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1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 442-454, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982384

ABSTRACT

CUDC-101, an effective and multi-target inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), has been reported to inhibit many kinds of cancers, such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no studies have yet investigated whether CUDC-101 is effective against myeloma. Herein, we proved that CUDC-101 effectively inhibits the proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and induces cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CUDC-101 markedly blocked the signaling pathway of EGFR/phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and HDAC, and regulated the cell cycle G2/M arrest. Moreover, we revealed through in vivo experiment that CUDC-101 is a potent anti-myeloma drug. Bortezomib is one of the important drugs in MM treatment, and we investigated whether CUDC-101 has a synergistic or additive effect with bortezomib. The results showed that this drug combination had a synergistic anti-myeloma effect by inducing G2/M phase blockade. Collectively, our findings revealed that CUDC-101 could act on its own or in conjunction with bortezomib, which provides insights into exploring new strategies for MM treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Bortezomib/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , M Cells , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
2.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(3): 186-194, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Expression and activity of the potassium channel ether-à-go-go-1 (EAG1) are strongly related to carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. EAG1 activity may be reduced by preventing its phosphorylation with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors and by astemizole, which blocks the channel pore and downregulates its gene expression. Objective We aimed to study the potential cooperative antiproliferative effect of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and the EAG1-blocker astemizole, in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods The cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry. Inhibitory concentrations were determined by non-linear regression analysis using dose-response curves. The nature of the pharmacological effect was evaluated by the combination index equation while cell cycle analysis was studied by flow cytometry. Results Astemizole and gefitinib inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, with inhibitory concentrations (IC 50) values of 1.72 µM and 0.51 µM, respectively. All combinations resulted in a synergistic antiproliferative effect. The combination of astemizole and gefitinib diminished the percentage of cells in G2/M and S phases, while increased accumulation in G0/G1 of the cell cycle. Conclusions Astemizole and gefitinib synergistically inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cells expressing both EGFR and EAG1. Our results suggest that the combined treatment increased cell death by targeting the oncogenic activity of EAG1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Astemizole/pharmacology , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Astemizole/administration & dosage , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Synergism , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels/genetics , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Gefitinib/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(2): 219-237, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the efficacy of the targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced RCC and, via an indirect comparison, to provide an optimal treatment among these agents. A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials unpublished was performed up to Jan 1, 2015 to identify eligible randomized trials. Outcomes of interest assessing a targeted agent included progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). Thirty eligible randomized controlled studies, total twentyfourth trails (5110 cases and 4626 controls) were identified. Compared with placebo and IFN-α, single vascular epithelial growth factor (receptor) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and mammalian target of rapamycin agent (VEGF(r)-TKI & mTOR inhibitor) were associated with improved PFS, improved OS and higher ORR, respectively. Comparing sorafenib combination vs sorafenib, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS and OS, but with a higher ORR. Comparing single or combination VEGF(r)-TKI & mTOR inhibitor vs BEV + IFN-α, there was no significant difference with regard to PFS, OS, or ORR. Our network ITC meta-analysis also indicated a superior PFS of axitinib and everolimus compared to sorafenib. Our data suggest that targeted therapy with VEGF(r)-TKI & mTOR inhibitor is associated with superior efficacy for treating advanced RCC with improved PFS, OS and higher ORR compared to placebo and IFN-α. In summary, here we give a comprehensive overview of current targeted therapies of advanced RCC that may provide evidence for the adequate targeted therapy selecting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Disease-Free Survival , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(4): 365-375, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759330

ABSTRACT

AbstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21), first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC.


ResumoO câncer de pulmão é a principal causa de mortes por câncer no mundo. Recentemente, novas estratégias promissoras de tratamento foram criadas a partir do desenvolvimento de terapias de alvo molecular, particularmente aquelas que interferem em vias de transdução de sinais em células neoplásicas. Uma das vias de transdução de sinais mais estudadas é aquela ativada a partir do EGFR, que leva a perda do controle da proliferação celular, aumento da angiogênese celular e aumento da capacidade de invasão celular. Mutações ativadoras no EGFR (deleções no éxon 19 e mutação L858R no éxon 21), primeiramente descritas em 2004, foram detectadas em aproximadamente 10% dos pacientes com carcinoma de pulmão de células não pequenas (CPCNP) não escamoso em países ocidentais e são os fatores preditivos mais importantes de resposta aos tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (inibidores de tirosina quinase) do EGFR (EGFR-TKIs). Estudos de tratamento de primeira linha com esses EGFR-TKIs (gefitinibe, erlotinibe e afatinibe) em pacientes sem tratamento sistêmico prévio, em comparação com regimes baseados em platinas, têm demonstrado que os EGFR-TKIs resultam em ganhos em sobrevida livre de progressão e taxas globais de resposta, embora somente em pacientes cujos tumores alberguem mutações ativadoras no EGFR. Ensaios clínicos também mostraram a efetividade dos EGFR-TKIs como tratamentos de segunda e terceira linha de CPCNP avançado. Neste artigo, revisamos os principais aspectos da ativação da via do EGFR em CPCNP, reforçamos a importância da identificação correta das mutações ativadoras no EGFR e discutimos os principais resultados do tratamento do CPCNP com EGFR-TKIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Genes, erbB-1 , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Gene Deletion , Genetic Markers , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Sequence Analysis, DNA
5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 891-898, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors for erlotinib treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following gefitinib failure. METHODS: Forty-five patients with NSCLC who were treated with erlotinib following gefitinib failure at Seoul National University Hospital between August 2005 and November 2011 were enrolled. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, pathologic findings and other clinical factors, including response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and progression-free survival (PFS), were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients, 40 patients (88.8%) had adenocarcinoma. The following EGFR mutations were observed: five patients with a deletion of exon 19, six patients with an L858R mutation, three patients with wild-type EGFR, and 31 patients with unknown mutations. The response rate of erlotinib was 4.4%, and stable disease was 42.2%. The median PFS for erlotinib was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.7). Patients with a PFS > or = 4 months during previous gefitinib treatment had a significantly longer PFS with erlotinib (3.3 months vs. 1.6 months, respectively; p or = 4 months for previous gefitinib treatment was significantly associated with prolonged PFS with erlotinib (p = 0.04). However, the response rate of gefitinib and treatment sequence were not associated with prolonged PFS with erlotinib (p = 0.28 and p = 0.67, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Following rechallenge with the EGFR TKI erlotinib following gefitinib failure, patients who showed prolonged PFS with gefitinib benefit from erlotinib. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Chi-Square Distribution , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Hospitals, University , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Multivariate Analysis , Mutation , Proportional Hazards Models , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Salvage Therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 281-290, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62924

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-beta1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-beta1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-beta1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-beta1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-beta1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-beta1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-beta1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-beta1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-beta1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-beta1 plays a significant role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Drug Design , Hexosaminidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lung/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Receptor Cross-Talk , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 249-259, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55728

ABSTRACT

The global burden of advanced stage cervical cancer remains significant, particular in resource poor countries where effective screening programs are absent. Unfortunately, a proportion of patients will be diagnosed with advanced stage disease, and may suffer from persistent or recurrent disease despite treatment with combination chemotherapy and radiation. Patients with recurrent disease have a poor salvage rate, with an expected 5-year survival of less than 10%. Recently, significant gains have been made in the antiangiogenic arena; nonetheless the need to develop effective alternate targeted strategies is implicit. As such, a review of molecular targeted therapy in the treatment of this disease is warranted. In an era of biologics, combined therapy with cytotoxic drugs and molecular targeted agents, represents an exciting arena yet to be fully explored.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Salvage Therapy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 865-874, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the relationship of cigarette smoking to the frequency and qualitative differences among KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas from Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detailed smoking histories were obtained from 200 consecutively enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma according to a standard protocol. EGFR (exons 18 to 21) and KRAS (codons 12/13) mutations were determined via direct-sequencing. RESULTS: The incidence of KRAS mutations was 8% (16 of 200) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutations were found in 5.8% (7 of 120) of tumors from never-smokers, 15% (6 of 40) from former-smokers, and 7.5% (3 of 40) from current-smokers. The frequency of KRAS mutations did not differ significantly according to smoking history (p=0.435). Never-smokers were significantly more likely than former or current smokers to have a transition mutation (G-->A or C-->T) rather than a transversion mutation (G-->T or G-->C) that is known to be smoking-related (p=0.011). In a Cox regression model, the adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of progression with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) were 0.24 (95% CI, 0.14-0.42; p<0.001) for the EGFR mutation and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.58-2.79; p=0.537) for the KRAS mutation. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking did not influence the frequency of KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas in Korean patients, but influenced qualitative differences in the KRAS mutations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Asian People/genetics , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Proportional Hazards Models , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Smoking/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , ras Proteins/genetics
9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-127, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143729

ABSTRACT

The overall survival of patients with gastric cancer has increased markedly in Korea, even higher than those of developed nations in Western world. It is due to the virtue of Korean National Cancer Screening Program and nowadays more than half of patients are diagnosed at the early stage of gastric cancer. However, for patients with unresectable gastric cancer, the outcomes of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens stay at a median survival of 9-11 months. The knowledge of cancer biology and the data from gene expression profiling has explosively expanded. Alternations in the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases pathways including Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatydyl inositol 3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/MET), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) were proved to be critical in cancer cell survival and biological agents targeting those altered receptor tyrosine kinases, their ligands and downstream effector molecules are developed for anti-cancer purpose. Until now, only trastuzumab succeeded to significantly increase overall survival of patients with HER2 overexpressing gastric cancer. Other agents including bevacizumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, and lapatinib failed to achieve the efficacy in survival gain over standard chemotherapy. Insights about the variations between regions, races, and individuals call for the effort to find reliable predictive biomarkers for drug efficacy and to design finely stratified clinical trials. Compared to current treatment paradigms, it is hoped that molecularly targeted treatment along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy will lead to significant gains in survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, ErbB-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 128-135, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143727

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant disease in incidence according to a report in 2009 from Korea. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains to be a major chemotherapeutic agents. But, over the last 10-15 years, the treatment pattern for metastatic colorectal cancer changed significantly. Irinotecan and oxaliplatin are cytotoxic drugs, or bevacizumab and cetuximab are monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets. The introduction of novel agents targeting specific molecular features of cancer cells promises more options and marked improvements in efficacy for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. Bevacizumab has been shown to extend survival in colorectal cancer when used in combination with irinotecan and 5-FU-based chemotherapy, and the addition of cetuximab to irinotecan and 5-FU-based chemotherapy eliminates irinotecan resistance. Better understanding of the tumor biology and the molecular pathway and mechanisms of tumorigenesis has led to the discovery of novel agents with improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 147-154, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143723

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most dreaded malignancies and the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. Late diagnosis and unfavorable response to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy result in exceptionally poor prognosis. Recently, the rapid advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and there are many attempts to modulate signal pathway using specific targeted agent. However, the most of them have so far failed to improve survival significantly except erlotinib. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances of molecular biology could be successfully integrated into better clinical implications. Herein, we summarize the latest insights into the carcinogenesis, and their repercussions for novel targeted agents for pancreatic cancer, and provide a review of recent clinical trials using molecular targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Epigenesis, Genetic , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, IGF Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-127, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143720

ABSTRACT

The overall survival of patients with gastric cancer has increased markedly in Korea, even higher than those of developed nations in Western world. It is due to the virtue of Korean National Cancer Screening Program and nowadays more than half of patients are diagnosed at the early stage of gastric cancer. However, for patients with unresectable gastric cancer, the outcomes of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens stay at a median survival of 9-11 months. The knowledge of cancer biology and the data from gene expression profiling has explosively expanded. Alternations in the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases pathways including Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatydyl inositol 3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/MET), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) were proved to be critical in cancer cell survival and biological agents targeting those altered receptor tyrosine kinases, their ligands and downstream effector molecules are developed for anti-cancer purpose. Until now, only trastuzumab succeeded to significantly increase overall survival of patients with HER2 overexpressing gastric cancer. Other agents including bevacizumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, and lapatinib failed to achieve the efficacy in survival gain over standard chemotherapy. Insights about the variations between regions, races, and individuals call for the effort to find reliable predictive biomarkers for drug efficacy and to design finely stratified clinical trials. Compared to current treatment paradigms, it is hoped that molecularly targeted treatment along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy will lead to significant gains in survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, ErbB-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 128-135, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143718

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant disease in incidence according to a report in 2009 from Korea. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains to be a major chemotherapeutic agents. But, over the last 10-15 years, the treatment pattern for metastatic colorectal cancer changed significantly. Irinotecan and oxaliplatin are cytotoxic drugs, or bevacizumab and cetuximab are monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets. The introduction of novel agents targeting specific molecular features of cancer cells promises more options and marked improvements in efficacy for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. Bevacizumab has been shown to extend survival in colorectal cancer when used in combination with irinotecan and 5-FU-based chemotherapy, and the addition of cetuximab to irinotecan and 5-FU-based chemotherapy eliminates irinotecan resistance. Better understanding of the tumor biology and the molecular pathway and mechanisms of tumorigenesis has led to the discovery of novel agents with improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 147-154, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143714

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most dreaded malignancies and the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. Late diagnosis and unfavorable response to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy result in exceptionally poor prognosis. Recently, the rapid advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and there are many attempts to modulate signal pathway using specific targeted agent. However, the most of them have so far failed to improve survival significantly except erlotinib. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances of molecular biology could be successfully integrated into better clinical implications. Herein, we summarize the latest insights into the carcinogenesis, and their repercussions for novel targeted agents for pancreatic cancer, and provide a review of recent clinical trials using molecular targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Epigenesis, Genetic , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, IGF Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1005-1014, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196073

ABSTRACT

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a cross-linking enzyme, is involved in drug resistance and in the constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). We investigated the association of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment efficacy with TG2 and NF-kappaB expression in 120 patients: 102 with adenocarcinoma and 18 with other histologic types. All patients underwent surgery; 88 received adjuvant chemotherapy, with 28 receiving platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as first-line treatment and 29 receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Patients' TG2 and NF-kappaB expression values were calculated semiquantitatively. The median TG2 value was 50 (range, 0-300) and the median NF-kappaB value was 20 (range, 0-240). Disease-free survival did not differ between the low- and high-TG2 groups. Among patients who received palliative platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, progression free survival (PFS) was longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG2 group (11.0 vs. 7.0 months; P=0.330). Among those who received EGFR-TKI therapy, PFS was also longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG 2 group (11.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). Similarly, in EGFR wild-type patients treated with EGFR-TKI, PFS was longer in patients with low TG2 expression (9.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). TG2 expression levels can predict PFS in patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , GTP-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/biosynthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transglutaminases/biosynthesis , Treatment Outcome
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 149-155, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117700

ABSTRACT

Although medical treatment has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong survival, no significant progress has been made in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) within the last two decades. Thus, the optimum standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for AGC remains debatable, and most responses to chemotherapy are partial and of short duration; the median survival is approximately 7 to 11 months, and survival at 2 years is exceptionally > 10%. Recently, remarkable progress in tumor biology has led to the development of new agents that target critical aspects of oncogenic pathways. For AGC, many molecular targeting agents have been evaluated in international randomized studies, and trastuzumab, an anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody, has shown antitumor activity against HER-2-positive AGC. However, this benefit is limited to only ~20% of patients with AGC (patients with HER-2-positive AGC). Therefore, there remains a critical need for both the development of more effective agents and the identification of molecular predictive and prognostic markers to select those patients who will benefit most from specific chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, ErbB-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(2): 263-268, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625067

ABSTRACT

Two classes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are currently available for clinical use: tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies. The introduction of pharmacological agents that are able to inhibit EGFR represents an important step in the management of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The use of EGFR inhibitors has not only led to meaningful therapeutic gains for patients, but has also expanded our knowledge about the disease itself, as it is now recognized that activating mutations of EGFR play a pathogenetic role in NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinoma, patients who never smoked or former light smokers, females, and Asian individuals. Patients with NSCLC and one or more of these features are more likely to harbor tumors with EGFR mutations, and hence to respond to TKIs, than individuals without these features. Currently, TKIs are considered by many as the treatment of first choice in both the first- and second-line treatment of patients with clinical or molecular predictors of therapeutic benefit, and chemotherapy is a second option in these cases, especially when activating mutations of EGFR are present. Moreover, TKIs and anti-EGFR antibodies may be used in other settings, and their therapeutic role in NSCLC is clearly expanding. However, despite an initially successful treatment course, patients with advanced NSCLC eventually develop resistance to TKIs; and novel agents that hold promise for the future include irreversible EGFR inhibitors with activity against resistance-conferring EGFR mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Dermatol. argent ; 18(1): 18-29, ene.-feb. 2012. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724291

ABSTRACT

Los inhibidores del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico son un grupo de drogas nuevas usadas para el tratamiento de tumores en estadios avanzados. Estas drogas producen conmucha frecuencia toxicidad cutánea. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de estas reacciones cutáneas y el manejo de las mismas.


Epidermal growth factor - receptor inhibitors constitute a new group of drugs used for the treatment of malignant tumors in advanced stages. These drugs produce with high frequency cutaneous toxicity. The aim of this paper is to review those cutaneous reactions, and their management.


Subject(s)
Humans , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Acneiform Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Skin/pathology
19.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 52-59, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211718

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an attractive target for tumor therapy because it is overexpressed in the majority of solid tumors and the increase in receptor expression levels has been linked with a poor clinical prognosis. Also it is well established that blocking the interaction of EGFR and the growth factors could lead to the arrest of tumor growth and possibly result in tumor cell death. A13 is a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically binds to various sets of EGFR-expressing tumor cells and inhibits EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. We isolated human immunoglobulin genes by guided selection based on the mAb A13. Four different human single chain Fvs (scFvs) were isolated from from hybrid scFv libraries containing a human VH repertoire with the VL of mAb A13 and a human VL repertoire with the VH of mAb A13. All the 4 scFvs bound to EGFR-expressing A431 cells. One scFv (SC414) with the highest affinity was converted to IgG1 (ER414). The ER414 exhibited ~17 fold lower affinity compared to the A13 mAb. In addition the ER414 inhibited an EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR with much lower efficacy compared to the A13 mAb and Cetuximab (Merck KgaA, Germany). We identified that the epitope of A13 mAb is retained in ER414. This approach will provide an efficient way of converting a murine mAb to a human mAb.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/genetics , Antibody Affinity , Cell Line, Tumor , Directed Molecular Evolution/methods , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/genetics , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Binding , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Selection, Genetic , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1128-1135, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been confirmed as predictors of the efficacy of treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We investigated whether polymorphisms of the EGFR gene were associated with clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with EGFR-TKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polymorphic dinucleotide repeat in intron 1 [CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1(CA-SSR1)] in intron 1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP-216) in the promoter region of the EGFR gene were evaluated in 71 NSCLC patients by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of treatment with EGFR-TKIs was evaluated. RESULTS: SNP-216G/T polymorphisms were associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI. The response rate for the SNP-216G/T tended to be higher than that for G/G (62.5% vs. 27.4%, p=0.057). The SNP-216G/T genotype was also associated with longer progression-free survival compared with the GG genotype (16.7 months vs. 5.1 months, p=0.005). However, the length of CA-SSR1 was not associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI. CONCLUSION: SNP-216G/T polymorphism was a potential predictor of clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKI.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Genotype , Introns/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Treatment Outcome
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