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Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 186-190, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153112


ABSTRACT Acute retinal pigment epitheliitis (ARPE) is an idiopathic, self-limiting inflammatory retinal disorder that particularly affects healthy young individuals. The characteristic fundoscopic appearance of the acute retinal pigment epitheliitis includes a fine pigment stippling surrounded by a yellow-white hypopigmented halos in the macula. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, some reports have suggested a relationship between a viral infection and acute retinal pigment epitheliitis. Acute retinal pigment epitheliitis is a rare disorder, and only single case reports or case series are found in the literature. The clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with this disease are not fully understood because of its rarity. In this study, we searched the literature to collect clinical and demographic features of the reported cases. We detail the characteristics of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis were pointed and discuss the pathogenesis of the disease.(AU)

RESUMO A epitelite pigmentar retiniana aguda (EPRA) é uma doença inflamatória idiopática e autolimitada da retina, que afeta especialmente indivíduos jovens e saudáveis. À fundoscopia, a aparência característica dessa entidade é de um pontilhado fino do pigmento, cercado de halos hiperpigmentados branco-amarelados na mácula. A patogênese exata da doença ainda é desconhecida, mas alguns relatos apontam uma relação entre epitelite pigmentar retiniana aguda e infecções virais. A epitelite pigmentar retiniana aguda é uma condição rara e na literatura há apenas relatos de casos individuais ou séries de casos. As características clínicas e demográficas da doença não são totalmente compreendidas, devido à sua raridade. Para este relato, foi feita uma busca na literatura para coletar os dados clínicos e demográficos dos casos relatados. Finalmente, são apontadas as características da epitelite pigmentar retiniana aguda e discute-se a patogênese da doença.(AU)

Humans , Retinitis Pigmentosa/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Retinal Pigments , Visual Acuity , Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment , Circadian Clocks , c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e061, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249374


Abstract: Inflammatory periapical lesions are characterized by infiltration of different immune cell types, the functions of which depend on an effective vascular network. This study aimed to evaluate the mast cells density (MCD) in inflamatory odontogenic cysts capsules concerning microvascular density (MVD), microvascular area (MVA), and microvascular perimeter (MVP), and correlate such findings with the type of lesion, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, and thickness of the epithelial lining. Twenty inflamatory dentigerous cysts (IDCs), twenty radicular cysts (RCs), and twenty residual radicular cysts (RRCs) were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using anti-tryptase and anti-CD34 antibodies. RCs exhibited the highest MCD, MVD, MVA, and MVP indexes (p = < 0.001, p = 0.008, p = 0.003 and p = < 0.001, respectively), and lesions with inflammatory infiltrate grade III showed the highest MVD (p = 0.044). Considering epithelial thickness, a higher MVP index was identified in lesions with hyperplastic epithelium (p = 0.018). In IDCs, RCs, and RRCs, a strong positive correlation was observed between MVA and MVP (r = 0.950 and p = < 0.001; r = 0.914 and p = < 0.001; r = 0.713 and p = < 0.001, respectively). In IDCs, a moderate correlation was observed between MCD and both MVA and MVP (r = 0.660 and p = 0.002; r = 0.634 and p = 0.003, respectively). These results suggest that tryptase-positive mast cells might play an important role in the angiogenic activity of IDCs, while RCs had the highest indexes. Our findings also confirmed that the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial thickness influence angiogenesis.

Humans , Odontogenic Cysts , Radicular Cyst , Epithelium , Tryptases , Mast Cells
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136174


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.

Humans , Animals , Cervix Uteri/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Mucous Membrane/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 165-175, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056416


An alternative hyper-ovulator inducer to replace clomiphene citrate (CC) is needed as it is unsuitable for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective hyper-ovulator inducer, but has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a hyper-ovulator inducer and to an extent compare it with CC in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, paxillin and FAK, which are uterine receptivity markers in the surface luminal uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that paxillin is localized in focal adhesions at the base of the uterine epithelial cells at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, paxillin disassembles from the basal focal adhesions and localizes and increases its expression apically. FAK is faintly expressed at the basal aspect of the uterine epithelial cells while moderately expressed at the cell-to-cell contact at day 1 in all groups from where it disassembles and relocates apically and becomes more intensely expressed at day 6 of pregnancy in untreated and anastrozole treated rats. Although paxillin is localized apically at day 6, its expression is significantly down-regulated with CC treatment suggesting its interference with the implantation process. These findings seem to suggest that anastrozole could favor implantation.

Para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno (CC) es necesario un inductor de hiperovulación alternativo, ya que no es adecuado para mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y está asociado con tasas bajas de embarazo. El anastrozol es un inductor eficaz del hiper-ovulador, pero no se ha investigado adecuadamente. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como inductor del hiper-ovulador y, en cierta medida, compararlo con CC en situaciones similares, este estudio determinó los efectos de estos fármacos en la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, paxillin y FAK, uterinas marcadores de receptividad en la superficie luminal de células uterinas epiteliales, del día 1 y día 6 en ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la paxilina se localiza en adherencias focales en la base de las células epiteliales uterinas en el día 1 del embarazo, mientras que en el día 6, la paxilina se desmonta de las adherencias focales basales y localiza y aumenta su expresión apicalmente. FAK se expresa débilmente en el aspecto basal de las células epiteliales uterinas, mientras que se expresa moderadamente en el contacto de célula a célula en el día 1 en todos los grupos, donde se separa y se reubica apicalmente y se expresa con mayor intensidad el día 6 de la preñez, en pacientes no tratados y tratados. ratas tratadas con anastrozol. Aunque la paxillina se localiza apicalmente en el día 6, su expresión está significativamente disminuida con el tratamiento con CC, lo que sugiere su interferencia con el proceso de implantación. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol podría favorecer el proceso de implantación.

Animals , Female , Rats , Uterus/drug effects , Anastrozole/pharmacology , Ovulation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/drug effects , Paxillin/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1)2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121008


La prevalencia de enfermedad renal ha aumentado considerablemente en la última década y está previsto que crezca en los próximos años. Recientemente, diversos modelos se han utilizado para entender los procesos fisiopatológicos de daño renal y para la búsqueda de futuros candidatos farmacológicos. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una descripción de la evidencia actual de modelos in vitro e in vivo de nefrotoxicidad, nefropatía diabética y deshidratación, y los fundamentos de las principales vías de señalización fisiopatológicas, con el fin de proponer biomarcadores candidatos para futura investigación farmacológica. Actualmente, los roedores constituyen un pilar importante en estudios de daño renal, existiendo diferencias específicas según el estímulo nocivo, lo que sugiere considerar para un modelo relevante aspectos como especie, cepa, género y estructuras renales objetivo. Diversas estructuras renales se han complementado in vitro, principalmente a partir de líneas celulares, como del epitelio tubular, podocitos, células mesangiales glomerulares y conducto colector medular interno. Este enfoque se ha utilizado como complementario en modelos de nefrotoxicidad por exposición a aminoglucósidos (principalmente), deshidratación por cloruro de sodio hiperosmolar, y nefropatía diabética por medio de glucosa alta y productos derivados de glucólisis y glicación. Recientemente, estos modelos han mostrado similitud en diversas rutas de señalización celular, con algunos biomarcadores en común, entre múltiples causas de daño renal como el daño oxidativo, disfunción mitocondrial, procesos inflamatorios, desregulación de sistemas de defensa y sobrevivencia celular, y apoptosis. El enfoque en seleccionar biomarcadores relevantes contribuirá al diseño de estrategias terapéuticas de nefroprotectores sobre múltiples factores etiológicos.

The prevalence of kidney disease has increased considerably in the last decade and is expected to growth in the coming years. Recently, various models have been used to understand the pathophysiological processes of kidney damage and to search for future pharmacological candidates. The aim of this review is to provide a description of the current evidence of in vitro and in vivo models of nephrotoxicity, diabetic nephropathy and dehydration, and the foundations of the main pathophysiological signaling pathways, in order to propose candidate biomarkers for future drug discovery. Currently, rodents are an important pillar in studies of kidney damage, with specific differences depending on the noxious stimulus, which suggests considering aspects such as species, strain, gender and target structures for a relevant model. Several renal structures have been complemented through in vitro approaches, mainly using cell lines, such as the tubular epithelium, podocytes, glomerular mesangial cells and inner medullary collecting duct. These cells have been used as models of nephrotoxicity by exposure to aminoglycosides (mainly), dehydration by exposure to hyperosmolar sodium chloride, and diabetic nephropathy by exposure to high glucose and products derived from glycolysis and glycation. Recently, these models have shown common cell signaling pathways on multiple etiologies of kidney injury, sharing several biomarkers such as oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of defense systems and cell survival, and apoptosis. Approaching kidney injury based on the selection of relevant biomarkers will contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for nephroprotection on multiple etiological factors.

Humans , Animals , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Rats , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biomarkers , Diabetic Nephropathies , Rodentia , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Epithelium , Mesangial Cells , Glucose/analysis
Clinics ; 75: e1643, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089594


OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, in addition to the scarcity of studies, there are controversies about their effects on vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in rats, especially those in persistent estrus. METHODS: To investigate vaginal epithelial cell proliferation by Ki-67 antigen expression, persistent estrus was induced in 42 randomly selected rats. These rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I (control, n=21), which received 0.1 mL of propylene glycol (vehicle) daily, and group II (experimental, n=21), which received 0.5 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/day of anastrozole diluted with 0.1 mL of propylene glycol. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a higher concentration of cells with brown Ki-67 stained nuclei in the control compared to the experimental group. The mean percentage of Ki-67 stained nuclei per 500 cells in the vaginal epithelium was 68.64±2.64 and 30.46±2.00 [mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)] in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p<0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that anastrozole, at the dose and treatment duration selected, significantly decreased cell proliferation in the vaginal mucosa of the rats in persistent estrus.

Animals , Female , Rats , Vagina/drug effects , Estrus/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Epithelium/drug effects , Anastrozole/pharmacology , Vagina/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism
Periodontia ; 30(3): 87-93, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1129297


The so-called "blunt" or flapless surgery is considered less traumatic or invasive. However, as there is a need for rupture of the epithelial tissue performed by surgical drills or other means, the term is conceptually incorrect and known as marketing. The objective of the present study is to discuss the technique in the so - called blunt surgeries considered by the Federal Council of Dentistry (CFO) as an irregular or misleading advertisement, even when preceded by tomographic planning and performed by means of surgical guides. Furthermore, the lack of bone limits this type of surgery, in which case conventional surgery with mucoperiosteal flap elevation is indicated. As a consensus, is there a significant increase in apical lesions in implants related to this technique? (AU)

A cirurgia denominada "sem corte" ou flapless é considerada menos traumática ou invasiva. Entretanto como há necessidade de ruptura do tecido epitelial realizada por brocas cirúrgicas ou outros meios, o termo é conceitualmente incorreto e sabidamente utilizado como marketing. O objetivo do presente trabalho é discutir a técnica nas cirurgias ditas sem corte, considerada pelo Conselho Federal de Odontologia - CFO, como propaganda irregular ou enganosa, mesmo quando precedidas por um planejamento tomográfico e realizadas por meio de guias cirúrgicos. Além do mais, a falta de osso limita esse tipo de cirurgia, sendo nesse caso indicada uma cirurgia convencional com elevação de retalho mucoperiosteo. Como consenso, estaria o aumento significativo de lesões apicais nos implantes relacionados com esta técnica? (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Surgery, Oral , Bone and Bones , Epithelium , Peri-Implantitis , Surgical Wound
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811262


PURPOSE: Subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) are commonly performed for the treatment of gingival recession due to their high predictability. This study evaluated and histologically compared connective tissue grafts in terms of the presence of epithelial remnants and composition of the tissue types that were present (epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa).METHODS: Ten patients underwent epithelium removal using 2 different techniques: the use of a blade (group B) and through abrasion (group A). Twenty samples were collected and each tissue type was analyzed histologically in terms of its area, thickness, and proportion of the total area of the graft.RESULTS: In 4 samples (40%) from group B (n=10) and 2 samples (20%) from group A (n=10), the presence of an epithelial remnant was observed, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the area, mean thickness, or proportion of the total area for any of the tissue types (P>0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Histologically, SCTGs did not show statistically significant differences in terms of their tissue composition depending on whether they were separated from the epithelial tissue by abrasion or by using a blade.

Connective Tissue , Epithelium , Gingival Recession , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Transplants
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337


PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.

Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 119-125, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996714


O consumo de bebidas alcoólicas na gravidez consiste em um importante problema de saúde pública, visto que, pode causar prejuízos na organogênese de diversos órgãos, incluindo o estômago, entretanto, poucos estudos avaliam o efeito da exposição pré-natal ao álcool nesse órgão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar histologicamente o estômago da prole de ratas submetidas ao consumo crônico de álcool durante a prenhez. Utilizou-se 10 ratas prenhes divididas nos grupos: Controle - ratas que receberam água destilada durante todo período gestacional e Álcool ­ ratas que receberam álcool etílico absoluto (3g/kg/dia) durante todo período gestacional. Logo após o nascimento, 12 neonatos (6 machos e 6 fêmeas) de cada grupo foram anestesiados e os estômagos coletados. Posteriormente, os órgãos foram fixados e processados seguindo a técnica histológica de rotina. Foram feitas análises histomorfométricas das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago. Observou-se que as proles macho e fêmea expostas ao etanol apresentaram diminuição da área de epitélio, contudo, os machos também mostraram redução significativa do número de células epiteliais. Demonstrou-se ainda redução na espessura das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago da prole fêmea do grupo Álcool. No entanto, a camada muscular apresentou aumento significativo em sua espessura no grupo de neonatos machos expostos ao etanol. Assim, concluímos que a exposição pré-natal ao álcool provoca efeitos nocivos sobre o estômago dos neonatos, contudo, estudos futuros são necessários para melhor elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na patogênese e possíveis consequências para os animais na fase adulta.

Consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy is a significant public health issue since it can damage the organogenesis of several organs, including the stomach; however, few studies evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol in this organ. The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of the stomach of offspring of rats submitted to chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Ten pregnant rats were divided into two groups: Control - rats receiving distilled water throughout the gestation period, and Alcohol - rats receiving absolute ethyl alcohol (3g/kg/day) throughout the gestation period. After birth, 12 newborn rats (6 males and 6 females) from each group were anesthetized and their stomachs were collected. Subsequently, the organs were fixed and processed following the routine histological technique. The mucosa, muscle and total stomach were submitted to histomorphometric analyses. It was observed that the male and female offspring exposed to ethanol had a decrease in the epithelium area. However, males also showed a significant reduction in the number of epithelial cells. There was also a reduction in the layer's thickness mucosa, muscle and total stomach wall of the female offspring from the alcohol group. Additionally, the muscular layer presented a significant increase in its thickness in the group of male neonates exposed to ethanol. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes harmful effects on neonates' stomachs; however, future studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and possible consequences for the animals in adulthood.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Stomach , Alcohol Drinking , Pregnancy, Animal , Histological Techniques , Rats, Wistar/microbiology , Distilled Water , Organogenesis , Ethanol , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Blood Alcohol Content , Acetaldehyde/analysis , Mucous Membrane , Muscle, Smooth/embryology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 22-26, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990789


Resumo Objetivo: Na presença de uma córnea irregular, como no queratocone, o epitélio tem uma distribuição diferente do normal, "mascarando" a irregularidade do estroma. A avaliação topográfica sem considerar o efeito do epitélio pode induzir uma avaliação menos correta, afetando a precisão de um eventual tratamento guiado por topografia. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito de "máscara" do epitélio no queratocone, comparando a tomografia corneana com e sem epitélio, no decurso da realização de Crosslinking (CXL). Métodos: Cinco olhos de 5 doentes com queratocone em progressão submetidos a CXL segundo o protocolo original de Dresden. Foi realizada tomografia corneana antes e durante o procedimento (imediatamente após a remoção do epitélio), e avaliados os valores da queratometria - K1, K2, K médio (Km), ponto de máxima curvatura (Kmax), valores paquimétricos e astigmatismo corneano. Resultados: Os valores médios de curvatura corneanas antes e após a remoção do epitélio foram de: K1: 43,50 ± 2,54D e 44,32±2,64D (p=0,080); K2: 46,64±2,35D e 49,38±2,86D (p=0,043); Km: 45,48±2,42D e 46,72±2,60D (p=0,042). Observou-se igualmente um aumento estatisticamente significativo do valor de queratometria máxima após a remoção do epitélio (p=0,043). Na paquimetria central observou-se uma redução média de 26,8µm de 524,8±33,0µm para 498,2±37,7µm (p= 0,042). Conclusão: Observou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo nos valores do Kmax, K2, e Kmédio após remoção do epitélio. Este estudo demonstra o efeito de "máscara" que o epitélio exerce no queratocone.

Abstract Objective: In the presence of an irregular cornea, like in keratoconus, the corneal epithelium has a different profile "masking" the irregular corneal stroma surface. Topographical analysis without considering the epithelium effect can result in an incorrect assessment, affecting the accuracy of any topography guided treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the "masking" effect of the corneal epithelium on corneal curvature in patients with keratoconus, comparing topographical findings before and after removal of the epithelium during Crosslinking (CXL). Methods: Five eyes of 5 patients with progressive keratoconus submitted to CXL according to the original Dresden protocol. Corneal topography was performed before and during the procedure (immediately after epithelium removal) and values of keratometry: K1, K2, mean K (Km), maximum corneal apical curvature (Kmax), corneal thickness and corneal astigmatism were evaluated. Results: The average values of corneal curvature before and after epithelial remove were: K1: 43.50±2.54D and 44.32±2,64D (p=0.080); K2 46.64±2,35D and 49.38±2,86D (p=0.043); Km 45.48±2.42D and 46.72±2.60D (p=0.042). It was also observed a significant increase in the maximum values of corneal apical curvature after removal of the epithelium (p=0.043). In central corneal thickness there was seen a reduction of 26.8µm from 524.8±33.0µm to 498.2±37.7µm (p = 0.042). Conclusion: There was seen a significant increase in the values of Kmax, K2 and mean K. This study demonstrates the masking effect of corneal epithelium on corneal curvature in keratoconus.

Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Corneal Topography , Cross-Linking Reagents , Keratoconus/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Cornea/surgery , Epithelium/surgery
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 334-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763456


BACKGROUND/AIMS: We applied a back light system (BLS) with a magnifying glass to improve the ability to assess the adequacy of specimen sampling using endosonography. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of the BLS in sampling of specimens by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic masses. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, crossover, single-center clinical trial. An endosonographer evaluated adequacy on gross visual inspection and identified whitish specimen sampling sites with and without the BLS according to a randomization sequence in the first and second passes with a 25-G needle. On cytological evaluation, the presence of well-defined pancreatic ductal epithelium was evaluated by a cytopathologist who was blinded to any clinical information. RESULTS: A total of 80 consecutive patients were eligible during the study period. Adequacy was observed for 52 specimens (65%) with the BLS and 54 (68%) without the BLS (p=0.88). In assessment of specimen adequacy on gross examination, only fair agreement was observed both with and without BLS (kappa score 0.40 and 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The BLS did not influence the ability to identify specimen sampling sites or reliable assessment of specimen site adequacy using gross visual inspection.

Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cross-Over Studies , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Epithelium , Glass , Humans , Needles , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760159


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: MUC5AC is one of the major secretory mucin genes in the human airway epithelium. MUC5AC expression is increased by a variety of inflammatory mediators. Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the major active metabolites in ginseng, is known to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of PPD on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells still have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PPD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In the mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells, the effect of PPD on MUC5AC expression was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay after treated with LPS. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and apocynin as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor were used to compare the inhibitory effect of PPD on LPS-induced ROS production in human NCI-H292 cells. RESULTS: LPS significantly increased MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. LPS also increased ROS production. PPD inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production as well as ROS production. In addition, NAC and apocynin inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that PPD inhibits LPS-induced MUC5AC expression via ROS in human airway epithelial cells and the inhibitory effect of PPD was similar to that of NAC and apocynin. These findings indicate that PPD may be a therapeutic agent for control of mucus secretion and oxidative stress in human airway epithelial cells.

Acetylcysteine , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Methods , Mucins , Mucus , NADP , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Panax , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760147


Inverted papilloma is a benign epithelial tumor that arises from the sinonasal epithelium and occurs in 0.5–4% of all sinonasal tumors. Although benign, it is associated with malignant transformation in 2–27% of the cases, with the most commonly accompanying malignant tumor being squamous cell carcinoma. The malignant transformation of inverted papilloma into adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with two cases reported worldwide to date. Here, along with a literature review, we report a recent case of a 53-year-old man with non-intestinal type adenocarcinoma associated with a sinonasal inverted papilloma. This case shows the possibility of a malignant transformation of inverted papilloma into non-intestinal type adenocarcinoma, which may be associated with human papilloma virus and thus requires further investigation.

Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Epithelium , Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Middle Aged , Papilloma, Inverted , Papillomaviridae , Paranasal Sinuses
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(4): e1480, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054596


ABSTRAT Background: The presence of intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) is an important precursor of adenocarcinoma. Knowledge of the risk factors and the process by which the Barrett develops is very important and Helicobacter pylori (HP) can contribute to this development. Aim: To analyze the impact of HP in the gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus in areas of columnar epithelialization smaller than 10 mm in length and epidemiological data on prevalence Method: A retrospective study in which were included 373 consecutive patients diagnosed with columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus was done. In all, HP was investigated by urease and histology, exclusion and inclusion factors were applied and patients were divided into two groups: the first grouping the ones without histological diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (235-63%) and the second with it (138-37%). Results: There was no significant difference between HP and non-HP patients in relation to the probability of having intestinal metaplasia (p=0.587). When related to the general group, there was an inverse association between the bacterium and the columnar epithelia in the distal esophagus. Age (p=0.031), gender (p=0.013) and HP (p=0.613) when related together to intestinal metaplasia showed no significant relation. In isolation, when related to age and gender, regardless of HP, results confirmed that patients in more advanced age and women present a higher incidence of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: There is an inverse relation between HP and the areas of columnar epithelization in the distal esophagus, regardless of the presence or absence of intestinal metaplasia. Age and gender, regardless of HP, showed higher prevalence in women and in older the number of cases with intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus.

RESUMO Racional: A presença de metaplasia intestinal no esôfago distal (esôfago de Barrett) é importante doença precursora do adenocarcinoma. O conhecimento sobre os fatores de risco e o processo pelo qual ela se desenvolve é importante e o Helicobacter pylori (HP) pode contribuir para esse desenvolvimento. Objetivo: Analisar o impacto do HP na mucosa gástrica sobre a metaplasia intestinal no esôfago distal em áreas de epitelização colunar menores que 10 mm de extensão e dados epidemiológicos de prevalência. Método: Estudo retrospectivo com inclusão de 373 pacientes consecutivos, com diagnóstico de epitélio colunar no esôfago distal. Em todos foi pesquisado o HP pela urease e histologia, aplicados os fatores de exclusão e inclusão e divididos em dois grupos: o primeiro agregando os pacientes sem diagnóstico histológico de esôfago de Barrett (235-63%) e o segundo com ele (138-37%). Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os portadores ou não do HP em relação à probabilidade de ter metaplasia intestinal (p=0,587). Quando relacionado ao grupo geral, houve associação inversa entre a bactéria e a epitelização colunar em esôfago distal. A idade (p=0,031), gênero (p=0,013) e HP (p=0,613) quando relacionados juntos à metaplasia intestinal não mostraram relação significativa. Isoladamente, quando relacionados idade e gênero, independente do HP, surgiram resultados confirmando que pacientes de idade mais avançada e mulheres apresentam maior incidência de metaplasia intestinal. Conclusão: Existe relação inversa entre HP e as áreas de epitelização colunar em esôfago distal, independente da presença ou não de metaplasia intestinal. Já em relação à idade e gênero, independente do HP, notou-se que em mulheres e com maior a idade há aumento no número de casos com metaplasia intestinal no esôfago distal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/microbiology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Epithelium/microbiology , Metaplasia/microbiology , Metaplasia/pathology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 664-670, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774772


BACKGROUND@#Peritoneal fibrosis is the primary reason that patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have to cease peritoneal dialysis. Peritonitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) were on the rise. We had previously shown that matrine inhibited the formation of biofilm by E. coli. However, the role of matrine on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneal mesothelial cells under chronic inflammatory conditions is still unknown.@*METHODS@#We cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an environment that mimicked peritonitis and investigated whether matrine could inhibit LPS-induced EMT in these cells. In addition, we investigated the change in expression levels of the miR-29b and miR-129-5p.@*RESULTS@#We found that 10 μg/ml of LPS induced EMT in HPMCs. Matrine inhibited LPS-induced EMT in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner. We observed that treatment with matrine increased the expression of E-cadherin (F = 50.993, P < 0.01), and decreased the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (F = 32.913, P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that LPS reduced the expression levels of miR-29b and miR-129-5P in HPMCs, while matrine promoted the expression levels of miR-29b and miR-129-5P.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Matrine could inhibit LPS-induced EMT in HPMCs and reverse LPS inhibited expressions of miR-29 b and miR-129-5P in HPMCs, ultimately reduce peritoneal fibrosis. These findings provide a potential theoretical basis for using matrine in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal fibrosis.

Actins , Metabolism , Alkaloids , Therapeutic Uses , Cadherins , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium , Fibrosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Peritoneal Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Quinolizines , Therapeutic Uses
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 405-414, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777173


The present study was aimed to investigate the expression relationship of Hippo signaling molecules and ovarian germline stem cell (OGSC) markers in the development schedule of OGSCs during ovarian aging in women and mice. The ovaries of 2-month-old mature (normal control) and 12-month-old (physiological ovarian aging) KM mice were sampled, and the ovarian cortex samples of young (postpuberty to 35 years old), middle age (36-50 years old) and menopausal period (51-60 years old) women were obtained with consent. The mice model of pathological ovarian aging was established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide/busulfan (CY/BUS). HE staining was used to detect the changes of follicles at different stages, and the localization and expression changes of Hippo signaling molecules and OGSCs related factors (MVH/OCT4) were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of the major molecules in the Hippo signaling pathway and OGSCs related factors. The results showed that there were not any normal follicles, but a few atresia follicles in the ovaries from physiological and pathological ovarian aging mice. Compared with the normal control mice, both the physiological and pathological ovarian aging mice showed decreased protein expression levels of the main Hippo signaling molecules (pYAP1) and MVH/OCT4; Whereas only the pathological ovarian aging mice showed increased ratio of pYAP1/YAP1. In comparison with the young women, the middle age and menopausal women showed looser structure of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and less ovarian cortical cells. The protein expression level of LATS2 in the OSE was the highest in young women, MST1 expression was the lowest in the menopausal period women, and the expression levels of YAP1 and pYAP1 were the highest in middle age women. Compared with the young women, the middle age and menopausal period women exhibited significantly decreased ratio of OSE pYAP1/YAP1, whereas there was no significant difference between them. The expression level of MVH protein in OSE from the young women was significantly higher than those of the middle age and menopausal period women. These results indicate that there is an expression relationship between the main molecules of Hippo signaling pathway and OGSCs related factors, which suggests that Hippo signaling pathway may regulate the expression levels of OGSCs related factors, thus participating in the process of physiological and pathological degeneration of ovarian.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Metabolism , Adult , Aging , Animals , Epithelium , Female , Humans , Mice , Middle Aged , Octamer Transcription Factor-3 , Metabolism , Oogonial Stem Cells , Metabolism , Ovarian Follicle , Ovary , Phosphoproteins , Metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785733


Disinfectants including polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) and mixtures of chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (CMIT/MIT) have been widely used in Korea to prevent microbial growth in the humidifier water, which triggered an outbreak of serious respiratory diseases. In addition to the respiratory syndrome, disease-related symptoms including liver toxicity, asthma, and skin allergies were also found after extensive survey of people exposed to the humidifier disinfectants (HDs). In this study, eye irritation tests were performed based on the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) test guidelines 492 using EpiOcular™ which is a tissue model of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium. As results, the raw materials of PHMG (26% as active ingredient) and CMIT/MIT (1.5% as active ingredient) were classified under UN globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemical (GHS) category 1 or category 2. However, aqueous dilutions of raw materials such as market products of HDs that contain 0.13% of PHMG and 0.03% of CMIT/MIT or further dilutions of the market products for humidifier that contain 0.0013% of PHMG and 0.0003% of CMIT/MIT were classified under any category, which suggested absence of eye irritation at the test concentration.

Asthma , Classification , Disinfectants , Epithelium , Guanidine , Humans , Humidifiers , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Liver , Skin , United Nations , Water
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 351-358, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785518


Hearing loss is very common and economically burdensome. No accepted therapeutic modality for sensorineural hearing loss is yet available; most clinicians emphasize rehabilitation, placing hearing aids and cochlear implants. Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs light energy to enhance or modulate the activities of specific organs, and is a popular non-invasive therapy used to treat skin lesions and neurodegenerative disorders. Efforts to use PBM to improve hearing have been ongoing for several decades. Initial in vitro studies using cell lines and ex vivo culture techniques have now been supplanted by in vivo studies in animals; PBM protects the sensory epithelium and triggers neural regeneration. Many reports have used PBM to treat tinnitus. In this brief review, we introduce PBM applications in hearing research, helpful protocols, and relevant background literature.

Animals , Cell Line , Cochlear Implants , Culture Techniques , Epithelium , Hearing Aids , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hearing , In Vitro Techniques , Low-Level Light Therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Regeneration , Rehabilitation , Skin , Tinnitus