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Med. lab ; 27(1): 51-64, 2023. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414243


El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) fue el primer virus asociado a neoplasias en humanos. Infecta el 95 % de la población mundial, y aunque usualmente es asintomático, puede causar mononucleosis infecciosa y se relaciona con más de 200.000 casos de neoplasias al año. De igual forma, se asocia con esclerosis múltiple y otras enfermedades autoinmunes. A pesar de ser catalogado como un virus oncogénico, solo un pequeño porcentaje de los individuos infectados desarrollan neoplasias asociadas a VEB. Su persistencia involucra la capacidad de alternar entre una serie de programas de latencia, y de reactivarse cuando tiene la necesidad de colonizar nuevas células B de memoria, con el fin de sostener una infección de por vida y poder transmitirse a nuevos hospederos. En esta revisión se presentan las generalidades del VEB, además de su asociación con varios tipos de neoplasias, como son el carcinoma nasofaríngeo, el carcinoma gástrico, el linfoma de Hodgkin y el linfoma de Burkitt, y la esclerosis múltiple. Adicionalmente, se describen los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de las diferentes entidades, algunos de ellos no completamente dilucidados

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first virus associated with human cancer. It infects 95% of the world's population, and although it is usually asymptomatic, it causes infectious mononucleosis. It is related to more than 200,000 cases of cancer per year, and is also associated with multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Despite being classified as an oncogenic virus, only a small percentage of infected individuals develop EBV-associated cancer. Its persistence involves the ability to alternate between a series of latency programs, and the ability to reactivate itself when it needs to colonize new memory B cells, in order to sustain a lifelong infection and be able to transmit to new hosts. In this review, the general characteristics of EBV are presented, in addition to its association with various types of cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, the pathophysiological mechanisms of the different entities are described, some of them not completely elucidated yet

Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/physiopathology , Stomach Neoplasms/virology , Hodgkin Disease/physiopathology , Hodgkin Disease/virology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Burkitt Lymphoma/physiopathology , Burkitt Lymphoma/virology , Carcinogenesis , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/physiopathology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/virology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 268-273, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971135


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the cytokine/chemokine profile in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and assess the prognostic value of survival.@*METHODS@#Serum levels of thirty-eight cytokines/chemokines were measured by multiple cytokine assay kit in EBV-related HLH patients, EBV-infected patients, and controls. The expression profile of cytokines/chemokines was compared among groups. The changes of cytokine/chemokine expression in active and remission stage of EBV-related HLH patients were also compared, and the prognostic values for survival were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Serum levels of interferon-α2 (IFN-α2), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-7 in EBV-related HLH patients were 33.67(23.23-68.78) pg/ml, (74.95±25.53) pg/ml, and 35.35(19.50-63.55) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in EBV-infected patients[IFN-α2: 16.07(9.87-29.63); IL-6: 55.91±20.29; IL-7: 20.40(13.35-31.40)] and controls [IFN-α2: 11.02(4.67-21.25); IL-6:42.64±13.41; IL-7: 16.95(14.95-33.78)](all P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-8, IL-9, and marcophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in EBV-related HLH patients were 11.00(7.50-15.27) pg/ml, 81.30(40.79-111.0) pg/ml, and (512.6±128.7) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in controls [IL-8: 6.80(5.56-8.38); IL-9: 41.30(29.82-67.91); MDC: 384.1±156.6](all P<0.05), but there was no remarkable differences compared with EBV-infected patients (P>0.05). Serum IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, and MDC in survival and death groups of EBV-related HLH patients were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve with area under curve of 0.781, 0.778, 0.633, 0.805, 0.562, and 0.657, respectively (P=0.019, 0.021, 0.269, 0.015, 0.607, and 0.190). IFN-α2, IL-6, and IL-8 had good predictive effect on survival. Serum level of IFN-α2, IL-6, and MDC of EBV-related HLH patients in remission stage were significantly lower than those in active stage (P<0.05), while IL-7, IL-8, and IL-9 were not different (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, and MDC may take part in the pathogenesis of EBV-related HLH.

Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Cytokines/metabolism , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Interleukin-6 , Clinical Relevance , Interleukin-7 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-9 , Chemokines , Interferons
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 575-580, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982097


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical characteristics of children with hemophagocytic lymphocytosis (HLH) associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV reactivation, and explore the effects of different EBV infection status on the clinical indexes and prognosis of HLH.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 51 children with EBV associated HLH treated in Henan Children's Hospital from June 2016 to June 2021 were collected. According to the detection results of plasma EBV antibody spectrum, they were divided into EBV primary infection-associated HLH group (18 cases) and EBV reactivation-associated HLH group (33 cases). The clinical features, laboratory indexes and prognosis of the two groups were analyzed and compared.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in age, gender, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, neutrophil count in peripheral blood, hemoglobin content, platelet count, plasma EBV-DNA load, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, fibrinogen, triglyceride, ferritin, hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, NK cell activity and sCD25 between the two groups(P>0.05). The central nervous system involvement and CD4/CD8 in EBV reactivation-associated HLH group were significantly higher than those in primary infection-associated HLH group, but the total bilirubin was significantly lower than that in primary infection-associated HLH group (P<0.05). After treatment according to HLH-2004 protocol, the remission rate, 5-year OS rate and 5-year EFS rate of patients in EBV reactivation-associated HLH group were significantly lower than those in EBV primary infection-associated HLH group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EBV reactivation-associated HLH is more likely to cause central nervous system involvement and the prognosis is worser than EBV primary infection-associated HLH, which requires intensive treatment.

Child , Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 413-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935555


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of mature T/NK cell lymphomas with aberrant CD20 or CD79α expression. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 641 cases of mature T/NK cell lymphoma diagnosed from January 2014 to December 2020 was performed, and 14 cases of CD20-positive and one case of CD79α-positive mature T/NK-cell lymphoma were identified. Histological examination, immunohistochemical characterization, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded early RNA (EBER), and PCR testing for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements were performed. Clinicopathological characteristics of these lymphomas were analyzed. Results: There were 13 males and 2 females, with a median age of 56 years. There were 8 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), 3 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL), 2 cases of monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) and 2 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). Twelve cases were stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ lymphomas. The prognosis was overall poor. The histology, immunophenotype and TCR gene rearrangement were not significantly different from the corresponding types of lymphoma. Ki-67 proliferation index was over 70% in all cases. The expression of CD20 or CD79α was weak and heterogeneous. All 15 case of Ig gene rearrangement were polyclonal. Conclusions: Mature T/NK cell lymphoma with abnormal expression of CD20 or CD79α is rare, commonly found in advanced stage, and associated with poor prognosis. The expression of CD20 or CD79α in these cases is weaker than the corresponding mature T/NK cell lymphomas, while its proliferation index is higher. Histomorphology, extensive immunoprofiling and molecular detection are required for accurate diagnosis.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antigens, CD20 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/pathology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 290-295, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935528


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (CTL). Methods: The clinicopathological data of 134 CTL patients in Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, the 989 Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support force (formerly the 152 Hospital) and the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from 2008 to 2020 were retrospectively collected. Immunophenotype, Epstein-Barr virus infection status and T cell receptor (TCR) clonality of tumor cells were assessed, and clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients were analyzed. Results: Among the 134 CTL patients, the male to female ratio was 1.7∶1.0, the median age was 49.5 years (range 3-83 years), and 100 cases (74.6%) were under 60 years old. Forty-six point nine percent of the patients (53/113) had B symptoms. Most of the patients presented with systemic superficial lymphadenopathy. According to the Ann Arbor staging system, 36.8% (39/106) of the patients were in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ, and 63.2% (67/106) in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ. The rate of extranodal involvement was 51.6% (66/128). Spleen was involved in 24.2% (31/128) of the cases. Morphology showed diffuse growth of abnormal lymphocytes, infiltrating and destroying normal tissue structure. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells expressed T cell antigens (CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7), and 72.0% (77/107) of them had decreased or lost expression of one or more antigens. According to the numbers of CD4 and CD8 expression in tumor cells, 70 cases (52.2%) were grouped into CD8+>CD4+group. The expression rates of TIA-1 and granzyme B were 99.2% (119/120) and 79.8% (95/119), respectively. CD20 abnormal expression rate was 27.6% (37/134) and CD56 was negative in all cases. The median Ki-67 proliferative index was 45.0% (range 5%-80%). In situ hybridization of small RNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus was negative. Clonal TCR gene rearrangement analysis was performed on 49 cases and was positive in all cases. Ninety-one patients were followed up for a median of 36 months (range, 1 to 240 months), and 40 of the 91 patients (44.0%) died. The twenty-three patients were in complete remission (including 13 cases with localized single extranodal mass). The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53.5% and 49.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that B symptom, spleen involvement, extranodal involvement, clinical stage, CD8+>CD4+phenotype, abnormal expression of CD20 and Ki-67 proliferation index (>60%) were associated with overall survival (P<0.05). The multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that spleen involvement and CD8+>CD4+ phenotype were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in CTL patients. Conclusions: CTL are more commonly found in adult males under 60 years old, often accompanied by B symptom, with a high proportion of extranodal involvement and more CD8 positive phenotypes. Spleen involvement and CD8+>CD4+phenotype are independent predictors of CTL overall survival. Some patients with localized extranodal CTL may have a good prognosis.

Female , Humans , Male , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Lymphoma, T-Cell/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 128-133, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929544


Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with non-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (IAHLH) . Methods: Clinical data of 48 patients diagnosed with non-EBV IAHLH in Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2015 to March 2021 were collected, and the clinical characteristics, treatment, curative effect and prognosis of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This study included 48 patients, 28 males and 20 females, with a median (range) age of 34.5 (2-74) years. Pathogens that cause IAHLH were as follows: virus (16 cases, 33.3%) , bacteria (17 cases, 35.4%) , parasitic agents (13 cases, 27.1%) , and fungi (2 cases, 4.2%) . The median time from onset to diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) was 40 (10-160) days. The median (range) time duration from prodrome to the definite diagnosis of IAHLH was 67 (23-270) days. The clinical characteristics were fever (48 cases, 100%) , splenomegaly (34 cases, 70.8%) , cytopenia (38 cases, 79.1%) , elevated ferritin (45 cases, 93.8%) , elevated fasting triglyceride levels (7 cases, 14.6%) , hypofibrinogenemia (17 cases, 35.4%) , decrease natural killer cell activity (26 in 44 cases, 59.1%) , and elevated sCD25 (35 cases, 74.5%) . Twenty-five patients (52.1%) had adenopathy. Once a certain pathogen was identified as the causative factor of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) , cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids were withdrawn, and specific pathogen-directed treatment was initiated. After treatment, 36 cases (75.0%) achieved complete response, and 14 of 15 patients (93.3%) with parasitic and fungal HLH got a response; however, the response rate of patient with bacterial and viral HLH was only 66.7% (22 of 33 patients) . The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 72.3% (95%CI 50.3%-69.8%) . The adverse prognostic factors were total bilirubin over the upper limit of normal (OR=20.0, 95%CI 1.1-378.3, P=0.046) and pathogenic infection not fully controlled (OR=19.9, 95%CI 2.9-134.5, P=0.002) . Conclusion: Non-EBV IAHLH has a good prognosis. When diagnosed, cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids should be tapered off, and pathogen-targeted therapy should be critically administered to clear the triggering infection.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 184-187, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248747


Abstract Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are an uncommon neoplasm that occurs in immunosuppressed patients of any age. Usually, it presents as multifocal tumors mainly in the spinal cord, epidural region, gastrointestinal tract and liver, upper respiratory tract and skin, the latest with few cases reported in the literature and related with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The authors present the first case of a Colombian adult patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and multifocal Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in the skin and epidural region, confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies.

Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Smooth Muscle Tumor , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 259-264, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880064


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the difference in the therapeutic effect of plasma exchange and continuous renal replacement therapy (PE+CRRT) combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of children with severe Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) and non-EBV-HLH.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 21 cases of all children with severe HLH treated by PE+CRRT combined with chemotherapy from January 2017 to January 2020 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. According to the presence of EBV infection, the children were divided into EBV@*RESULTS@#Among the 21 children, 14 were divided into the EBV@*CONCLUSION@#PE+CRRT combined with chemotherapy can reduce serum ferritin quickly, then improve organ function, and increase the overall survival rate of severe HLH, and it is a good effect on children with severe EBV-HLH and non-EBV-HLH.

Child , Humans , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Plasma Exchange , Retrospective Studies
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 17(4): 24-28, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369249


INTRODUCCIÓN: La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica (HLH) secundario está asociada a enfermedades malignas, genéticas o autoinmunes, pero también a infecciones principalmente EBV hasta en un 70%, sin embargo hay poca información. Esta entidad se caracteriza por un curso variable y recurrente que conlleva a una alta morbimortalidad con complicaciones potencialmente mortales. OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas y evolución de los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de HLH secundario a CAEBV. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 7 pacientes, edad media al diagnóstico fue 52 meses con predilección al sexo masculino. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con un régimen quimioterapéutico multiagente, que incluye corticosteroide, etopósido y Ciclosporina. Después del tratamiento 6 pacientes presentaron remisión y uno de ellos reactivación. La media de seguimiento fue 19 meses y la supervivencia libre de enfermedad (SLE) 16 meses. CONCLUSIÓN: Podemos observar que el curso clínico es variable en ocasiones fulminantes y con pobre respuesta al tratamiento. Un diagnóstico temprano, así como detectar los factores pronóstico podría ayudar a adaptar estrategias de tratamiento que cambiaría la evolución clínica.

INTRODUCTION: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is associated with malignant, genetic or autoimmune diseases but also with infections mainly EBV in up to 70%, however there is little information. This entity is characterized by a variable and recurrent course that leads to high morbidty and mortality with life-threatening complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of pediatric patients with a diagnosis of HLH secondary to CAEBV. RESULTS: 7 patients were included, mean age at diagnosis was 52 months with a predilection for males. All patients were treated with a multiagent chemotherapeutic regimen, including corticosteroid, etoposide, and cyclosporine. After treatment, 6 patients presented remission and one of them had reactivation. The mean follow-up was 19 months and disease-free survival (DFS) 16 months. CONCLUSION: We can observe that the clinical course is variable, sometimes fulminant and with poor response to treatment. An early diagnosis as well as detecting prognostic factors could help to adapt treatment strategies that would change the clinical course.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Pediatric
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(4): 319-322, oct.-dic 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144615


El virus de Epstein Barr (VEB) es responsable del 10% del cáncer gástrico (CG) y se correlaciona con mejor tasa de sobrevida. En Perú, no existen estudios sobre prevalencia y características clínicas de CG VEB positivo. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia y las características clínico patológicas del CG VEB positivo. Materiales y métodos: 111 muestras de GC fueron examinadas centralmente por hibridización cromogénica in situ del RNA del VEB (EBER CISH). Resultados: El 8,4% de los casos fueron positivos para VEB. La mayoría de los casos VEB positivos tuvieron más de 60 años, varones y la localización, antro / píloro fue la más frecuente. La mayoría de los casos fueron de tipo intestinal y un patrón tubular con una tendencia a un mejor pronóstico en comparación con los casos de VEB negativo. Conclusión: CG VEB positivo es una entidad con una prevalencia de 8,4% en Perú con características clínicas y morfológicas distintivas.

Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is responsible of 10% of Gastric Cancer (GC), correlating with better survival rates. In Peru, there were not studies about prevalence and clinical characteristics of CG EBV positive. Objective: Determine prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of GC EBV positive. Materials and methods: 111 GC tumour samples were centrally screened by Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technique for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) transcript. Results: 8.4% of cases were positive for EBV. Most cases EBV positive were more than 60 years old; male, antrum/pylorus had more frequent localizations. Most cases had an intestinal type and tubular patter and a tendency to better prognostic in comparison EBV negative cases. Conclusion: EBV positive GC is an entity with a prevalence of 8.4% in Peru with distinctive clinical and morphological characteristics.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Peru/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(1): 35-37, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994759


INTRODUÇÃO: O síndrome de Alice no País das Maravilhas (SAPM) é uma entidade rara que pode ocorre no contexto de várias condições clínicas, sendo a infeção por vírus Epstein-barr (EBV) a mais comum nas causas infeciosas. Apresenta-se um caso de SAPM associado a infeção a EBV alertando para a necessidade de investigação etiológica destes casos. RELATO DE CASO: Criança de 8 anos, com síndrome de Asperger que, no contexto de amigdalite aguda e febre, surgiu com episódios paroxísticos de alguns minutos de metamorfopsias (macro e micropsia), distorção da perceção das vozes e sensação de medo. A ressonância magnética e o eletroencefalograma foram normais, e o exame citoquímico do líquor foi normal mas a polimerase chain reaction (PCR) foi positiva para vírus EBV. As serologias para EBV, repetidas 3 e 10 semanas após a avaliação inicial, confirmaram uma reativação da infeção por este agente. O doente ficou assintomático após 2 semanas e não houve recidivas. CONCLUSÕES: A investigação de metamorfopsias ou síndrome de SAPM é mandatória pois podem indiciar patologia grave, nomeadamente lesão cerebral ou epilepsia focal. Embora a doença seja rara a etiologia infecciosa deve ser excluída mesmo em doentes com perturbação prévia do comportamento.

INTRODUCTION: Alice in wonderland syndrome (AWS) is a rare condition which may occur as a sign of multiple conditions, with the most frequent infectious etiology being Epstein-barr virus (EBV) infection. We present a case of an AWS caused by EBV infection to alert for the need to investigate these cases. CASE REPORT: 8-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome who developed, in the context of tonsillitis and fever, brief paroxystic episodes of metamorfopsias (macro and micropsia), with voice perception distortion and fear. Physical exam was otherwise normal. Brian magnetic resonance and electroencephalogram were normal, liquor cytochemical exam was normal but Epstein-barr virus (EBV) polimerase chain reaction was positive. EBV blood serologies, repeated 3 and 10 weeks after the initial evaluation, confirmed the reactivation of this agent's infection. Symptoms succumbed 2 weeks after its beginning, with no relapses. CONCLUSIONS: Metamorfopsias or AWS impose etiological investigation because they may occur due to severe disease, namely cerebral lesion or focal epilepsy. Although it is a rare disease, infectious causes should be excluded, even in patients with previous disturbed behavior.

Humans , Male , Child , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Alice in Wonderland Syndrome/diagnosis , Alice in Wonderland Syndrome/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Alice in Wonderland Syndrome/psychology
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 451-458, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941834


OBJECTIVE@#Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is different from the traditional gastric cancer (Epstein-Barr virus non-associated gastric cancer, EBVnGC), and has unique clinicopathological features. This study investigated the largest single center cancer series so as to establish the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of EBVaGC in China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients diagnosed at Peking University Cancer Hospital from 2003 to 2018 by comparing their clinicopathological features and prognosis. The gastric cancer (GC) dataset of public database was analyzed to obtain differentially expressed genes. The expression of important genes and their association with prognosis of GC were verified in GC tissues from our hospital.@*RESULTS@#In this study, 3 241 GC patients were included, and a total of 163 EBVaGC (5.0%) patients were identified. Compared with EBVnGC, EBVaGC was higher in male and younger patients, and positively associated with remnant GC, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and mixed type GC. EBVaGC was inversely related to lymph node metastasis. The 5-year survival rate of EBVnGC and EBVaGC was 59.6% and 63.2% respectively (P<0.05). In order to explore molecular features of EBVaGC, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was analyzed (n=240), and 7 404 significant differentially expressed genes were obtained, involving cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. The down-regulated invasion/metastasis gene SALL4 and the up-regulated immune checkpoint gene PD-L1 were important molecular features of EBVaGC. Validation of these two genes in large GC series showed that the majority of the EBVaGC was SALL4 negative (1/92, 1.1%, lower than EBVnGC, 303/1 727, 17.5%), and that PD-L1 was mostly positive in EBVaGC (81/110, 73.6%, higher than EBVnGC, 649/2 350, 27.6%). GC patients with SALL4 negative and PD-L1 positive were often associated with better prognosis.@*CONCLUSION@#EBVaGC is a unique subtype of GC with less metastasis and a good prognosis. It also has a distinct molecular background. The down-regulation of invasion/metastasis gene SALL4 and up-regulation of immune checkpoint gene PD-L1 are important molecular features.

Female , Humans , Male , China , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 422-425, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949894


Abstract: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type is a rare disease that mainly affects the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of males in the fifth decade of life. It has aggressive and locally destructive behaviour, and can be complicated by the hemophagocytic syndrome, conferring high lethality to the disease. This article describes a case of NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type in a previously healthy patient, exemplifying its rapid and fulminant course.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/pathology , Syndrome , Immunohistochemistry , Nose Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nose Neoplasms/virology , Fatal Outcome , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/virology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 705-709, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990855


Resumen Mycobacterium scrofulaceum es una micobacteria atípica de crecimiento lento que tiene como reservorio el ambiente. De forma ocasional causa enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 10 años de edad con fiebre de cuatro meses de evolución, adenopatías cervicales, torácicas, abdominales e inguinales bilaterales, exantema, dolor abdominal y vómitos; con evidencia concomitante de serología positiva para el VEB y cultivo de los ganglios inguinales izquierdos con crecimiento de M. scrofulaceum. Es la primera comunicación de una infección causada por esta micobacteria en Ecuador, y que particularmente se presentó con un patrón de resistencia inusual.

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is a slow-growing atypical mycobacteria with a reservoir in the environmen, and occasionally it causes disease in humans. The case of a 10-year-old patient with fever of four months of evolution is presented. Symptoms include bilateral adenopathies of neck, thorax, abdomen and inguinal region, rash, abdominal pain and vomiting; in addition, a positive serology for EBV and a culture of the left inguinal ganglia with growth of M. scrofulaceum were evidenced. Thus, this is the first report of human infection caused by the aforementioned mycobacterium in Ecuador, which it was particularly manifested with an unusual pattern of resistance.

Humans , Male , Child , Mycobacterium scrofulaceum/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(2): 204-206, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902764


El linfoma T/NK extraganglionar tipo nasal es un linfoma extraganglionar, habitualmente expresa el fenotipo NK y VEB positivo. Cursa ocasionando necrosis y angioinvasión afectando de manera preferente estructuras mediofaciales. Característicamente es muy agresivo. Presentamos un caso con una sobrevida de siete meses a partir de los primeros síntomas y realizamos revisión de la literatura.

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type, is an extranodal lymphoma, usually with an NK-cell phenotype and EBV possitive. It causes necrosis and angioinvasion, and it is most commonly presenting in the midfacial area. Characteristically it is very aggressive. A case with survival of seven months from the first symptoms is reported and a review of the literature is made.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 150-157, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782099


Abstract: Approximately 90% of the world population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Usually, it infects B lymphocytes, predisposing them to malignant transformation. Infection of epithelial cells occurs rarely, and it is estimated that about to 10% of gastric cancer patients harbor EBV in their malignant cells. Given that gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a global annual incidence of over 950,000 cases, EBV-positive gastric cancer is the largest group of EBV-associated malignancies. Based on gene expression profile studies, gastric cancer was recently categorized into four subtypes; EBV-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomically stable and chromosomal instability. Together with previous studies, this report provided a more detailed molecular characterization of gastric cancer, demonstrating that EBV-positive gastric cancer is a distinct molecular subtype of the disease, with unique genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, reflected in a specific phenotype. The recognition of characteristic molecular alterations in gastric cancer allows the identification of molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, with the potential to identify therapeutic targets. These findings highlight the enormous heterogeneity of gastric cancer, and the complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations in the disease, and provide a roadmap to implementation of genome-guided personalized therapy in gastric cancer. The present review discusses the initial studies describing EBV-positive gastric cancer as a distinct clinical entity, presents recently described genetic and epigenetic alterations, and considers potential therapeutic insights derived from the recognition of this new molecular subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/virology , Adenocarcinoma/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epigenesis, Genetic
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(2): 113-121, Mar.-Apr. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779890


Abstract Objective: Clarify the frequency and the pathophysiological mechanisms of the rare manifestations of Epstein–Barr virus infection. Sources: Original research studies published in English between 1985 and 2015 were selected through a computer-assisted literature search (PubMed and Scopus). Computer searches used combinations of key words relating to "EBV infections" and "atypical manifestation. Summary of the findings: "Epstein–Barr virus is a herpes virus responsible for a lifelong latent infection in almost every adult. The primary infection concerns mostly children and presents with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis. However, Epstein–Barr virus infection may exhibit numerous rare, atypical and threatening manifestations. It may cause secondary infections and various complications of the respiratory, cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Epstein–Barr virus also plays a significant role in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies, and neoplasms, with Burkitt lymphoma as the main representative of the latter. The mechanisms of these manifestations are still unresolved. Therefore, the main suggestions are direct viral invasion and chronic immune response due to the reactivation of the latent state of the virus, or even various DNA mutations. Conclusions: Physicians should be cautious about uncommon presentations of the viral infection and consider EBV as a causative agent when they encounter similar clinical pictures.

Resumo Objetivo: Esclarecimento da frequência e dos mecanismos patofisiológicos das manifestações raras da infecção por vírus de Epstein-Barr. Fontes: Estudos de pesquisas originais publicados em inglês entre 1985 e 2015 foram selecionados por meio de uma busca na literatura assistida por computador (Pubmed e Scopus). As buscas no computador usaram combinações de palavras-chave relacionadas a "infecções por VEB" e "manifestação atípica". Resumo dos achados: O vírus de Epstein-Barr é um herpesvírus responsável por uma infecção latente vitalícia em quase todo adulto. A infecção primária ocorre principalmente em crianças e se apresenta como síndrome clínica da mononucleose infecciosa. Contudo, a infecção por vírus de Epstein-Barr pode apresentar diversas manifestações raras, atípicas e de alto risco. Ela pode causar infecções secundárias e diversas complicações dos sistemas respiratório, cardiovascular, geniturinário, gastrointestinal e nervoso. O vírus de Epstein-Barr também desempenha um papel significativo na patogênese de doenças, alergias e neoplasias autoimunes. O linfoma de Burkitt é o principal representante das últimas. Os mecanismos dessas manifestações ainda não foram resolvidos. Portanto, as principais sugestões são invasão viral direta e resposta imune crônica devido à reativação do estado latente do vírus ou mesmo a diversas mutações do DNA. Conclusões: Os médicos devem tomar cuidado sobre apresentações incomuns de infecção viral e considerar o VEB um agente causador quando encontrarem situações clínicas semelhantes.

Humans , Child , Adult , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Infectious Mononucleosis/virology
Clinics ; 71(4): 205-209, Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781428


OBJECTIVE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adults is largely underdiagnosed. To improve the rate and accuracy of diagnosis in adults, the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were analyzed in and compared between adults and children in a Chinese cohort. METHOD: Data from 50 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients, including 34 adults and 16 children who fulfilled the 2004 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnostic criteria, were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Etiological factors: The proportion of Epstein-Barr virus infection was lower in adults compared with children, whereas fungal infection and natural killer/T cell lymphoma were more frequent in adults (P<0.05). 2. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings: Over 90% of adults and pediatric patients presented with fever, thrombocytopenia and high serum ferritin levels. However, in adults, the proportions of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and jaundice were much lower (P<0.01) than in children, and serous cavity effusion was more frequent in adult patients (P<0.05). More children had hemoglobin <90 g/L, total bilirubin >19 mmol/L and lactate dehydrogenase >500 U/L compared with adults (P<0.05). 3. The time interval from the onset of symptoms to clinical diagnosis was significantly shorter in pediatric patients than in adults (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Certain clinical features were different between the two groups. The less characteristic clinical presentation of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adults may make the disease more difficult to diagnose. Our findings suggest that hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered when an adult patient presents with the above-mentioned symptoms.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Splenomegaly/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Age Factors , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Hepatomegaly/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 14(4): 217-220, 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-827216


A infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr tem alta prevalência, ao passo que 90% da população mundial adulta já teve contato com ele. A primo-infecção geralmente ocorre na infância, apresentando- -se de forma subclínica. Com o avançar da idade, a incidência de infecção sintomática aumenta progressivamente, atingindo o pico entre 15 e 24 anos de idade. Em geral, trata-se de uma doença benigna, na qual a manifestação clínica mais comum é a mononucleose infecciosa. No entanto, a infecção pode acometer qualquer órgão ou sistema, e podem estar presentes tosse, dor abdominal, náuseas, vômitos, hepatoesplenomegalia, icterícia, entre outros. As complicações são raras e podem acometer o fígado, os rins, o sistema nervoso central, o coração, os pulmões e os genitais. Relatamos o caso de paciente adolescente previamente hígido com infecção por vírus Epstein-Barr e evolução para icterícia, pericardite e lesões importantes em orofaringe e genitais. O diagnóstico de infecção pelo Epstein-Barr foi feito por sorologia, e houve boa evolução do caso.

Epstein-Barr virus infection has a high prevalence, since 90% of the adult population worldwide have already had contact with the virus. The primary infection usually occurs in childhood, being subclinically presented. With aging. the incidence of a symptomatic infection progressively increases, reaching the peak between 15 and 24 years of age. In general, it is a benign disease,in which the most common clinical manifestation is Infectious Mononucleosis; however, the infection can occur in any organ or system, and cough, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and other symptoms may be present. Complications are rare and can affect the liver, kidneys, central nervous system, heart, lungs and genitals. We report the case of a previously healthy adolescent patient with Epstein-Barr Virus infection and progression to jaundice, pericarditis, and important lesions in the oropharynx and genitals. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr infection was made through serology, and the patient had good evolution.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/therapy , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Genitalia, Male/injuries , Infectious Mononucleosis , Jaundice , Oropharynx/injuries , Pericarditis