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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
2.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 6(1): 36-46, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023753

ABSTRACT

Los anestésicos locales han cambiado de manera destacada la historia y la práctica de la medicina, la evolución en los métodos de desarrollo de anestésicos ha hecho posible el desarrollo de anestésicos convencionales para uso común en procedimientos médicos quirúrgicos locales, hablando en especial de dos anestésicos que se utilizan diariamente en los diferentes niveles de atención de salud mundial, la lidocaína y posteriormente la lidocaína con epinefrina. Es por el uso cotidiano de estos anestésicos que ahora es posible hacer procedimientos menores en los pacientes sin exponer a los mismos al dolor de los procedimientos propiamente dicho o la causa de dolor no procedimental. Se utiliza cada uno de acuerdo al efecto deseado que se requiera en el paciente, teniendo en cuenta las diversas precaucio-nes dada la potencial toxicidad que poseen, así como la técnica que se va a utilizar. En este artículo de revisión bibliográfica, se presentan las generalidades de ambos anestésicos, las indicaciones, precauciones, efectos adversos y comparación de toxici-dad entre ambos anestésicos. Esta revisión bibliográfica se realizó a partir de 36 artícu-los tomando como referencia los siguientes: literatura médica, artículos de revistas cien-tíficas y otras revisiones bibliográficas menores de 5 años de haber sido publica-dos o aquellos con relevancia histórica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local , Lidocaine/pharmacokinetics , Review
3.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 138 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881841

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar a reatividade vascular de agentes vasoconstritores presentes nas soluções anestésicas locais (Adrenalina - vasoconstrição e vasodilatação; Felipressina - vasoconstrição), nas doses de 80, 160, 320, 640 e 1280ng (adrenalina) ou 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4 x10-3UI (felipressina), em leito arterial mesentérico deratos normotensos, diabéticos, hipertensos renais um-rim, um-clip (1R-1C) e hipertensos1R-1C-diabéticos. E correlacionar tal reatividadecom expressão de RNAm dos receptores 1A e 2- adrenérgicos, V1A para vasopressina e AT1A, AT1Be AT2 para angiotensina II visando verificar se a hipertensão arterial e o diabetes mellitus provocam alteração em modelo indutivo e isogênico. Ratos Wistar pesando 110-160g, foram anestesiados com mistura de quetamina e xilazina (50+10mg/ml/kg de peso), tiveram seu abdômen aberto e receberam um clip de prata com abertura 0,25mm na artéria renal esquerda, removendo-se cirurgicamente o rim direito (ratos 1R-1C). Após 14 dias, receberam injeção subcutânea de estreptozotocina (50 e 60mg/kg de peso) para indução do diabetes mellitus sendo a glicemia testada pela veia caudal previamente aos experimentos (diabéticos). Após 30-42 dias da implantação do clip, todos os grupos foram novamente anestesiados e implantou-se cânula de polietileno (PE-50) na artéria carótida esquerda para registro direto da pressão arterial. Após registro da pressão os animais tiveram a artéria principal mesentérica exposta e canulada. O leito arterial mesentérico foi então isolado e colocado em banho com solução nutritiva de Krebs a 37ºC. O cateter foi conectado ao sistema de registro computadorizado (PowerLab®) utilizando software específico (Chart 5Pro ®). Analisaram-se: a pressão máxima (vasoconstrição) e mínima (vasodilatação), o tempo necessário para atingir esse valor, duração total da resposta, integral e integral sobre a linha de base. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de medidas repetidas (ANOVA), seguida do teste de Holm-Sidak (distribuição normal) ou de Mann-Whitney (nãoparamétrico), quando apropriado, nível de significância de 5%. Todas as respostas máximas de vasoconstrição apresentaram comportamento dose-dependente, contudo, para os quatro grupos estudados, a resposta vasoconstritora para adrenalina foi significativamente superior à felipressina (p<0,05). Diabetes e hipertensão reduziram a resposta vasoconstritora da adrenalina e da felipressina, valores de integral sobre a linha de base, respectivamente para grupo controle, diabético, hipertenso e hipertenso-diabético: 2462±465; 1511±236; 2542± 5456 e 3749±819mmHg.s (p<0,05) para adrenalina e 3749 ± 708; 746 ± 103; 1647 ± 422; 1359 ± 591 mmHg.s (p<0,05) para felipressina. Tanto o diabetes quanto a hipertensão, associadas ou não, aumentaram significativamente o tempo para atingir a pressão máxima de vasoconstrição e a duração (p<0,05). As artérias mesentéricas de ratos diabéticos, hipertensos e diabéticos-hipertensos apresentaram expressão significativamente aumentada dos receptores 1Aadrenérgico, AT1B e AT2 para angiotensina II (p<0,05), enquanto receptor AT1A estava com a expressão aumentada apenas nos grupos diabéticos. A expressão do receptor 1A-adrenérgico é discrepante com os achados funcionais, o que pode ser justificado pela fase crônica da doença em que a PCR foi realizada. É possível correlacionar os dados obtidos com a menor atividade vasoconstritora da felipressina observada clinicamente. A maior sensibilidade às moléculas vasoconstritoras pode explicar a maior tendência de pacientes diabéticos desenvolverem hipertensão. A partir dos dados obtidos pode-se concluir que a adrenalina é o vasoconstritor mais potente que a felipressina e ambas as moléculas tem seus efeitos reduzidos em pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos, o que reforça a indicação de se utilizar anestésicos locais associados a vasoconstritores nestas populações.(AU)


The main goal of this study wasto evaluate and compare vasoconstrictor agents present in local anesthetic solutions (Epinephrine - vasoconstriction and vasodilation, Felypressin - vasoconstriction) vascular reactivity on mesenteric artery bed of normotensive, diabetic, renal hypertensive one-kidney-one-clip (1K1C) and hypertensive 1K1C diabetic rats. Dosagesstudied were 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280ng (epinephrine) or 0,25; 0,5;1; 2 and 4 x 10-3UI (felypressin). Also, we aimed to correlate artery response with RNAm expression of 1A and 2-adrenoceptors, V1A vasopressin receptor and AT1A, AT1B e AT2 angiotensin receptors, in order to verify if arterial hypertension and diabetes can lead to alterations on a inductive and isogenic model. Wistar male rats weighing 110-160g were anaesthetized with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine (50+10mg/ml/kg), had their abdominal cavity opened and a silver clipwith 0.25-mm gap was implanted in the main left kidney artery, the right kidney was surgically removed (1K1C-rats). After 14 days, they received a subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin (50 and 60 mg/ml/kg) for inducing diabetes, whereas the glycemia was tested via the tail vein prior to surgery (diabetic rats). Around 30-42 after the clip was implanted, all the groups were anaesthetized again and a polyethylene (PE-50) cannula was implanted on the left carotid artery for direct arterial pressure register. After registering the pressure, the animals had their main mesenteric artery exposed and cannulated. The mesenteric artery bed was then isolated and transferred to a bath with Krebs nutritive solution at 37ºC. The catheter was connected to the computer register system (PowerLab®) using a specific software (Chart 5Pro ®). The following parameters were analyzed: maximum (vasoconstriction) and minimal pressure (vasodilating), the amount of time necessary to achieve this number, total duration of the reaction, integral and integral over baseline. The data was submitted to analysis of variance of repeated measures (ANOVA), followed by a Holm-Sidak (normal distribution) test or Mann Whitney (parametrics) test when suitable, with a significance level of 5%. All maximum vasoconstriction results presented dosage-dependant behavior, however, for the four groups tested, the vasoconstrictive result for epinephrine was significantly superior to felypressin (p<0,05). Diabetes and hypertension significantly reducedepinephrine and felypressin vasoconstrictor responses, integral above baseline, respectively, for control, diabetic, hypertensive and hypertensive-diabetic groups:2462±465; 1511±236; 2542± 5456 e 3749±819 mmHg.s (p<0.05, epinephrine) and 3749 ± 708; 746 ± 103; 1647 ± 422; 1359 ± 591 mmHg.s (p<0.05, felypressin). Both diabetes and hypertension, associated or not, significantly increased time necessary to achieve maximum vasoconstrictor response and its duration (p<0,05). Diabetic, hypertensive and hypertensive-diabetic mesenteric arteries presented 1A-adrenoceptor, AT1B and AT2 angiotensin II-receptor gene expression significantly increased when compared with control group (p<0,05), while AT1Areceptor presented this pattern only in diabetic groups.1A-adrenoceptor gene expression did not confirm functional data, probably due to chronic disease state in wich PCR was performed. A partir dos dados obtidos pode-se concluir que a adrenalina é o vasoconstritor mais potente que a felipressina e ambas as moléculas tem seus efeitos reduzidos em ratos hipertensos e diabéticos não tratados, o que reforça a indicação de se utilizar anestésicos locais associados a vasoconstritores nestas populações.Its possible to correlate our datawith reducedvasoconstrictor activity of felypressinin clinical use. Increased sensibility and receptor population for vasoconstrictor endogenous molecules could explain diabetic populations tendency to develop arterial hypertension. Our results suggest that epinephrine is more potent than felypressin and both vasoconstrictors presents reduced effects on diabetic and hypertensive patients, what reinforces vasoconstrictor associated with local anesthetic use in this population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/analysis , Angiotensin II/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/analysis , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasopressins/analysis
4.
Rev. ADM ; 72(5): 236-242, sept.-oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-775331

ABSTRACT

La colocación de anestesia local genera un dolor manifestado por los pacientes, pues antes de que el anestésico inicie su efecto, ingresa a la mucosa a una temperatura inferior a la corporal y produce un estímulo doloroso. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de la temperatura de la lidocaína al 2 por ciento con epinefrina 1:80,000 sobre el dolor por inyección e inicio de acción. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio ciego en 38 pacientes sometidos a dos aplicaciones de lidocaína 2 por ciento con epinefrina 1:80,000 a temperatura de 37o C y temperatura ambiente. Resultados: Según la escala visual análoga, se obtuvieron para la administración de anestesia a 37o C valores de 6.63 ± 5.037 mm, y para la administración a temperatura ambiental, valores de 12.870 ± 12.001 mm (p < 0.05). Según la escala de respuesta verbal, se encontró que para la administración de anestesia a 37o C, el 100 por ciento manifestó un dolor menor a lo esperado¼, mientras que en la administración a temperatura ambiente, sólo 61 por ciento manifestó olor menor de lo esperado¼ (p < 0.05). En relación con el tiempo de inicio de acción, se encontró que la administración de anestesia a 37o C presentó un valor de 201.66 ± 85.336 segundos, mientras que para la administración a temperatura ambiente, se presentó un valor de 286.66 ± 84.292 segundos (p < 0.05). Conclusión: La administración del anestésico local a 37o C produce menor intensidad de dolor y menor tiempo de inicio de acción en compa-ración con la administración de anestésico local a temperatura ambiente.


The placement of local anesthesia causes pain in patients due to the fact that before the anesthetic takes effect, it fi rst enters the mucosa at a temperature that is below body temperature, which results in a pain stimulus. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the temperature of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 affects the pain caused by an injection and the onset of action. Material and methods:We performed a blind study involving 38 patients who received two applications of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000, one at 37 oC and the other at room temperature. Results: Based on the visual analog scale, administering anesthesia at 37 oC produced values of 6.63 ± 5.037 mm, and at room temperature, values of 12.870 ± 12.001 mm (p < 0.05). On the verbal response scale, administering anesthesia at 37 oC resulted in 100% expressing ®less than expected¼ pain, while the administration at room temperature resulted in only 61% expressing ®less than expected¼ pain (p < 0.05). In terms of time to onset of action, it was found that administering anesthesia at 37 oC produced a value of 201.66 ± 85.336 seconds, whereas at room temperature, the value was 286.66 ± 84.292 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Administering the local anesthetic at 37 oC produces a lower pain intensity and shorter onset of action compared to doing so at room temperature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Nerve Block/instrumentation , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Data Collection , Mandibular Nerve , Toothache/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis
5.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 30(1)2015. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-862

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO Os pacientes ex-obesos necessitam de uma abordagem complexa, diante do grande excesso de pele decorrente da perda ponderal. Em alguns casos, muitas cirurgias plásticas são necessárias, não havendo uma padronização na associação destas cirurgias. No segmento superior do corpo, a região dos braços, a lateral do tórax e as mamas normalmente são acometidas, principalmente nas mulheres. Diversas técnicas foram desenvolvidas com o objetivo de alcançar resultados melhores e com cicatrizes mais escondidas. Algumas técnicas podem ser associadas, sendo realizadas em um único tempo cirúrgico. Quando a equipe é bem estruturada, o tempo cirúrgico é reduzido, significando mais segurança para o paciente. MÉTODO: Os autores apresentam uma técnica que oferece padronização no tratamento do ex-obeso, que é realizada em tempo único: a Mamoplastia (pela técnica de Pitanguy ou com aposição de prótese mamária), a Toracoplastia (com a retirada do excesso de pele na lateral do tórax) e a Braquioplastia (realizada com um desenho retilíneo na parte mais inferior dos braços). RESULTADOS: Os sete casos foram avaliados quanto ao tempo cirúrgico, à localização das cicatrizes, à forma final e à simetria. Entre as complicações, houve deiscências parciais (14%) e cicatrizes hipertróficas (14%). O resultado estético foi satisfatório para os pacientes em 84% dos casos, sendo que a qualidade da cicatrização do paciente, queloide ou cicatrizes hipercrômicas, foi a maior causa de insatisfação. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da técnica de Toracobraquio-mamoplastia em um único tempo se mostrou efetiva no tratamento do ex-obeso, oferecendo mais uma opção, diante das outras cirurgias que estes pacientes normalmente necessitam.


INTRODUCTION Ex-obese patients require a complex surgical approach because of the large amount of excess skin due to their massive weight loss. In some cases, several plastic surgeries are needed, and there is no existing standard in the coordination of these surgeries. In the upper segment of the body, the arms, side of the thorax, and breasts are usually affected, mainly in women. Several techniques have been developed with the aim of achieving better results with better hidden scars. Some techniques may be associated, being carried out in a single surgical procedure. A well-structured surgical team leads to a reduced surgical time, which means higher safety for the patient. METHOD: We present a technique for standardization in the treatment of ex-obese patients that is performed in a single step, comprising mammoplasty (according to Pitanguy's technique or with placement of breast prosthesis), thoracoplasty (with the removal of excess skin on the side of the chest), and brachioplasty (performed with a rectilinear drawing at the lowest part of the arms). RESULTS: Seven cases were evaluated in terms of surgical time, location of the scars, and final shape and symmetry. The complications included partial dehiscence (14%) and hypertrophic scars (14%). The aesthetic result was satisfactory for 84% of the patients; on the other hand, the quality of cicatrization, keloid, and hypertrophic scars were the major causes of dissatisfaction. CONCLUSION: The use of the thoracobrachio-mammoplasty technique in a single surgical time was effective in the treatment of ex-obese patients, offering yet another option among other surgeries that these patients usually need.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , History, 21st Century , Postoperative Complications , Surgery, Plastic , Thoracoplasty , Case Reports , Gastroplasty , Weight Loss , Epinephrine , Mammaplasty , Evaluation Study , Anesthesia, General , Obesity , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Surgery, Plastic/adverse effects , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Thoracoplasty/adverse effects , Thoracoplasty/methods , Gastroplasty/adverse effects , Gastroplasty/methods , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Mammaplasty/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Obesity/surgery
6.
Clinics ; 68(8): 1146-1151, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of terlipressin and naloxone in cardiac arrest. METHODS: Cardiac arrest in rats was induced by asphyxia and maintained for 3.5 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated and randomized into one of six groups: placebo (n = 7), epinephrine (0.02 mg/kg; n = 7), naloxone (1 mg/kg; n = 7) or terlipressin, of which three different doses were tested: 50 µg/kg (TP50; n = 7), 100 µg/kg (TP100; n = 7) and 150 µg/kg (TP150; n = 7). Hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline and at 10 (T10), 20 (T20), 30 (T30), 45 (T45) and 60 (T60) minutes after cardiac arrest. Arterial blood samples were collected at T10, T30 and T60. RESULTS: The mean arterial pressure values in the TP50 group were higher than those in the epinephrine group at T10 (165 vs. 112 mmHg), T20 (160 vs. 82 mmHg), T30 (143 vs. 66 mmHg), T45 (119 vs. 67 mmHg) and T60 (96 vs. 66.8 mmHg). The blood lactate level was lower in the naloxone group than in the epinephrine group at T10 (5.15 vs. 10.5 mmol/L), T30 (2.57 vs. 5.24 mmol/L) and T60 (2.1 vs. 4.1 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: In this rat model of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, terlipressin and naloxone were effective vasopressors in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and presented better metabolic profiles than epinephrine. Terlipressin provided better hemodynamic stability than epinephrine. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Heart Arrest/drug therapy , Lypressin/analogs & derivatives , Models, Animal , Naloxone/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Asphyxia/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Epinephrine/metabolism , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Lypressin/metabolism , Lypressin/pharmacology , Naloxone/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 557-562, maio 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592595

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability - that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83 percent of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9 percent settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93 percent in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78 percent regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62 percent in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33 percent in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a taxa de assentamento larval e recuperação de sementes de ostras da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana, em laboratório, através do uso de coletores plásticos, epinefrina (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) e pó de concha em tanques de assentamento. Foram utilizados coletores plásticos de polipropileno, presos a armações de bambu. O material foi escolhido devido à boa maleabilidade, o que facilita o destacamento das sementes. Foram realizados dois experimentos, o primeiro entre fevereiro e abril de 2008, e o segundo entre novembro e dezembro de 2008 no Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. No primeiro experimento, testaram-se coletores de plástico arranhado consorciado com pó de concha em um tanque de assentamento, enquanto que no segundo foram utilizados dois tanques de assentamento, um contendo os coletores de plástico consorciado com pó de concha e apenas pó de concha, e, no outro tanque, utilizou-se epinefrina como estimulador da metamorfose. Foi realizada a quantificação das larvas assentadas nos coletores plásticos e a taxa de recuperação e integridade das sementes após o destacamento. No primeiro experimento, recuperaram-se 48,83 por cento de sementes em relação às larvas D utilizadas. Deste percentual, 4,9 por cento assentaram em coletores plásticos e 43,93 por cento em pó de concha. No segundo experimento, a porcentagem de sementes assentadas em relação ao total de larvas utilizadas foi de 55,78 por cento com o uso de epinefrina, 78,62 por cento no tratamento com coletor mais pó de concha e de 58,33 por cento no tratamento só com pó de concha. Assim, verifica-se que o uso de coletor mais pó de concha resulta em maior recuperação de sementes se comparado com os demais tratamentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/pharmacology , Crassostrea/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Metamorphosis, Biological/drug effects , Crassostrea/growth & development , Incubators , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development
8.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 2011; 45 (1): 7-20
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166110

ABSTRACT

Acute psychological stressors induce damage in organs as heart. Catecholamines are responsible for acute stress effects. Adrenaline, through 1-adrenergic receptors; stimulates EOF release to the blood. Because plasma catecholamine concentration is high during the stress and afterwards, organs are exposed to combined effects of both catecholamines and EGF. Intermale fighting [IF stress model] does not raise plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity ,while increases plasma transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] activities, So the heart is protected. EGF may protect the heart against the harmful effects of epinephrine. The present research studied EGF administration on adrenaline induced effects in the rabbit heart [invitro] of 8 groups of male white New Zealand rabbits. Heart tissues were excised and incubated. revealed a significant decrease in heart rate, contractility and coronary flow rate in Epidermal growth factor gp. A non significant change in heart rate and coronary flow rate and heart contractility after infusion of alpha blocker and adrenaline.While a significant decrease in heart rate, heart contractility and coronary flow rate in either adrenaline with beta Blocker group and or EGF with adrenaline and a blocker group. EGF with adrenaline and beta Blocker group produced a significant increase in heart rate, heart contractility and coronary flow rate. In spite of EGF positive effects on heart properties, it interfered with the adrenaline positive effects through Beta receptors


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Epinephrine/physiology , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Adrenal Medulla/physiology , Rabbits
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 82(3): 89-91, jul.-sep. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-585050

ABSTRACT

Los autores consideran que la epinefrina debe ser el fármaco de primera línea en el tratamiento del estado de choque séptico en el neonato y el niño, y que la recomendación de mantener la dopamina como fármaco de primera línea solo traería atraso terapéutico. Para el logro de este propósito sugieren el uso de la epinefrina por vía periférica y no esperar a la obtención de un acceso venoso central


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/therapy
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Aug; 47(4): 249-253
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135273

ABSTRACT

Plant cell wall expresses monoamine oxidases (MAOs) that catalyze oxidation of secreted amines and produce H2O2 in the process. The H2O2, so produced is used by cell wall peroxidases for lignification of cell wall or for plant defense. The natural substrates for these MAOs are elusive, but polyamines and certain catecholamines have been proposed as candidates. Reactive oxygen species are also known to act as signaling molecules controlling plant metabolism. Mungbean (Vigna radiata) has long served as the plant model of choice while studying molecular programs followed during germination and seed development. In this study, we tested the effect of externally added MAO substrates epinephrine and H2O2 on storage protein mobilization in germinating seeds of Vigna radiata. The seeds were imbibed in the presence of 50 M epinephrine and 10 M H2O2. These low concentrations of the two compounds were used to exclude direct effects on proteolysis and were arrived at after testing a range of the two and choosing the most effective concentration. These seeds showed 11% and 7% decrease in fresh weight respectively, indicating greater storage mobilization and a corresponding 19% and 46% increase in axis length as compared to untreated seeds. Soluble protein in seeds treated with epinephrine and H2O2 decreased significantly by 34% and 33% as compared to untreated seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of seed proteins revealed a startling and selective depletion of storage proteins in treated seeds. The results indicated a clear involvement of H2O2 in storage protein mobilization in the cotyledons. We propose that H2O2 generated within cell walls of seeds serves as a signaling molecule guiding germination events, including protein reserve mobilization.


Subject(s)
Cell Wall/enzymology , Cell Wall/metabolism , Densitometry/methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods , Epinephrine/chemistry , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Fabaceae/enzymology , Germination/drug effects , Germination/physiology , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Lignin/chemistry , Monoamine Oxidase/chemistry , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species , Seeds/chemistry , Signal Transduction
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 166-171
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135190

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is one of the major causes of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain and cardiac functions. In earlier studies, we have reported the brain damage caused by hypoxia and resuscitation with oxygen and epinephrine and have found that glucose treatment to hypoxic rats and hypoxic rats treated with oxygen shows a reversal of brain damage. The neonatal rats are shown to be deficient in free radical scavenging system, which offers a high risk of oxidative stress. In the present study, we induced hypoxia in neonatal Wistar rats and resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Heart tissue and cerebral cortex were used to study the kinetics of superoxide dismutase activity in experimental groups of rats to assess the free radical status. Results showed that glucose supplementation in hypoxia (Hx + G) and hypoxic + oxygen (Hx + O) had an efficient free radical scavenging capability, compared to all other experimental groups. The observation was ascertained by studying the activity of catalase, another antioxidant enzyme in the body. Our results suggested that in neonatal rats during hypoxic condition, damage to heart and brain was more prominent in all groups, except when supplemented with glucose. These findings may have clinical significance in the proper management of heart and brain function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia/enzymology , Catalase/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/therapeutic use , Heart/drug effects , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/pharmacology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Resuscitation , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136587

ABSTRACT

The effects of glucagon and epinephrine on gluconeogenesis in young (4 month) and old (24 month) Fisher 344 rat hepatocytes were compared. In contrast to glucagon, which had a similar effect on gluconeogenesis in both young and old cells, epinephrine caused a smaller increase in gluconeogenesis in old rat hepatocytes than in young hepatocytes. beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) expression slightly decreased in aged rat liver, and there were differences between young and old hepatocytes in their patterns of G protein coupled receptor kinases, which are involved in the activation of beta2-AR receptor signal desensitization. The major isoform of the kinase changed from GRK2 to GRK3 and the expression of beta-arrestin, which is recruited by the phosphorylated beta2-AR for internalization and degradation, increased in aged rat liver. GRK3 overexpression also decreased the glucose output from young rat hepatocytes. We conclude that an age-associated reduction in epinephrine-induced gluconeogenesis occurs through the epinephrine receptor desensitizing system.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Aging/drug effects , Animals , Epinephrine/pharmacology , G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2/metabolism , G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3/metabolism , Glucagon/pharmacology , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Male , Models, Biological , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/agonists
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136586

ABSTRACT

The effects of glucagon and epinephrine on gluconeogenesis in young (4 month) and old (24 month) Fisher 344 rat hepatocytes were compared. In contrast to glucagon, which had a similar effect on gluconeogenesis in both young and old cells, epinephrine caused a smaller increase in gluconeogenesis in old rat hepatocytes than in young hepatocytes. beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) expression slightly decreased in aged rat liver, and there were differences between young and old hepatocytes in their patterns of G protein coupled receptor kinases, which are involved in the activation of beta2-AR receptor signal desensitization. The major isoform of the kinase changed from GRK2 to GRK3 and the expression of beta-arrestin, which is recruited by the phosphorylated beta2-AR for internalization and degradation, increased in aged rat liver. GRK3 overexpression also decreased the glucose output from young rat hepatocytes. We conclude that an age-associated reduction in epinephrine-induced gluconeogenesis occurs through the epinephrine receptor desensitizing system.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Aging/drug effects , Animals , Epinephrine/pharmacology , G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2/metabolism , G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3/metabolism , Glucagon/pharmacology , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Male , Models, Biological , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/agonists
14.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 2(2): 129-136, dic. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-531874

ABSTRACT

Los anestésicos locales asociados a agentes vasoconstrictores son ampliamente utilizados en la prácticaodontológica común y cirugía bucal. Estos inhiben la conducción del impulso nervioso, generando una pérdida reversible de la sensibilidad local en relación al sitio de aplicación, pudiendo provocar diversos cambios hemodinámicos, siendo potencialmente negativos para aquellos pacientes que presentan alguna patología sistémica. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existen variaciones de los parámetros cardiovasculares pre y post técnica anestésica troncular al nervio alveolar inferior con vasoconstrictor, en pacientes que van a ser sometidos a cirugía de terceros molares inferiores incluidos. La muestra incluyó a 20 pacientes ASA I, entre los 17 y 24 años, con indicación de exodoncia de las piezas 3.8 y 4.8. El procedimiento se efectuó en los pabellones de Cirugía Bucal de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae. A cada paciente se le midió la presión arterial sistólica (PAS), presión arterial diastólica (PAD), presión arterial media (PAM) y frecuencia cardiaca (FC) en tres tiempos: 1. Al momento del examen. 2. Antes de la infiltración anestésica. 3. A los 5 minutos, posterior a la infiltración (4 tubos de lidocaína 2 por ciento con epinefrina 1:100.000). Se realizaron las comparaciones de los valores entre los distintos tiempos dentro de cada género, mediante una comparación múltiple de medias de Duncan. Las comparaciones de los diferentes tiempos entre ambos géneros se realizaron mediante la prueba t-student. El nivel de significación utilizado fue de a = 0,05. De los parámetros estudiados, se obtuvo que la PAM y la PAD no presentaron cambios significativos entre los tiempos estudiados; lo mismo sucedió con la PAS para el género femenino. Sin embargo, se observó que en el género masculino la PAS fue significativamente mayor en el tercer tiempo en relación al primer tiempo. Así también, se encontraron diferencias significativas...


Local anesthetics associated with vasoconstrictors agents are widely used in common dental practice and oral surgery. These inhibit the conduction of nerve impulse, generating a reversible loss of local sensitivities in relation to the site of application and may provoke hemodynamic changes, being potentially negative for those patients who have any systemic disease. The aim of this study was to determine if there are variations within cardiovascular parameters pre and post anesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve with vasoconstrictor in patients undergoing to mandibular third molar surgery. The sample included 20 healthy patients between 17 and 24 years old, selected for mandibular third molar surgery. The procedure took place in the oral surgery’s operating rooms of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad Finis Terrae. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in 20 patients, at three different times: 1. At the time of the examination. 2. Before the anesthetic infiltration. 3. Five minutes subsequent to the infiltration (4 tubes of lidocaine 2 percent with epinephrine 1:100.000). The comparisons of the values between the different times within each gender were made, by means of Duncan’s multiple comparison of averages, and the comparisons between the different times and between both genders were made by means of t-student’s test. The signification level used was a = 0.05. From the comparison of the studied parameters, we found that the MAP and the DBP did not present significant changes between the studied times; the same happened with the SBP in the female group. Nevertheless, we found that in the male group, the SBP was significantly greater in third time in relation to the first time. Thus also, we found a significant difference in the HR parameter, being the average of the first time measurement smaller than the average of second time for both genders...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthesia, Local , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Heart Rate , Blood Pressure , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Molar, Third/surgery
16.
Journal of Medical Science-Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. 2008; 4 (4): 251-258
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-108501

ABSTRACT

Increasing use of regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia may be the most important factor in decreasing anesthetic difficulties [e.g. difficult intubations, aspiration pneumonia, and analgesic side effect] in caesarean section. Quality of regional anesthesia is improved by adding morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil. The function of Epinephrine is dose-dependent. For instance, in small dosage, it has stimulating effects on Beta1 and Beta2 causing venous stasis to minimize. However, in large doses, Epinephrine's Alfa adrenergic is dominant. This study aimed at investigating the potential hemodynamic effects of adding Epinephrine to lidocaine during spinal anesthesia on expecting mothers who are candidates of caesarean section. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial on 100 pregnant women who were candidates for caesarean section with ASA class I, II in the year of 1387. The subjects of the study were divided into two groups, [1] and [2] on the basis of the randomized digital table as follows: Group 1:80 mg lidocaine 5% +2 micro gram sufentanil Group2: 80 mg lidocaine 5% +2 micro gram sufentanyl + 0.2 mg [0.2cc] Epinephrine. Both groups received the drugs intrathecally. Vital signs such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate and SPO2 were recorded both before the anesthesia and thereafter every 5 minutes until the end of the operation. The measuring procedure continued during and after the recovery stage. Besides, the side effects and the drugs needed were recorded. According to the findings in this study, there weren't any significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, weight, ASA, NPO timing and the previous surgery. There weren't any significant differences between the two groups of the study in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, either. However, some hypotension was noted in Adrenaline group. Also, there weren't any significant differences in PR but some bradycardia was seen in Adrenaline group, too. There weren't any significant differences in SPO2 and side effects [nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, respiratory disorder, shivering] between the two groups. Adding Epinephrine to Lidocaine 5% increased the duration of spinal aesthesia in caesarean section whereas no significant difference was observed in terms of hemodynamic and side effects. Nevertheless, regarding the emergence of hypotension and bradycardia observed in the Adrenaline group, no matter how rare, close control of hemodynamic in this group is essential


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Anesthesia, Spinal , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Cesarean Section , Prospective Studies , Double-Blind Method
18.
Medical Journal of Cairo University [The]. 2007; 75 (3): 543-549
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145697

ABSTRACT

Regional anesthesia is considered an effective method for providing analgesia both intraoperatively and postoperatively and also decreases the total amount of general anesthesia required for surgery, provides more rapid recovery and faster wake up times. Caudal block is the most useful and common pediatric regional block as it is widely applicable and technically simple. Many factors influence the activity of caudally administrated local anesthetic solutions as dosage, addition of a vasoconstrictor e.g. epinephrine and addition of drugs as Ketamine and Clonidine. In this study, we compared the analgesic efficacy and side effects of Bupivacaine alone, Bupivacaine + Epinephrine, Bupivacaine + Clonidine and Bupivacaine + Ketamine. In the current study the addition of drugs to Bupivacaine has significantly extended the duration of caudal analgesia more than Bupivacaine alone especially with Ketamine and Clonidine


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bupivacaine , Child , Ketamine/pharmacology , Clonidine/pharmacology , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Comparative Study
19.
Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 8 (4): 48-53
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-83605

ABSTRACT

Spinal anesthesia due to its simplicity, rapid onset of its effect and low dose of drug administration, is a desirable procedure to anesthetics particularly for lower extremity and lower abdomen operations. Lidocaine is widely used in this method of anesthesia for prolongation of the sensory block. In the method, different drugs are used to prolong the duration of sensory block. Fentanyl and epinephrine are being used widely for this purpose and so far, the effects of these drugs were not compared. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the two drugs, alone or together, with and without lidocaine, on the duration and intensity of sensory and motor block has been investigated. In this double-blinded clinical trial, 60 c and idates for elective surgery of lower abdomen were randomly divided into three equal groups. For spinal anesthesia, the first group was subjected to 50 mg lidocaine plus 0.2 mg epinephrine, the second one to 50 mg lidocaine plus 0.2 mg epinephrine and 20-micro g fentanyl and the third group to 50 mg lidocaine plus 20-micro g fentanyl. Subsequently, the patients in the 3 groups were evaluated and compared for the duration of sensory and motor block and their hemodynamic variations. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Age and sex distribution among the three groups was not significantly different. The mean of sensory block duration in the first, second and third groups were 130.25 +/- 9.05, 133 +/- 32.7 and 116 +/- 14.58 min, respectively with no significant difference. The mean of motor block duration in the first, second and third groups were 120.95 +/- 14.63, 118.75 +/- 25.74 and 107 +/- 18.23 min, respectively. ANOVA test showed no significant difference among the three groups as well. Also, with respect to hemodynamic variation, there was no significant difference among the three groups. Our findings showed that addition of epinephrine and fentanyl and combination of them to the lidocaine had no effect on the duration of sensory and motor block and hemodynamic variations. Therefore, combined use of these drugs is not necessary


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Nerve Block , Heterotrophic Processes , Double-Blind Method
20.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2006 Jun-Sep; 24(2-3): 111-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37033

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in an emergency department, identify rate and risk factors of recurrent anaphylaxis, and describe its clinical features and management. A retrospective study of patients who attended the emergency department at Thammasat University Hospital was conducted during 2003-2004 with anaphylactically related ICD-9 and ICD-10 terms. There were 64 patients who experienced 65 anaphylactic episodes during the 1-year period. The anaphylaxis occurrence rate was 223 per 100,000 patients per year. The most common manifestations were cutaneous symptoms and signs, followed by respiratory expression. Food allergy was the most common cause of anaphylaxis. Eighty-five percent of admitted cases had monophasic anaphylaxis. Patients with and without biphasic reactions did not differ significantly in terms of epinephrine and steroid usage. In conclusion, anaphylaxis is not rare. Epinephrine and steroid usage did not prevent biphasic reactions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Female , Food Hypersensitivity/complications , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Incidence , Male , Recurrence , Respiratory System/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skin/immunology , Steroids/pharmacology
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