturación de oxígeno. Tras la presentación de un caso en la guardia se generó una controversia científica sobre lautilidad de los broncodilatadores en pacientes con bronquiolitis. Luego de realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica y seleccionarla evidencia más reciente y de mejor calidad, se concluye que la evidencia no apoya el uso de broncodilatadores enpacientes con bronquiolitis.(AU)

Bronchiolitis is a low acute respiratory lower respiratory tract infection of viral origin, winter appearance, which is commonin babies from 0 to 12 months of age. It causes the small airways in the lungs to become inflamed and fill with debris. Theinfant has a harsh cough, runny nose, usually fever and may have wheezing, respiratory distress and oxygen desaturation.After the presentation of a case in the emergency department, a scientific controversy was generated about the usefulnessof bronchodilators in patients with bronchiolitis. After conducting a literature search and selecting the most recent and bestquality evidence, it is concluded that evidence does not support the use of bronchodilators in patients with bronchioliTIS.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchiolitis/drug therapy , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Albuterol/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/adverse effects , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Epinephrine/adverse effects , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cough/prevention & control , Albuterol/adverse effects , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Fever/prevention & control
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740004


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the pain perception and anesthetic efficacy of 2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, buffered lignocaine, and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine for the inferior alveolar nerve block. METHODS: This was a double-blind crossover study involving 48 children aged 5–10 years, who received three inferior alveolar nerve block injections in three appointments scheduled one week apart from the next. Pain on injection was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces pain scale and the sound eye motor scale (SEM). Efficacy of anesthesia was assessed by subjective (tingling or numbness of the lip, tongue, and corner of mouth) and objective signs (pain on probing). RESULTS: Pain perception on injection assessed with Wong-Baker scale was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between buffered lignocaine and articaine (P = 0.041). The onset of anesthesia was lowest for buffered lignocaine, with a statistically significant difference between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001). Moreover, the efficacy of local analgesia assessed using objective signs was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between lignocaine and articaine. CONCLUSION: Buffered lignocaine was the least painful and the most efficacious anesthetic agent during the inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 5–10-year-old patients.

Analgesia , Anesthesia , Appointments and Schedules , Buffers , Carticaine , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Epinephrine , Humans , Hypesthesia , Lidocaine , Lip , Mandibular Nerve , Pain Perception , Tongue
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739996


OBJECTIVE: Arthrocentesis is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that is used to alleviate the symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of arthrocentesis on the blood supply to the retinal structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Arthrocentesis was performed on 20 patients with TMJ disorders, and choroidal thickness (CT) in patients was measured to evaluate retinal blood circulation. The blood volume of the retinal structures was evaluated ipsilaterally before and after arthrocentesis, and these measurements were then compared with measurements obtained from the contralateral side. RESULTS: Before arthrocentesis, there were no differences in retinal blood volumes between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides (P = 0.96). When ipsilateral CT measurements taken before and after arthrocentesis were compared, retinal blood supply was found to have significantly decreased after arthrocentesis (P = 0.04). When contralateral CT measurements taken before and after arthrocentesis were compared, retinal blood supply was also found to have decreased after arthrocentesis, but not significantly (P = 0.19). CONCLUSION: The solution of local anesthesia with epinephrine applied before the arthrocentesis procedure was found to reduce the blood volume of the retinal structures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has investigated the blood volume of the retinal structures following arthrocentesis.

Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Arthrocentesis , Blood Circulation , Blood Volume , Choroid , Epinephrine , Humans , Retinaldehyde , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Temporomandibular Joint
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759562


BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a reversal agent for non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers and widely used worldwide on account of its rapid and effective reversal from neuromuscular blockade, despite its advantages, multiple cases of sugammadex-induced anaphylactic shock have been reported. CASE: A 42-year-old man developed anaphylactic shock in the postanesthesia care unit. Initially, sugammadex was suspected as the causative agent, but an intradermal skin test revealed negative results. A further skin test was performed with sugammadex-rocuronium complex that yielded positive results. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesiologists and healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of anaphylaxis from the sugammadex-rocuronium complex, as well as from sugammadex or rocuronium alone.

Adult , Anaphylaxis , Epinephrine , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Skin Tests
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758484


OBJECTIVE: The outcome of traumatic cardiac arrests remains poor. Nevertheless, the prehospital treatments for traumatic arrests are insufficient in Korea. This study was conducted to compare the prehospital treatments in traumatic and non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center study based on the prospectively collected database of an academic tertiary medical center. The study period was from 2009 to 2017. The following items were compared: age, sex, rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), prehospital intubation, prehospital defibrillation, prehospital epinephrine administration, CPR duration, rates of return of spontaneous circulation, and the survival discharge. RESULTS: Among 786 arrest patients, there were 226 (28.7%) traumatic cardiac arrests and 560 (71.2%) non-traumatic cardiac arrests. The rate of bystander CPR was lower (3.1% vs. 17.5%, P<0.001) in traumatic OHCAs. The prehospital intubation, defibrillation, and epinephrine administration were lower in traumatic OHCAs. CONCLUSION: The prehospital treatments, including bystander CPR, prehospital intubation, and epinephrine administration, were performed less actively in traumatic OHCAs. On the other hand, these results were limited to a single hospital.

Advanced Trauma Life Support Care , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Epinephrine , First Aid , Hand , Heart Arrest , Humans , Intubation , Korea , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762814


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the safety of one-per-mil tumescent injections into viable skin flaps that had survived an ischemic insult, in order to assess the potential suitability of one-per-mil tumescent injections in future secondary reconstructive procedures such as flap revision and refinements after replantation. METHODS: Forty groin flaps harvested from 20 healthy Wistar rats weighing 220 to 270 g were subjected to acute ischemia by clamping the pedicle for 15 minutes. All flaps showing total survival on the 7th postoperative day were randomly divided into group A (one-per-mil tumescent infiltration; n=14), group B (normal saline infiltration; n=13), and group C (control, with no infiltration; n=13) before being re-elevated. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO₂) was measured before and after infiltration, and changes in TcPO₂ were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, the paired t-test, and the independent t-test. The viability of flaps was also assessed using the Analyzing Digital Images software at 7 days after the second elevation. RESULTS: Thirty-nine flaps survived to the final assessment, with the sole exception of a flap from group A that did not survive the first elevation. TcPO₂ readings showed significant decreases (P<0.05) following both one-per-mil tumescent (99.9±5.7 mmHg vs. 37.2±6.3 mmHg) and normal saline (103±8.5 mmHg vs. 48.7±5.9 mmHg) infiltration. Moreover, all groin flaps survived with no signs of tissue necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: One-per-mil tumescent infiltration into groin flap tissue that had survived ischemia did not result in tissue necrosis, although the flaps experienced a significant decrease of cutaneous oxygenation.

Constriction , Epinephrine , Groin , Hand Injuries , Ischemia , Necrosis , Oxygen , Rats, Wistar , Reading , Reperfusion Injury , Replantation , Skin , Vasoconstriction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762734


BACKGROUND: Because many cosmetic surgery clinics are not adequately equipped to handle emergent conditions, patients often come to a university hospital when problems occur during or after cosmetic surgery. However, few in-depth studies have been conducted of this issue. Therefore, we investigated emergency department visits due to complications associated with cosmetic surgery. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 38 patients who visited the emergency department of the authors' institution due to complications associated with cosmetic surgery from July 2014 to June 2017. RESULTS: There were more women than men (30 women vs. 8 men). Their mean age was 32.4 years (range, 19–57 years). Upon presentation to the emergency department, patients' vital signs and mental status were usually normal (27 normal vs. 11 abnormal). The types of surgery included blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, malar/orthognathic surgery, mammaplasty, liposuction, fat grafting, and filler and botulinum toxin injections. Most patients required hospitalization (26 admitted vs. 12 discharged). Eight of the hospitalized patients required intensive care unit care, of whom two died and three experienced brain death or had permanent neurologic sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were usually minor problems, despite the need for hospitalization, but some complications were life-threatening. We recommend close monitoring and maintaining an adequate injection capacity for intravenous sedative anesthesia. When any symptom or sign of a complication occurs, it is best to transfer the patient to a university hospital as soon as possible. Taking a careful medical history is always needed, even for minor procedures.

Anesthesia , Blepharoplasty , Botulinum Toxins , Brain Death , Cardiomyopathies , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lipectomy , Male , Mammaplasty , Retrospective Studies , Rhinoplasty , Surgery, Plastic , Transplants , Vital Signs
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762201


PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbation could be life-threatening medical emergencies. The 119 (911 in the United States) rescue teams are at the forefront of such emergency conditions. Early recognition and proper prehospital management by 119 rescuers are important. We evaluated the awareness of 119 rescuers of anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbation in Korea. METHODS: Between May 17 and June 28 of 2018, a total of 180 rescuers were recruited from Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. The 90-minute educational sessions on anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbation were provided by an allergy specialist, which included some lectures and a hands-on workshop on self-injectable epinephrine autoinjector. A questionnaire survey with the same content was performed before and after education to assess the improvement in awareness. It had 2 domains: anaphylaxis awareness and asthma awareness. RESULTS: After education, awareness score for anaphylaxis increased from an average of 3.1 (51.7%) to 5.5 (91.7%). Particularly, the effect of education on the use of epinephrine, the most crucial treatment for anaphylaxis, was greatest. The awareness score for asthma after education increased from an average of 21.3 (78.9%) to 25.1 (93%). The effect of education on treatment and management of asthma was greatest. CONCLUSION: The 119 rescuers could be the first medical personnel at the forefront of anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbation. Hence, it is important to increase their awareness of anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbation. A simple educational activity can dramatically change the level of awareness.

Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Education , Emergencies , Epinephrine , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Lecture , Rescue Work , Specialization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762141


PURPOSE: Epinephrine is a key drug for treating anaphylaxis; however, its underuse is still a significant issue worldwide. The objective of this study was to compare epinephrine use between pediatric and adult patients who were treated with anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: The data were retrieved from the National Sample Cohort of South Korea, which contains claim data from the National Health Insurance Service. We included patients who visited the ED with a discharge code of anaphylaxis between 2004 and 2013. We assessed prescription information of epinephrine, antihistamine and systemic steroid, previous medical history and discharge disposition from the ED. The study population was categorized based on age at the visit. RESULTS: A total of 175 pediatric and 1,605 adult patients with anaphylaxis were identified. Only 42 (24%) of the pediatric patients were treated with epinephrine, while 592 (36.9%) of the adult patients were treated with epinephrine (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the pediatric patients were less likely to be treated with systemic steroid than the adult patients (6.9% vs. 12.3%, P = 0.047). The odds ratios for the administration of epinephrine relative to the baseline in the 19-65 age group were 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15–0.67), 0.56 (95% CI, 0.28–1.03) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.45–1.33) in the < 7, 7–12 and 13–18 age groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric patients with anaphylaxis experienced a lower rate of epinephrine injection use than the adult patients and the injection use decreased as age decreased.

Adult , Anaphylaxis , Cohort Studies , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio , Prescriptions
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764941


BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is increasing in young children. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of anaphylaxis in Korean infants, with a focus on food triggers. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of infants aged 0 to 2 years old who had been diagnosed with anaphylaxis in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: We identified 363 cases of infantile anaphylaxis (66.9% male). Cutaneous symptoms were most prevalent (98.6%), followed by respiratory (83.2%), gastrointestinal (29.8%), and neurologic (11.6%) symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms were noted in 7.7% of the cases. Most of the cases of anaphylaxis (338; 93.1%) were induced by foods. The most common trigger food was cow's milk and cow's milk products (43.8%), followed by hen's eggs (21.9%), walnuts (8.3%), wheat (7.7%), peanuts (4.8%), other nuts (3.0%), and fish (2.1%). In cow's milk-induced anaphylaxis cases, more than half the cases had cow's milk specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels that were lower than the diagnostic decision points (DDPs), which is 5 kUA/L for those under the age of 1 and 15 kUA/L for those over the age of 1. In anaphylaxis induced by hen's egg, most of the cases (91.8%) had hen's egg sIgE levels that were higher than the DDP, which is 2 kUA/L for those under the age of 2 and 7 kUA/L for those over the age of 2. Of the infantile anaphylaxis cases, 46.8% had been treated with epinephrine, and 25.1% had been prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector. CONCLUSION: Cow's milk is the most frequent trigger food of anaphylaxis in Korean infants. However, we found no significant correlation between the sIgE level and clinical severity. Education is required regarding the importance of epinephrine as the first line therapy for anaphylaxis and on properly prescribing epinephrine for infants with a history of anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Education , Eggs , Epinephrine , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum