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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880776


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of arctiin with anti-inflammatory bioactivity against triptolide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were divided into 4 groups for gastric lavage of normal saline, arctiin (500 mg/kg), triptolide (500 μg/kg), or both arctiin (500 mg/kg) and triptolide (500 μg/kg). Blood samples were collected for analysis of biochemical renal parameters, and the renal tissues were harvested for determining the kidney index and for pathological evaluation with HE staining. In the @*RESULTS@#In SD rats, arctiin significantly antagonized triptolide-induced elevation of BUN, Scr and kidney index (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Arctiin can protect the kidney from triptolide-induced damages in rats possibly through the anti-inflammatory pathway.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Diterpenes/toxicity , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Furans , Glucosides , Kidney/drug effects , Phenanthrenes/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(1): 36-41, 01/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732874


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a preservação da fertilidade e dos ovários em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia por tumor anexial benigno. MÉTODOS: Para este estudo observacional com coleta prospectiva foram incluídas 206 mulheres operadas no CAISM-Unicamp de fevereiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2014. A preservação da fertilidade foi definida como tumorectomia ou anexectomia unilateral sem histerectomia em mulheres na pré-menopausa. A preservação ovariana foi considerada quando pelo menos um ovário ou parte dele foi preservado. RESULTADOS: Das 206 mulheres com tumores anexiais benignos, 120 (58%) estavam na pré-menopausa e 86 (42%) na pós-menopausa. Na pré-menopausa, foram encontrados 36 (30%) tumores de células germinativas, 31 (26%) neoplasias epiteliais e 11 (9%) do cordão sexual e estroma. Na pós-menopausa foram identificados 35 (41%) neoplasias epiteliais, 27 (31%) do cordão sexual e estroma e 8 (9%) de células germinativas. Entre as 36 mulheres com tumores ovarianos não neoplásicos, 21 (58%) apresentavam endometriomas e 8 (22%) cistos funcionais. Das 22 mulheres com tumores extra ovarianos, o leiomioma uterino foi o achado mais frequente (50%). Entre as pacientes com ≤35 anos, 26 (57%) foram submetidas à tumorectomia e 18 (39%) a anexectomia unilateral com preservação do útero e anexo contralateral. Mulheres com ≤35 anos foram mais frequentemente operadas por laparoscopia que esteve associada a maior taxa de preservação de fertilidade quando comparada com a laparotomia (p<0,01). Observou-se que 26 das pacientes submetidas à histerectomia com anexectomia (28%) bilateral estavam na pré-menopausa. CONCLUSÕES: Embora se observe uma tendência em realizar apenas tumorectomia em mulheres com ≤35 anos, uma proporção significativa de mulheres jovens ainda é ...

PURPOSE: To evaluate the sparing of fertility and ovaries in women submitted to surgical treatment for benign adnexal tumors. METHODS: Between February 2010 and January 2014, 206 patients were included in this observational study as they were submitted to surgical treatment for benign ovarian tumors at CAISM, a tertiary hospital. Fertility sparing surgery was defined as tumorectomy or unilateral salpingoophorectomy without hysterectomy in premenopausal women. Preservation of the ovary occurred when at least one ovary or part of it was mantained. RESULTS: Of the 206 women with benign tumors, 120 (58%) were premenopausal and 86 (42%) were postmenopausal. There were 36 (30%) ovarian germ cell tumors, 31 (26%) epithelial neoplasms and 11 (9%) sex-cord stromal tumors among premenopausal women. In the group of postmenopausal women, 35 (41%) epithelial neoplasms, 27 (31%) sex-cord stromal tumors and 8 (9%) ovarian germ cell tumors were identified. Among 36 women with non-neoplastic ovarian tumors, 21 (58%) had endometriomas and 8 (22%) functional cysts. Among 22 women with extra-ovarian tumors, uterine leiomyomatosis was the most frequent finding (50%). In the group of women who were ≤35 years old, 26 (57%) were treated by tumorectomy and 18 (39%) were submitted to unilateral salpingoophorectomy with sparing of the uterus and the contralateral ovary. Women who were ≤35 years old were more frequently operated by laparoscopy which was associated with a higher number of fertility sparing procedures when compared to laparotomy (p<0.01). Twenty-six (28%) women submitted to hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy were premenopausal. CONCLUSION: Although there is a trend to perform only tumorectomy in women who are ≤35 years old, a significant number of young women is still treated by salpingoophorectomy. Among 36- to 45-year-old women, only 70% had their fertility spared, while 20% had both ovaries removed. ...

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Bone Marrow Cells , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Flow Cytometry/methods , Micronucleus Tests , Benzimidazoles , Cell Separation , Erythrocyte Aging , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Erythrocytes/cytology , Fluorescent Dyes , Glycols/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(5): 290-299, nov. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733231


OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. METHODS: Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and uneducated people.

OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia de la ceguera, la deficiencia visual, y las enfermedades y afecciones oculares relacionadas en adultos de El Salvador, y explorar las desigualdades socioeconómicas en cuanto a su prevalencia según el nivel educativo y la situación laboral, estratificados por sexos. MÉTODOS: Se adoptó el método de Evaluación Rápida de la Ceguera Evitable, y se escogió una muestra a escala nacional de 3 800 participantes (de ellos se examinaron 3 399) de 50 años de edad o mayores, pertenecientes a 76 agrupamientos seleccionados aleatoriamente y constituidos por 50 personas cada uno. Se calculó la prevalencia de la ceguera, la deficiencia visual y las enfermedades y afecciones oculares relacionadas, incluido el error de refracción no corregido, según las diferentes categorías de nivel educativo y situación laboral. Se emplearon modelos de regresión logística múltiple para calcular las razones de posibilidades (OR) y los intervalos de confianza (IC) de 95%, y se estratificaron por sexos. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia ajustada por edad fue de 2,4% (IC de 95%: 2,2-2,6) para la ceguera (hombres: 2,8% [IC de 95%: 2,5-3,1]; mujeres: 2,2% [IC de 95%: 1,9-2,5]) y de 11,8% (IC de 95%: 11,6-12,0) para la deficiencia visual moderada (hombres: 10,8% [IC de 95%: 10,5-11,1]; mujeres: 12,6% [IC de 95%: 12,4-12,8]). La proporción de deficiencias visuales debidas a catarata fue de 43,8% en los hombres y de 33,5% en las mujeres. En la prevalencia de la deficiencia visual se observaron gradientes inversos de desigualdades socioeconómicas. Por ejemplo, la OR ajustada por edad fue de 3,4 (IC de 95%: 2,0-6,4) para la deficiencia visual y de 4,3 (IC de 95%: 2,1-10,4) para el error de refracción no corregido relacionado en las mujeres analfabetas, en comparación con las que tenían un nivel de educación secundaria, y fue de 1,9 (IC de 95%: 1,1-3,1) para la catarata en los hombres desempleados. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de ceguera y deficiencia visual es alta en la población adulta de El Salvador. Las principales afecciones asociadas son la catarata y el error de refracción no corregido, ambas tratables. Puesto que las desigualdades socioeconómicas y de género en materia de salud ocular pueden ser indicativas de discriminación y de la existencia de barreras importantes para obtener acceso a servicios de atención de salud asequibles, de buena calidad y oportunos, es preciso dar prioridad a la atención oftalmológica pública y a las políticas dirigidas a corregir la discapacidad, en particular en las mujeres y en las personas desempleadas y sin formación.

Carcinogens/chemistry , Carcinogens/chemical synthesis , DNA Adducts/biosynthesis , DNA Adducts/chemistry , Epoxy Compounds/chemistry , Epoxy Compounds/chemical synthesis , Guanosine/chemistry , DNA Adducts/drug effects , Drug Stability , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Kinetics , Mass Spectrometry , Stereoisomerism
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 465-472, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733320


Objetivo. Describir la tendencia de las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer oral (CaO) en Cali, Colombia durante el periodo 1962-2007. Material y métodos. Se obtuvieron las tasas estandarizadas por edad (población mundial) de incidencia (TIEE) y mortalidad (TMEE) por CaO con información del Registro Poblacional de Cáncer en Cali-Colombia (RPCC) y de la Secretaría de Salud Pública Municipal de Cali (SSPM), respectivamente. Se utilizó el porcentaje de cambio anual (APC) para describir la tendencia de las mismas. Resultados. Se registraron 1637 casos nuevos de CaO y la edad promedio al diagnóstico fue de 60 años. Las TIEE disminuyeron entre 1962-2007 en hombres APC= -1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) y mujeres, APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4). Las TMEE disminuyeron entre 1984-2001 sólo en los hombres, APC= -2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). Conclusión. La morbilidad y mortalidad por CaO ha disminuido de manera significativa en Cali, Colombia. El tipo de tumor asociado con estos cambios fue el carcinoma de células escamosas.

Objective. To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC) in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Materials and methods. Age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH) respectively. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to measure the changes in rates over time. Results. 1637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4).The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). Conclusions. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Chromosome Aberrations , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Sister Chromatid Exchange , Cells, Cultured , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Species Specificity , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/drug effects
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 555-560, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733330


El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer a nivel global. La dieta y el consumo de alcohol y tabaco, además de la infección por Helicobacter pylori determinan un gran número de casos de esta neoplasia. Algunos alimentos contienen sustancias que podrían influir en el proceso de carcinogénesis gástrica, aunque los mecanismos subyacentes no están completamente dilucidados. En México y el mundo, la disminución en el consumo de frutas, vegetales no feculentos y allium, leguminosas y alimentos fuente de selenio, así como el aumento en el consumo de sal, alimentos salados, salmuera y ahumados, chile, carnes procesadas y asadas o a la parrilla se han asociado respectivamente con un aumento de riesgo de CG. Con la evidencia disponible, se podrían desarrollar y evaluar programas para la prevención y control del CG.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourt leading cause of cancer death at global level. Diet, alcohol and tobacco, in addition to Helicobacter pylori infection, account for a large number of cases. Some substances contained in foods may influence GC carcinogenesis process; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In Mexico and worldwide, a low intake of fruits, non-starchy and allium vegetables, pulses, and foods containing selenium, as well as high intake of salt, salty, salted and smoked foods, chili pepper, processed and grilled/barbecued meats, have been respectively associated with an increased risk of GC. Based on the available evidence, programs for GC prevention and control could be developed and evaluated.

Animals , Male , Rats , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Glycols/toxicity , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Mutagens/toxicity , Spermatids/drug effects , Butadienes/metabolism , Butadienes/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epoxy Compounds/metabolism , Glycols/metabolism , Meiosis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206825


OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is a liquid compound obtained by condensation of two molecules of epichlorohydrin with one molecule of bisphenol A. General and reproductive toxicity with BADGE has been reported higher than 1000 mg/kg/day. This study was performed to show the effects of acute exposure to BADGE below 1000 mg/kg/day on the testis in adult male rats. METHODS: BADGE was administered by gastric lavage in a single dose of 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day in 8-week old male SPF Sprague-Dawley rats. The right testis was processed for light microscopic analysis. The left testis was homogenized and spermatids were counted to determine the daily sperm production and daily abnormal sperm production. The sperm count, sperm motility, and incidence of abnormal sperm were estimated in the epididymis. In testicular sections, the seminiferous tubules were observed for qualitative changes. The progression of spermatogenesis was arbitrarily classified as full-matured, maturing, and immature. The specimen slide was observed at 3 points and 10 seminiferous tubules were evaluated at each point. RESULTS: The male rats exposed to single oral dose of BADGE at 750, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day were significantly increased the number of immature and maturing sperm on the testis. There were no significant differences with respect to sperm head count, sperm motility, and sperm abnormality in the BADGE treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that single oral exposure of BADGE 750 mg/kg/day can affect adult male testis development.

Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Semen Analysis , Spermatids/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 1(1): 79-89, Mar. 2002.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417649


The sensitivity responses of seven pso mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards the mutagens N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 1,2:7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO), and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) further substantiated their allocation into two distinct groups: genes PSO1 (allelic to REV3), PSO2 (SNM1), PSO4 (PRP19), and PSO5 (RAD16) constitute one group in that they are involved in repair of damaged DNA or in RNA processing whereas genes PSO6 (ERG3) and PSO7 (COX11) are related to metabolic steps protecting from oxidative stress and thus form a second group, not responsible for DNA repair. PSO3 has not yet been molecularly characterized but its pleiotropic phenotype would allow its integration into either group. The first three PSO genes of the DNA repair group and PSO3, apart from being sensitive to photo-activated psoralens, have another common phenotype: they are also involved in error-prone DNA repair. While all mutants of the DNA repair group and pso3 were sensitive to DEO and NDEA the pso6 mutant revealed WT or near WT resistance to these mutagens. As expected, the repair-proficient pso7-1 and cox11-Delta mutant alleles conferred high sensitivity to NDEA, a chemical known to be metabolized via redox cycling that yields hydroxylamine radicals and reactive oxygen species. All pso mutants exhibited some sensitivity to 8HQ and again pso7-1 and cox11-Delta conferred the highest sensitivity to this drug. Double mutant snm1-Delta cox11-Delta exhibited additivity of 8HQ and NDEA sensitivities of the single mutants, indicating that two different repair/recovery systems are involved in survival. DEO sensitivity of the double mutant was equal or less than that of the single snm1-Delta mutant. In order to determine if there was oxidative damage to nucleotide bases by these drugs we employed an established bacterial test with and without metabolic activation. After S9-mix biotransformation, NDEA and to a lesser extent 8HQ, lead to significantly higher mutagenesis in an Escherichia coli tester strain WP2-IC203 as compared to WP2, whereas DEO-induced mutagenicity remained unchanged

DNA, Fungal/genetics , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Mutagens/toxicity , DNA Repair/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Epoxy Compounds/toxicity , DNA, Fungal/drug effects , DNA Damage/drug effects , DNA Damage/genetics , Diethylnitrosamine/toxicity , Genes, Fungal , Oxyquinoline/toxicity , Phenotype , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics , DNA Repair/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects