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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 48 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1247912

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A prevalência do câncer de pulmão tem aumentado cerca de 2% ao ano e é considerado um problema de saúde pública mundial, sendo a principal causa de morte por câncer entre homens e mulheres. O Câncer de Pulmão de Células Não Pequenas (CPCNP) representa 85-90% dos cânceres de pulmão. A detecção do rearranjo do gene ROS1, considerada um importante fator preditivo para direcionamento terapêutico, constitui uma etapa crítica no tratamento de CPCNP. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência do rearranjo do gene ROS1 em pacientes portadores de CPCNP não escamoso, sem mutação de EGFR ou rearranjo de ALK, diagnosticados na Região da Foz do Rio Itajaí, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de 02/01/2019 a 27/07/2020. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e prospectivo, descrito e analítico com 95 pacientes que possuíam material de biópsia suficiente para a realização de novas análises e que não apresentavam mutação de EGFR ou rearranjo de ALK. Os pacientes com imuno-histoquímica positiva para a proteína ROS1 foram testados pelo método de FISH, utilizando-se uma sonda de DNA do tipo break-apart para o gene ROS1. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva da amostra, e os resultados foram apresentados em números absolutos e porcentagens, representados por tabelas. O teste de qui-quadrado (χ2) foi empregado para comparação das frequências entre os grupos analisados. Resultados: 52,6% foram pacientes do sexo masculino; a idade mediana foi de 64 anos; 54,7% declararam-se tabagistas; 40,0% apresentavam doença estágio IV; 29,5% apresentaram tumores com alta expressão de PD-L1. Quanto a expressão de ROS1 por imuno-histoquímica: 89,5% foram identificados como ROS1+ em 0% das células tumorais, 4,2% como ROS1+ em <70% das células, e 6,3% como ROS1+ em ≥70% das células do tumor; portanto, 10,5% apresentaram resultados positivos para expressão de ROS1. Estes pacientes foram submetidos à análise de rearranjo de ROS1 pelo método de FISH e 7 (7,4%) apresentaram resultados positivos. Conclusão: Na população estudada, a análise pelo método de FISH mostrou uma prevalência de 7,4% para rearranjos do gene ROS1


Introduction: Lung cancer prevalence has been increasing at rate of 2% per year and is considered a major public health concern worldwide, being the main cause of cancer death among women and men. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85-90% of total lung cancer. Detecting the rearrangement of the ROS1 gene is critical to the treatment of NSCLC. Objective: To assess the prevalence of the ROS1 gene rearrangement in patients diagnosed with non-squamous NSCLC patients diagnosed between January 2019 to July 2020 at Foz do Rio Itajaí, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and prospective observational study Ninety-five NSCLC whose tumors were negative for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement and who had enough tumor tissue to carry out additional molecular analysis. Patients whose tumors were positive for ROS1 by immune-histochemistry were tested using by FISH using a break-apart DNA probe (Abbot Molecular) for the ROS1 gene. A descriptive analysis was performed and results were presented as absolute frequencies and percentages and depicted in charts. Frequencies were compared with the chi-squared test (χ2). Results: 52,6% were male, mean and median age were 65,10 and 64 years, respectively. 54,7% self-declared as smokers; 40,0% had stage IV disease; 29,5% had tumours with high expression of PD-L1. Regarding the expression of ROS1 by immunohistochemistry: 89,5% were identified as ROS1+ in 0% of cells, 4,2% as ROS1+ in <70% of cells, and 6,3% as ROS1+ in ≥70% of the cells; therefore, 10,5% displayed positive results for the expression of ROS1+. These tumors were subjected to the analysis of ROS1 rearrangement by FISH and 7 (7,4%) were positive. Conclusion: We observed 7,4% prevalence for ROS1 gene rearrangements in this pre-selected population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , ErbB Receptors , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
2.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(3): 233-243, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353227

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current treatments act directly on the signal transduction pathways in cancer cells, mainly. One of the main pathways is associated with the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR), whose mutations leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and a higher rate of cell invasion. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene, which includes deletions in exon 19 and the L858R mutation in exon 21, were detected in most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Studies of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as Gefitinib, Erlotinib and Afatinib, compared with platinum-based treatments, showed that EGFR-TKIs produce increased disease-free survival, although only in patients whose cancers harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials also demonstrated that EGFR-TKIs are effective as first-line therapies in stage IV pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Here, the main aspects of the activation of the EGFR pathway in NSCLC will be reviewed, highlighting the importance for health professionals of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene and acting quickly at the molecular level based on aforementioned treatments. (AU)


Subject(s)
ErbB Receptors/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Gefitinib/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Afatinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/therapy
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 52 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1348838

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama é a neoplasia mais comum em mulheres. A maioria deles é diagnosticada em estágios iniciais, quando o tratamento visa a cura. Mas apesar dos avanços no tratamento, metástases à distância podem ocorrer. A biópsia das lesões metastáticas é recomendada para confirmar o status do receptor de estrogênio (RE), receptor de progesterona (RP) e receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico humano 2 (HER2), por ocorrerem discrepâncias nesses padrões entre tumores primários e metástases em até 40% dos casos. As células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) estão relacionadas às evoluções clínicas do câncer de mama e podem potencialmente desempenhar um papel substituto aos procedimentos invasivos de rebiópsia de metástase. A tecnologia ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor Cells, Rarecells-Diagnostics, Paris, França) não é usualmente empregada para detectar CTCs em pacientes com câncer de mama, embora seja reconhecida como uma ferramenta útil em alguns outros tumores. Existem dados emergentes de que a caracterização da expressão proteica das CTC pode refinar seu valor prognóstico. Sabe-se que o fator de transformação de crescimento (TGF-ß) desempenha um papel na progressão e invasividade do câncer de mama. Objetivos: Comparar a expressão de RE, RP e HER2 em tumores primários, CTCs, metástases e avaliar a expressão do receptor TGF-ß tipo 1 (TGF-ß RI) em CTCs como fator prognóstico para sobrevida global. Metodologia: Estudo realizado no A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Brasil. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da biópsia guiada por tomografia computadorizada de lesões metastáticas suspeitas e processadas pela metodologia ISET®. Os níveis de expressão proteica das CTCs foram comparados aos de tumores primários e metástases e correlacionados aos resultados clínicos. Todos os dados clínicopatológicos foram obtidos dos prontuários médicos. Resultados: Dos 39 pacientes inicialmente incluídos, 27 tiveram tanto a biópsia de metástases quanto a coleta de sangue e foram considerados para análise. As taxas de concordância para a expressão de RE, RP e HER2 entre tumores primários e metástases foram altas. Não foi observada nenhuma perda de expressão de HER2 nas metástases e os tumores triplo negativos mantiveram o mesmo padrão em todas as metástases (p <0,0001). Quando as metástases e CTCs foram classificadas como triplo negativo (TN) ou não ­ TN, as CTCs determinaram alta especificidade (93%), acurácia (84,2%) e valor preditivo negativo (88%). A sobrevida global mediana de pacientes sem expressão de TGF-ß RI em CTCs foi de 42,6 x 20,8 meses para os positivos, clinicamente relevante, porém sem significância estatística (p> 0,05). Conclusões: No câncer de mama, o papel das CTCs detectadas pelo ISET® ainda não está estabelecido. Com este estudo, sugerimos que esta metodologia possa ser útil para avaliar metástases em casos de tumores não TN, assim como a expressão de TGF-ß RI em CTCs, o que pode impactar a sobrevida. Devido à limitação da amostra, estudos futuros devem se concentrar em subtipos específicos de câncer de mama, ampliando a coorte.


Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women. Most of BC are diagnosed in early stages, when treatment aims cure. Despite advances in BC treatment, distant metastases may develop. Biopsy of metastatic lesions is recommended to confirm estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, due to discrepancies in these patterns between primary tumors/metastasis in up to 40% of cases. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are related to breast cancer outcomes and could potentially play a role surrogating invasive procedures of metastasis rebiopsy. ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor Cells, Rarecells-Diagnostics, Paris, France) technology is not currently employed to detect CTCs in breast cancer patients, although recognized as a useful tool in some other tumors. There are emerging data that characterization of CTC protein expression can refine its prognostic value. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß play a role in progression/invasiveness of BC. Objectives: To compare ER, PR and HER2 expression in primary tumors, CTCs, metastases and to evaluate TGF-ß type 1 receptor (TGF- ß RI) expression in CTCs as prognostic factor for overall survival. Methods: Study conducted at the A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Brazil. Blood samples were processed in ISET® before computed tomography­guided biopsy of suspected metastatic lesions. Protein expression levels in CTCs were compared to those in primary tumors/metastases and correlated to clinical outcomes. All clinicopathological data were obtained from medical records. Results: From the 39 patients initially included, 27 had both biopsy of metastases and blood collection and were considered for analysis. Concordance rates for ER, PR and HER2 expression between primary tumors/metastases were high. No loss of HER2 expression at any metastasis site and retention of the same pattern in all triplenegative (TN) tumors (p <0.0001) were observed. When metastases/CTCs were classified as TN/non­TN, CTCs showed high specificity (93%), accuracy (84.2%) and negative predictive value (88%). The median overall survival of patients with no TGF-ß RI expression in CTCs was 42.6 x 20.8 months for positive ones, clinically relevant but not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: In BC, the role of CTCs detected by ISET® is not yet established. Here, we could suggest that this methodology may be useful to evaluate metastasis in non-TN cases as also TGF-ß RI expression in CTCs, which may impact survival. Due to sample limitation, future studies must focus on specific subtypes of BC, expanding the cohort.


Subject(s)
Female , Breast Neoplasms , ErbB Receptors , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Receptors, Estrogen , Survival Analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285418

ABSTRACT

Introduction Squamous carcinoma is the commonest malignancy of the head and neck region. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates downstream signaling pathways through its tyrosine kinase (TK) domains that play a role in cell proliferation and survival. EGFR mutations have been found to occur between exons 18 to 21 on chromosome 7. Limited studies are available on EGFR-TK mutations in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) globally. This study explores EGFR mutations in 30 HNSCC cases presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of two years. Material and Methods Fresh tumor tissue was collected from the resection specimens of cases of primary HNSCC. Cases with pre-operative therapy were not included. Parameters in the form of patients' age, gender, smoking/tobacco intake, site of the lesion were recorded. Tumor parameters after histopathological examination were recorded in the form of TNM stage, tumor grade. DNA was extracted from fresh tissue of all the cases. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit assay was used to detect mutations of the EGFR gene. PCR was run and results were analyzed. Results EGFR Mutations were found in 6.7%of the patients. There was no significant association of the EGFR Mutation with the studied parameters. Conclusion EGFR mutations are present in a subset of patients of HNSCC. Patients having these mutations may benefit from targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genes, erbB-1 , ErbB Receptors , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Reference Parameters
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1574, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) represent an effective therapeutic option for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma, free of activating mutations in KRAS and NRAS. However, the research of mutations is of high cost and scarcely accessible. The expression of the EGFR by immunohistochemistry predicting the mutation status of the expanded RAS (KRAS and NRAS), may allow treatment by a diagnostic method less costly and more accessible. Aim: Investigate the correlation between the clinical-pathological data, the cytoplasmic-membrane expression of the EGFR and the mutational status of the expanded RAS. Method: A total of 139 patients with colorectal carcinoma from the archives of Instituto Goiano de Oncologia e Hematologia were evaluated. Results: Mutation of the expanded RAS was detected in 78 (56.1%) cases. The EGFR expression was stratified in 23 (16.5%) "positive", 49 (35.2%) "negative" and 67 (48.2%) "uncertain". No significant correlation was found between the mutational status of the RAS and the EGFR expression in comparison to age, gender, location, histological type, histological grade and stage. From 23 "positive" cases, 21 (91.3%) showed wild-type RAS gene, and 49 "negative", 41 (83.7%) presented mutation, resulting in a strong association between EGFR "positive", "negative" groups and the mutational status of the RAS (p<0.001), with 86.1% of accuracy. Conclusions: The cytoplasmic-membrane analysis of the EGFR expression stratified into "positive", "negative" and "uncertain" predicts mutational status of the RAS in 51.7% of the cases (p<0.001), with 86.1% of accuracy.


RESUMO Racional: Inibidores do fator de crescimento epidermal (EGFR) representam opção de terapia efetiva para o câncer colorrectal metastático, na ausência de ativação de mutações KRAS e NRAS. Entretanto, a pesquisa de mutações é cara e pouco acessível. A expressão de EGFR por imuno-histoquímica predizendo o status mutacional do RAS expandido (KRAS e NRAS) poderia permitir o tratamento por método diagnóstico menos caro e mais acessível. Objetivo: Investigar a correlação entre os dados clinicopatológicos, a expressão de EGFR na membrana citoplasmática e o status mutacional do RAS expandido. Método: Estudo retrospectivo de acurácia envolvendo 139 pacientes com carcinoma colorretal. Resultado: A mutação do RAS expandido foi detectada em 78 (56,1%) casos. A expressão de EGFR foi estratificada em 23 (16,5%) casos "positivos", 49 (35,2%) casos "negativos" e 67 (48,2%) "duvidosos". Não houve correlação significante entre o status mutacional do RAS e a expressão de EGFR em relação a idade, gênero, local do tumor, tipo histológico, grau histológico e estádio clínico. Em 23 casos "positivos", 21 (91,3%) mostraram gene RAS tipo selvagem, e em 49 "negativos", 41 (83,7%) apresentaram mutação, resultando em forte associação entre grupos EGFR "positivo" ou "negativo" e o status mutacional do RAS (p<0.001), com 86,1% de acurácia. Conclusão: A análise da expressão de EGFR na membrana citoplasmática estratificada em "positivo", "negativo" e "duvidoso" prediz o status mutacional do RAS em 51,7% dos casos (p<0.001), com 86,1% de acurácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10754, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285670

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and components of the fibrinolytic system, including urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and thrombomodulin (TM), have been implicated in tumor progression. In the present study, we employed cBioPortal platform (http://www.cbioportal.org/), cancer cell lines, and an in vivo model of immunocompromised mice to evaluate a possible cooperation between EGFR signaling, uPA, and TM expression/function in the context of cervical cancer. cBioPortal analysis revealed that EGFR, uPA, and TM are positively correlated in tumor samples of cervical cancer patients, showing a negative prognostic impact. Aggressive human cervical cancer cells (CASKI) presented higher gene expression levels of EGFR, uPA, and TM compared to its less aggressive counterpart (C-33A cells). EGFR induces uPA expression in CASKI cells through both PI3K-Akt and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 downstream effectors, whereas TM expression induced by EGFR was dependent on PI3K/Akt signaling alone. uPA induced cell-morphology modifications and cell migration in an EGFR-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Finally, treatment with cetuximab reduced in vivo CASKI xenografted-tumor growth in nude mice, and decreased intratumoral uPA expression, while TM expression was unaltered. In conclusion, we showed that EGFR signaling regulated expression of the fibrinolytic system component uPA in both in vitro and in vivo settings, while uPA also participated in cell-morphology modifications and migration in a human cervical cancer model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prognosis , Cell Movement , Cell Line, Tumor , ErbB Receptors , Mice, Nude
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and its lethality ranks the first among many malignant tumors. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, due to the high mortality rate, the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 15%. When NSCLC undergoes local invasion, the 5-year survival rate is only 20%, and it is even lower when distant metastasis occurs up to 4%. Almonertinib is an innovative drug independently researched and developed by China with independent intellectual property rights. As an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, almonertinib is mainly used for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation. This study aims to investigate the effects of almonertinib on the proliferation, invasion and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro.@*METHODS@#NSCLC cells H1975 and PC-9 were cultured in vitro. The effects of almonertinib on the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of H1975 and PC-9 cells were detected by CCK-8 assay, apoptotic assay and Transwell assay. The expression of invasion and migration related proteins was detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The CCK-8 experiment showed that almonertinib inhibited the proliferation of H1975 and PC-9 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC@*CONCLUSIONS@#Almonertinib can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLCH1975 and PC-9 cells in vitro and vivo, and promote the apoptosis of H1975 and PC-9 cells. The underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of tumor cell epithelial mesenchymal transformation and metalloproteinase expression.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides , Animals , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Indoles , Lung Neoplasms , Mice , Mice, Nude , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrimidines
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 739-742, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922241

ABSTRACT

45.7% of Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma were reported to harbour sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Limited therapeutic options are left for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring sensitizing EGFR mutations after failure of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy and chemotherapy, finding effective options for them is an unmet clinic need. Herein we reported a case that till January 12, 2021, an 82-year-old female with sensitizing EGFR-mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma received a surprising progression-free survival (PFS) benefit of over 21 months from the combination therapy of pembrolizumab and anlotinib after her failure of treatments of osimertinib, chemotherapy and anlotinib-monotherapy.
.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Female , Humans , Indoles , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Quinolines
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 804-807, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922150

ABSTRACT

Osimertinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an uncommon, but fatal pulmonary toxicity in some patients. We report a case of a 64-year-old male with stage IV adeno-non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an exon 19 deletion in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treated with osimertinib 80 mg/d for first-line targeted therapy. On day 60 after initiating treatment of osimertinib, the patient developed ILD. Osimertinib was discontinued immediately and oral prednisone 60 mg/d was initiated, ILD improved within 13 d. After balancing the risk and benefit, osimertinib was restarted concurrently with prednisone. The patient showed neither disease progression nor a recurrence of ILD for more than 16 months. Based on our case and literature review, retreatment with osimertinib under steroid coverage could be considered as an effective treatment option after careful risk-benefit assessment for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides/therapeutic use , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921683

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effects and its underlying mechanisms of four active fractions of Camellia nitidissima(leaf polyphenols, leaf saponins, flower polyphenols, and flower saponins in C. nitidissima) in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) by suppressing the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR). MTT assay was used to detect the effect of four active fractions on the proliferation of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were adopted to evaluate the effect of four active fractions on the migration of NSCLC. The effect of four active fractions on the enzyme activity of EGFR was detected. Molecular docking was carried out to explore the direct action capacity and action sites between representative components of the four active fractions and EGPR. Western blot assay was employed to investigate the effect of four active fractions on the protein expression in EGFR downstream signaling pathways. The results of the MTT assay indicated that the cell viability of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells was significantly inhibited by four active fractions at 50, 100, 150, and 200 μg·mL~(-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay revealed that the migration of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells was significantly suppressed by four active fractions. In addition, the results of the protein activity assay showed that the enzyme activity of EGFR was significantly inhibited by four active fractions. The molecular docking results confirmed that various components in four active fractions possessed strong binding activity to EGFR enzymes. Western blot assay revealed that four active fractions down-regulated the protein expression of EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. It is concluded that the four active fractions of C. nitidissima can inhibit NSCLC. The mechanism may be related to EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. This study provides a new scientific basis for the clinical treatment of NSCLC with active fractions of C. nitidissima, which is of reference significance for further research on the anti-tumor mechanism of C. nitidissima.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Camellia , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2430-2437, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for non-invasive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (EGFRm) detection in lung cancer patients, but existing methods have limitations in sensitivity and availability. In this study, we used the ΔCt value (mutant cycle threshold [Ct] value-internal control Ct value) generated during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to convert super-amplification-refractory mutation system (superARMS) from a qualitative method to a semi-quantitative method named reformed-superARMS (R-superARMS), and evaluated its performance in detecting EGFRm in plasma ctDNA in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.@*METHODS@#A total of 41 pairs of tissues and plasma samples were obtained from lung adenocarcinoma patients who had known EGFRm in tumor tissue and were previously untreated. EGFRm in ctDNA was identified by using superARMS. Through making use of ΔCt value generated during the detection process of superARMS, we indirectly transform this qualitative detection method into a semi-quantitative PCR detection method, named R-superARMS. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data were performed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables.@*RESULTS@#The concordance rate of EGFRm in tumor tissues and matched plasma samples was 68.3% (28/41). At baseline, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off ΔCt value of EGFRm set at 8.11. A significant difference in the median OS (mOS) between the two groups was observed (EGFRm ΔCt ≤8.11 vs. >8.11: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.024). Patients were divided into mutation clearance (MC) group and mutation incomplete clearance (MIC) group according to whether the ΔCt value of EGFRm test turned negative after 1 month of treatment. We found that there was also a significant difference in mOS (not reached vs. 10.4 months; log-rank P = 0.021) between MC group and MIC group. Although there was no significant difference in PFS between the two groups, the two curves were separated and the PFS of MC group tended to be higher than the MIC group (not reached vs. 27.5 months; log-rank P = 0.088). Furthermore, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off of the changes in ΔCt value of EGFRm after 1 month of treatment, which was set at 4.89. A significant difference in the mOS between the two groups was observed (change value of ΔCt >4.89 vs. ≤4.89: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.014).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Detecting EGFRm in ctDNA using R-superARMS can identify patients who are more likely sensitive to targeted therapy, reflect the molecular load of patients, and predict the therapeutic efficacy and clinical outcomes of patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880693

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) can effectively inhibit the growth of EGFR-dependent mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, NSCLC patients often develop severe drug resistance after long-term EGFR-TKI treatment. Studies have shown that the disorder of energy metabolism in tumor cells can induce EGFR-TKI resistance. Due to the drug action, gene mutation and other factors, tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming, which increases the metabolic rate and intensity of tumor cells, promotes the intake and synthesis of nutrients (such as sugar, fat and glutamine), forms a microenvironment conducive to tumor growth, enhances the bypass activation, phenotype transformation and abnormal proliferation of tumor cells, and inhibits the activity of immune cells and apoptosis of tumor cells, ultimately leading to drug resistance of tumor cells to EGFR-TKI. Therefore, targeting energy metabolism of NSCLC may be a potential way to alleviate TKI resistance.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of IHC testing.@*METHODS@#A total of 208 NSCLC patients were included in the trial, and the EGFR mutation status in the patients were detected by PCR and IHC. Two mutation-specific antibodies against the most common exon 19 deletion (clone SP111) and exon 21 L858R mutation (clone SP125) were tested by using automated immunostainer. A cost-effectiveness analysis model was built for the analysis of optimal detection scheme.@*RESULTS@#With a cutoff value of IHC 1+, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHC-based method compared with the PCR-based method were 81.7% (95% CI 72.4% to 89.0%) and 94.7% (95% CI 92.6% to 99.5%), respectively. EGFR 19del mutation was detected by SP111 antibody with a sensitivity of 65.9% (95% CI 49.4% to 79.9%) and specificity of 98.8% (95% CI 95.7% to 99.9%). EGFR L858R mutation was detected by SP125 antibody with a sensitivity of 94.2% (95% CI 84.1% to 98.8%) and specificity of 99.4% (95% CI 96.5% to 100%). The IHC and PCR cost ratio needed to be 1-to-3 or more in our patients to economically justify before the use of IHC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study confirms an excellent specificity with fairly good sensitivity of IHC and mutation-specific antibodies for common EGFR mutations. It is cost-effective to use IHC method to detect EGFR mutation first when the IHC and PCR cost ratio is 1-to-3 or more in Chinese populations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation
15.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(1): 8-15, Abril/2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1096394

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O câncer de pulmão (CP), segundo dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde, é a neoplasia mais frequente e mais letal em homens e a segunda nas mulheres em todo o mundo. O CP compreende vários tipos histológicos, incluindo câncer de pulmão de pequenas células e os diferentes tipos de câncer de pulmão de não pequenas células (CPNPC). Esse subtipo representa cerca de 80% dos casos e compreende principalmente o adenocarcinoma. A terapia de escolha para tratamento de CPNPC com mutação no receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR) são os inibidores de tirosina quinase (ITKs), como erlotinibe e gefitinibe. Neste artigo avaliamos o custo-efetividade do erlotinibe comparado ao gefitinibe no tratamento de CPNPC. Métodos: Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade sob a perspectiva de um hospital federal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Em um modelo de árvore de decisão, foram aplicados os desfechos de efetividade e segurança dos ITKs. Os dados clínicos foram extraídos de prontuários e os custos diretos, consultados em fontes oficiais do Ministério da Saúde. Resultados: O custo de 10 meses de tratamento, englobando o valor dos ITKs, procedimentos e manejo de eventos adversos, foi de R$ 63.266,76 para o erlotinibe e de R$ 39.594,72 para o gefitinibe. Os medicamentos apresentaram efetividade estatisticamente equivalente e diferença estatisticamente significativa para o desfecho de segurança, no qual o gefitinibe obteve melhor resultado. Conclusão: O gefitinibe, nesse contexto, é a tecnologia dominante quando os custos de tratamento são associados aos de manejo de eventos adversos.


Objective: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lung cancer (LC) is the most common and lethal neoplasm in men and the second most common in women worldwide. The LC comprises several histological types, including small cell lung cancer and the different types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This subtype represents about 80% of the cases and mainly comprises adenocarcinoma. The therapy of choice for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant NSCLC are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), like erlotinib and gefitinib. In this article, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of erlotinib in comparison to gefitinib. Methods: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of a Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) federal hospital. In a decision tree model, the effectiveness and safety outcomes of TKIs were applied. The clinical data were extracted from the medical records and the direct costs consulted in official sources of the Ministry of Health. Results: The cost of 10 months of processing, encompassing the TKI value, procedures and resources of adverse events was R$ 63.266,76 for the year and R$ 39.594,72 for gefitinib. Forging cards have equal and statistically significant effectiveness for the safety outcome. Conclusion: Gefitinib, in this context, is a dominant technology when process costs are associated with those of managing adverse event.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation , ErbB Receptors , CSK Tyrosine-Protein Kinase , Lung Neoplasms
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20180255, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Lung cancer is an important health problem due to its high incidence and mortality. The treatment of metastatic disease improved after the molecular pathways of cancer came to be known. However, targeted therapy is unavailable to many patients treated within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib versus that of chemotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the context of the SUS. Methods: Different analytical models were developed based on data in the literature. The outcomes were presented in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained. All costs related to treatment and supportive therapies were included in the models. Results: In one model, data from retrospective studies showed 2.01 life-years saved and a mean QALY gain of 1.169. The ICER per QALY gained ranged from R$48,451.29 (for gefitinib) to R$85,559.22 (for erlotinib). In another model, data from a meta-analysis showed −0.01 life-years saved and a mean QALY gain of 0.178. The ICER per QALY gained ranged from R$27,028.30 (for gefitinib) to R$75,203.26 (for erlotinib). Conclusions: There is no ideal analytical model for the SUS. However, targeted therapy with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be cost-effective in various scenarios. The adoption of drug price discounts will improve the cost-effectiveness of treatment.


RESUMO Objetivo: O câncer de pulmão é um importante problema de saúde pela sua alta incidência e mortalidade. O tratamento da doença metastática melhorou após o conhecimento de vias moleculares tumorais. Contudo, a terapia-alvo está indisponível para muitos pacientes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a relação custo-efetividade de erlotinibe, gefitinibe e afatinibe vs. quimioterapia no tratamento do câncer de pulmão não pequenas células no contexto do SUS. Métodos: Foram desenvolvidos modelos analíticos distintos baseados em dados da literatura. Os desfechos foram apresentados em quality-adjusted life years (QALY, anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade) e incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, relação custo-efetividade incremental). Todos os custos relacionados ao tratamento e terapias de suporte foram incluídos nos modelos. Resultados: No primeiro modelo, dados de estudos retrospectivos apontaram 2,01 anos de vida salvos e uma média de ganho de QALY de 1,169. O ICER variou entre R$ 48.451,29 (gefitinibe) e R$ 85.559,22 (erlotinibe). No segundo modelo, dados de uma meta-análise evidenciaram −0,01 ano de vida salvos e uma média de ganho de QALY de 0,178. O ICER foi de R$ 27.028,30 (gefitinibe) a R$ 75.203,26 (erlotinibe). Conclusões: Não existe um modelo analítico ideal para o SUS. Contudo, diferentes cenários disponíveis na literatura mostram que a terapia-alvo com o uso dessas drogas é custo-efetiva. A adoção de descontos nos preços dos medicamentos melhorará a relação custo-efetividade do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , ErbB Receptors
17.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-7, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1116017

ABSTRACT

Objective: κ-carrageenan is a food stabilizer agent which has an antiproliferative effect, while vitamin D is a prohormone acts on the nuclear receptor and has a cytotoxic against cancer. This study aimed to show the synergistic effect of using topical κ-carrageenan and oral administration of the vitamin D on the 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral cancer. Material and Methods: fifty four male albino rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Acetonetreated served as control (Group I), vitamin D (5000UI)-treated (Group II), κ-carrageenan (1%)- treated (Group III), DMBA (0.5%)-treated (Group IV), Acetone, κ-carrageenan and DMBA were administered topically on both cheeks and palate, five times weekly for 12 weeks, while the vitamin D was administered orally twice weekly for 12 weeks. Groups V, VI, and VII were animals treated with vitamin D, κ-carrageenan, and both vitamin D and κ-carrageenan for 8 weeks after induction of oral cancer. At the end of the study, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture for determination of TNF-α and EGFR. Results: In the groups III and IV, serum EGFR showed significant low levels compared with Group I. In the Group VII, serum EGFR showed a significantly (p=0.014) low level compared with Group IV (614.3±69.7 pg/ml versus 882.4±45.6 pg/ml, respectively). Higher percentages of high levels of TNF-α were observed in the Groups VI and VII, while a lower percentage of EGFR was observed in the Group VI. Conclusion: both κ-carrageenan and vitamin D have antiproliferative effect against DMBAinducing oral cancer by increasing the levels of TNF-α and suppressing the signaling pathway of EGFR. Concomitant using κ-carrageenan and vitamin D reduces the antiproliferative effect of each other.(AU)


Objetivo: κ-carragenina é um agente estabilizador de alimentos que tem efeito um antiproliferativo, enquanto a vitamina D é um pró-hormônio que atua sobre o receptor nuclear e possui efeito citotóxico contra o câncer. Este estudo teve como objetivo mostrar o efeito sinérgico do uso de κ-carragenina tópica e administração oral da vitamina D no câncer de boca induzido por 7, 12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA). Material e Métodos: cinquenta e quatro ratos albinos machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em sete grupos: tratado com acetona como controle (Grupo I), tratado com vitamina D (5000UI) (grupo II), tratado com κ-carragenina (1%) (grupo III), DMBA (0,5%) tratado (Grupo IV), acetona, κ-carragenina e DMBA foram administrados topicamente nas bochechas e no palato, cinco vezes por semana durante 12 semanas, enquanto a vitamina D foi administrada por via oral duas vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Os grupos V, VI e VII foram animais tratados com vitamina D, κ-carragenina e No final do estudo, foram obtidas amostras de sangue por punção cardíaca para determinação do TNF-α e EGFR. Resultados: Nos grupos III e IV, o EGFR sérico mostrou níveis baixos significativos em comparação com o Grupo I. No grupo VII, o EGFR sérico mostrou um nível significativamente baixo (p = 0,014) em comparação com o Grupo IV (614,3 ± 69,7 pg / ml versus 882,4 ± 45,6 pg / ml, respectivamente). Maiores porcentagens de TNF-α foram observadas nos Grupos VI e VII, enquanto uma menor porcentagem de EGFR foi observada no Grupo VI. Conclusão: Tanto a κ-carragenina quanto a vitamina D têm efeito antiproliferativo contra o câncer de boca induzido por DMBA aumentando os níveis de TNF-α e suprimindo a via de sinalização do EGFR. O uso concomitante de κ-carragenina e a vitamina D reduz o efeito antiproliferativo um do outro (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vitamin D , Mouth Neoplasms , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , ErbB Receptors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811195

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aberrant glycosylation of the histo-blood group antigens (including the angina bullosa haemorrhagica [ABH]) is often observed during malignant transformation in most types of carcinomas. Data concerning their ethnic distributions are diverse which explains why their biological characteristics have to be studied in different populations. Our aim was to analyze the expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens was studied in 109 patients with breast carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using χ² and Fisher analyses.RESULTS: The loss of expression of histo-blood group (ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma was observed in 81.13% of patients with blood group O, 37.93% with blood group A, and 96.30% with blood group B. One key finding of this study was that the loss of expression of the ABH antigen was also observed in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. The loss of expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p < 0.05). Expression of H antigen was observed in 50% of cases with loss of expression of B antigen and was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression (p < 0.05). The loss of H antigen in patients with blood group O was associated with estrogen receptor expression (p < 0.001). Incompatible A antigen in tumor was expressed in 20.75% of patients with blood group O.CONCLUSION: Loss of the ABH antigens correlated with the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. H antigen was associated with HER2 overexpression in breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of incompatible A antigen in mammary carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Estrogens , Glycosylation , Histocompatibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors
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