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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190347, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered a promising live bacterial delivery system. However, several proposals for rBCG vaccines have not progressed, mainly due to the limitations of the available expression systems. OBJECTIVES To obtain a set of mycobacterial vectors using a range of promoters with different strengths based on a standard backbone, previously shown to be stable. METHODS Mycobacterial expression vectors based on the pLA71 vector as backbone, were obtained inserting different promoters (PAN, PαAg, PHsp60, PBlaF* and PL5) and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as reporter gene, to evaluate features such as their relative strengths, and the in vitro (inside macrophages) and in vivo stability. FINDINGS The relative fluorescence observed with the different vectors showed increasing strength of the promoters: PAN was the weakest in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and BCG and PBlaF* was higher than PHsp60 in BCG. The relative fluorescence observed in a macrophage cell line showed that PBlaF* and PHsp60 were comparable. It was not possible to obtain strains transformed with the extrachromosomal expression vector containing the PL5 in either species. MAIN CONCLUSION We have obtained a set of potentially stable mycobacterial vectors with a arrange of expression levels, to be used in the development of rBCG vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Mycobacterium smegmatis/immunology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(6): 372-376, June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959001

ABSTRACT

Abstract Parvovirus B19 has tropism for red line blood cells, causing immune hydrops during pregnancy. A positive anti-Kell Coombs reaction usually happens during pregnancy when there is production of antibodies that target Kell antigens, but cross reactions to other antigens may occur. A 24-year-old Gypsy primigravida, 0 Rhesus positive, presented with persistent isolated hyperthermia for 2 weeks and a positive indirect Coombs test result with anti-Kell antibodies at routine tests. She had a 19-week live fetus. The blood tests revealed bicytopenia with iron deficiency anemia, leucopoenia with neutropenia, and elevated C-reactive protein. She was medicated with imipenem, and had a slow clinical recovery. Blood, urine and sputum samples were taken to perform cultures and to exclude other systemic infections. Escherichia coli was isolated in the urine, which most probably caused a transient cross anti-Kell reaction. Haemophilus influenza in the sputum and seroconversion to parvovirus B19 was confirmed, causing unusual deficits in the white cells, culminating in febrile neutropenia. Despite the patient's lack of compliance to the medical care, both maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes were good. This a rare case report of 2 rare phenomena, a cross anti-Kell reaction to E. coli and parvovirus B19 infection with tropism for white cells causing febrile neutropenia, both events occurring simultaneously during pregnancy.


Resumo O parvovírus B19 tem tropismo para as células sanguíneas da linha vermelha, causando hidropsia imune durante a gravidez. O teste Coombs anti-Kell positivo ocorre durante a gravidez quando há produção de anticorpos contra os antígenos de Kell, mas pode haver reações cruzadas para outros antígenos. Uma grávida primigesta de etnia cigana, de 24 anos, 0 Rhesus positivo, recorreu ao hospital às 19 semanas de gestação por hipertermia isolada persistente por 2 semanas e umteste Coombs indireto positivo por anticorpos anti-Kell em testes de rotina da gravidez. O estudo analítico revelou bicitopenia com anemia ferropênica, leucopenia com neutropenia, e elevação da proteína C-reativa. A paciente foi medicada com imipenem, e teve uma recuperação clínica lenta. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue, urina e expectoração para culturas bacterianas. Na urina, foi isolada Escherichia coli, o que provavelmente causou a reação anti-Kell cruzada transitória. Na expectoração, foi isolada Haemophilus influenza, e foi confirmada seroconversão para o parvovírus B19, que causou um déficit incomum na linhagem sanguínea branca, culminando com neutropenia febril. Apesar da má adesão aos cuidados médicos, os desfechos materno e fetal/neonatal foram bons. Este é um caso de 2 fenômenos raros, uma reação cruzada anti-Kell à infecção por E. coli, e parvovírus B19 comtropismo para células brancas causando neutropenia febril, ambos ocorrendo simultaneamente durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Parvovirus B19, Human , Erythema Infectiosum/complications , Erythema Infectiosum/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Febrile Neutropenia/immunology , Febrile Neutropenia/virology , Kell Blood-Group System/immunology , Cross Reactions
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 107-112, abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954958

ABSTRACT

El síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH) típico es una enfermedad huérfana causada por cepas de Escherichia coli productoras de toxina Shiga (Stx) y caracterizada por daño renal agudo, anemia hemolítica microangiopática y plaquetopenia. Es endémico en Argentina, el país con mayor incidencia de SUH en el mundo. Debido al rol fundamental de la Stx en su patogenia, se puede considerar que, como otras toxemias conocidas, el SUH podría ser tratado con anticuerpos. Este trabajo describe el desarrollo de un nuevo tratamiento capaz de neutralizar el efecto tóxico de distintas variantes de la Stx. El tratamiento consiste en fragmentos F(ab')2 provenientes de un antisuero equino cuya eficacia y potencia contra Stx1 y Stx2 se comprobó en diferentes modelos preclínicos. El producto mostró ser seguro en animales, presentó la farmacocinética descripta para compuestos similares y se pudo establecer una posible ventana terapéutica para su adecuada administración. En conjunto, los resultados preclínicos obtenidos validan la realización de un estudio clínico de primer uso en humanos. En dicho estudio, que se realizará en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, se analizará la seguridad y la farmacocinética del producto en voluntarios adultos sanos. Estos resultados sentarán las bases para la realización del estudio clínico fase II en pacientes pediátricos con infección por cepas de E. coli productoras de Stx.


The typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an orphan disease caused by Shiga toxin(Stx) -producing Escherichia coli strains and characterized by acute kidney damage, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and low platelet count. It is endemic in Argentina, the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Stx is essential for its development and therefore, HUS is considered a toxemic non-bacteremic disorder, which could be treated with antibodies. Herein we describe the development of a new treatment capable of neutralizing the toxic effect of Stx and its variants. The treatment consists of F(ab')2 fragments from an equine antiserum whose efficacy and potency against Stx1 and Stx2 were proved in different preclinical models. The product was shown to be safe in animals. Furthermore, the anti-Stx F(ab')2 pharmacokinetic was shown to be similar to that of analogous compounds and a therapeutic window for its administration was determined. Altogether, these preclinical results warrant testing in humans. The phase I clinical trial will be performed at the Hospital Italiano in Buenos Aires to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of the product in healthy adult volunteers. Based on the results of this study, a phase II clinical trial will be planned in pediatric patients diagnosed with infection by Stx-producing E. coli strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/therapeutic use , Drugs, Investigational , Shiga Toxin 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Shiga Toxin 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/prevention & control , Argentina , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Shiga Toxin 1/immunology , Shiga Toxin 2/immunology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli Infections/complications , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Antibodies/immunology
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 256-261, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891403

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe e compare the specificity of IgA antibodies against bacteria extract of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Salmonella enteritidis . Methods Colostrum samples were aseptically collected in the first 12 hours after C-section delivery. The specificity of IgA against bacteria extracts was analyzed by the Western blot. Results The findings showed proteins of high molecular weight frequently detectable in the samples. S. aureus was the most frequently found bacterium in the samples (p<0.05). Approximately 93.8, 56.3, 62.5 and 60.4% of samples presented IgA reactive to S. aureus , K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis, and E. coli, respectively. Roughly 40% of samples showed no IgA reactive to K. pneumoniae, S. enteritidis and E. coli . Conclusion Clinical evidence of the importance of breastfeeding for the immune protection of neonates was consistent with the observed immunological findings, since most samples showed IgA reactive against the species tested. The application and development of immunotherapies during pregnancy, focused on frequently detected antigens, could be an important tool to enhance the presence of IgA in colostrum.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e comparar a especificidade de anticorpos IgA de amostras de colostro contra extratos bacterianos de Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli e Salmonella enteritidis . Métodos As amostras de colostro foram coletadas assepticamente nas primeiras 12 horas após o nascimento por cesariana. A especificidade de IgA contra extratos de bactérias foi analisada por Western blot. Resultados Os achados mostraram proteínas de alto peso molecular frequentemente detectáveis nas amostras. S. aureus foi a bactéria mais encontrada nas amostras (p<0,05). Cerca de 93,8, 56,3, 62,5 e 60,4% das amostras apresentaram IgA reativa a S. aureus , K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis e E. coli , respectivamente. Aproximadamente 40% das amostras não apresentaram IgA reativa contra K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis e E. coli. Conclusão A evidência clínica da importância da amamentação para proteção imunológica ao recém-nascido foi consistente com os achados imunológicos observados, uma vez que a maioria das amostras mostrou IgA reativa contra as espécies testadas. A aplicação e o desenvolvimento de imunoterapias durante a gestação, focada nos antígenos frequentemente detectados, poderiam ser importantes instrumentos para aumentar a presença de IgA no colostro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Colostrum/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , Blotting, Western , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology
5.
Lima; s.n; mar. 2017. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848199

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad del uso de L-asparaginasa Erwinia y L-asparaginasa E. coli pegilada para el tratamiento de pacientes con leucemia linfoblástica aguda que presentan hipersensibilidad a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa. Aspectos Generales: La leucemia es el tipo de cáncer más común en niños, representando aproximadamente el 30% de todos los tipos de cáncer diagnosticados en niños; siendo la leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) uno de los dos tipos de leucemias más comunes. Adicionalmente, alrededor del 60% de todos los casos de LLA ocurre en pacientes menores de 20 años. Así, LLA es un tipo de leucemia de alta importancia dentro de población joven. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Las células neoplásicas en la leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) no sintetizan las cantidades necesarias del aminoácido L-asparagina; por lo que requieren de funtes externas (i.e., L-asparagina extracelular). La L-asparaginasa, es una enzima que cataliza la conversión de L-asparagina más agua, en ácido aspártico y amoniaco, ocasionando que los niveles de L-asparagina extracelular disminuyan; y que por los tanto las células d ela LLA no cuenten con L-asparagina extracelular. Así, estas células neoplásicas se quedan sin fuentes de L-asparagina, y no pueden sintetizar proteínas de gran imporancia para su supervivencia, ocasionando su muerte. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura a la eficacia y seguridad del uso de L-asparaginasa Erwinia y L-asparaginasa E. coli pegilada para el tratamiento de pacientes niños y adultos con leucemia linfoblástica aguda que presentan hipersensibilidad a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa. Esta búsqueda se realizó utilizando los meta-buscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE) Y National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline). RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica hasta marzo del 2017 para el sustento del uso de L-asparaginasa Erwinia en el tratamiento de leucemia linfoblástica aguda en pacientes niños y adultos que presentan hipersensibilidad a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa. Se presente la evidencia disponible según el tipo de publicación priorizada en los criterios de inclusión (i.e., GP, ETS, RS y ECA fase III), siendo los ensayos de fase III o en su defecto ensayos controlados y aleatorizados la principal considerada. CONCLUSIONES: El presente dictamen evaluó la mejor evidencia disponible hasta marco 2017 en relación al uso de L-asparaginasa Erwinia y L-asparaginasa E. coli pegilada para el tratamiento de pacientes niños, adolescentes, y adultos con leucemia linfoblástica aguda, que presentan hipersensibilidad a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa. El Instituto de Tecnologías Sanitarias-IETSI, aprueba el uso de L-asparaginasa Erwinia como parte del esquema quimioterápico utilizada para el tratamiento de pacientes niños, adolescentes, y adultos con leucemia linfoblástica aguda, que presentan hipersensibilidad grado 2 o más a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa. La vigencia de este dictamen preliminar es de dos años a partir de la fecha de publicación. Asimismo, el Instituto de Tecnologías Sanitarias-IETSI, no aprueba el uso de L-asparaginasa E. coli pegilada en el tratamiento de pacientes niños, adolescentes, y adultos con leucemia linfoblástica aguda, que presentan hipersensiblidad grado 2 o más a L-asparaginasa E. coli nativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/administration & dosage , Asparagine/analogs & derivatives , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Erwinia/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(2): 77-82, fev. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine whether prepartum antimicrobial and/or Escherichia coli J5 vaccination in dairy heifers influence the milk production, milk quality, and estimate their economic benefit. Thus, 33 dairy heifers were enrolled in four groups using a split-splot design. Groups were: (G1) prepartum antimicrobial infusion and vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, (G2) prepartum antimicrobial infusion, (G3) vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, and (G4) control heifers. Composite milk samples for somatic cell count, total bacteria count and milk composition were collected 15 days after calving and every 15 days until the end of the experiment. Bacteriological analysis was carried out at the end of study. The milk production and the incidence of clinical cases of mastitis, as well as the costs associated with them were recorded. The results demonstrate a reduction on clinical mastitis rates by preventive strategies, which implicated in lower volume of discarded milk (0.99, 1.01, 1.04 and 3.98% for G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively) and higher economic benefit. Thus, in well-managed dairy herds the prevention of heifer mastitis by vaccination or antimicrobial therapy can reduce the amount of antimicrobials needed to treat clinical mastitis cases and the days of discarded milk.


O presente estudo objetivou realizar uma análise econômica do tratamento antimicrobiano no pré-parto e/ou da vacinação com Escherihia coli J5 em novilhas leiteiras, e seu efeito sobre a produção e qualidade de leite. Portanto, utilizou-se o delineamento split-splot em esquema fatorial, no qual 33 novilhas da raça Holandesa foram divididas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: (G1) antimicroianoterapia no pré-parto e vacinação com E. coli J5, (G2) antimicrobianoterapia no pré-parto, (G3) vacinação com E. coli J5 e (G4) controle. Amostras compostas de leite foram coletadas para contagem de células somáticas, contagem bacteriana total e composição do leite 15 dias após o parto, e a cada 15 dias até o término do experimento. A análise bacteriológica do leite foi realizada ao término do experimento. A produção de leite e a incidência dos casos clínicos de mastite, assim como, os custos associados à antimicrobianoterapia no pré-parto e/ou vacinação com E. coli J5 foram registrados. Os resultados demonstraram redução dos casos clínicos de mastite com a implementação das medidas preventivas resultando no menor volume de leite descartado (0,99, 1,01, 1,04 e 3,98% para os animais dos grupos G1, G2, G3 e G4, respectivemente) e maior benefício econômico. Desta forma, em rebanhos bem manejados, a implementação da antimicrobianoterapia no pré-parto e vacinação com E. coli J5 e novilhas pode reduzir a quantidade de antimicrobianos necessário para o tratamento de casos de mastite clínica durante a lactação, resultando em menor número de dias em que o leite é descartado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Costs and Cost Analysis , Escherichia coli/immunology , Immunization/veterinary , Vaccination/veterinary , Food Quality , Mastitis, Bovine/immunology
7.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(spe): 85-108, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686588

ABSTRACT

Combining nanotechnology with glycobiology has triggered an exponential growth of research activities in the design of novel functional bionanomaterials (glyconanotechnology). More specifically, recent synthetic advances towards the tailored and versatile design of glycosylated nanoparticles namely glyconanoparticles, considered as synthetic mimetics of natural glycoconjugates, paved the way toward diverse biomedical applications. The accessibility of a wide variety of these structured nanosystems, in terms of shapes, sizes, and organized around stable nanoparticles have readily contributed to their development and applications in nanomedicine. In this context, glycosylated gold-nanoparticles (GNPs), glycosylated quantum dots (QDs), fullerenes, single-wall natotubes (SWNTs), and self-assembled glycononanoparticles using amphiphilic glycopolymers or glycodendrimers have received considerable attention to afford powerful imaging, therapeutic, and biodiagnostic devices. This review will provide an overview of the most recent syntheses and applications of glycodendrimers in glycoscience that have permitted to deepen our understanding of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions. Together with synthetic breast cancer vaccines, inhibitors of bacterial adhesions to host tissues including sensitive detection devices, these novel bionanomaterials are finding extensive relevance.


A combinação de nanotecnologia com glicobiologia tem desencadeado o crescimento exponencial de atividades de pesquisa em desenvolvimento de novos biomateriais funcionais (gliconanotecnologia). Mais especificamente, recentes avanços sintéticos para o planejamento sob medida e versátil de nanopartículas glicosiladas, ou seja, gliconanopartículas, consideradas como miméticos sintéticos de glicoconjugados naturais, prepararam o caminho para diversas aplicações biomédicas. A acessibilidade da grande variedade destes nanossistemas estruturados, em termos de forma, tamanho e organização, tem prontamente contribuído para seu desenvolvimento e aplicações em nanomedicina. Neste contexto, nanopartículas de ouro glicosiladas (do inglês, GNPs), pontos quânticos glicosilados (do inglês, QDs), fulerenos, nanotubos de parede simples (do inglês, SWNTs) e gliconanopartículas autoconstruídas usando glicopolímeros anfifílicos ou glicodendrímeros têm recebido considerável atenção para originar poderosos instrumentos de imagem, terapêutico e de biodiagnóstico. Esta revisão fornecerá a visão global das mais recentes sínteses e aplicações de glicodendrímeros em glicociência que têm permitindo aprofundar nosso conhecimento das interações multivalentes proteína-carboidrato. Estes novos biomateriais estão sendo considerados de grande relevância, junto com vacinas sintéticas de câncer de mama, inibidores de adesão bacteriana em tecidos hospedeiros incluindo instrumentos de detecção sensível.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/classification , Lanthanoid Series Elements , Nanotechnology/methods , Microbiology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Nanoparticles/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/agonists
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 138-141, Feb. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612818

ABSTRACT

The innate and adaptive immune responses of dendritic cells (DCs) to enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) infection were compared with DC responses to Shigella flexneri infection. EIEC triggered DCs to produce interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, whereas S. flexneri induced only the production of TNF-α. Unlike S. flexneri, EIEC strongly increased the expression of toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR-5 in DCs and diminished the expression of co-stimulatory molecules that may cooperate to inhibit CD4+ T-lymphocyte proliferation. The inflammation elicited by EIEC seems to be related to innate immunity both because of the aforementioned results and because only EIEC were able to stimulate DC transmigration across polarised Caco-2 cell monolayers, a mechanism likely to be associated with the secretion of CC chemokine ligands (CCL)20 and TNF-α. Understanding intestinal DC biology is critical to unravelling the infection strategies of EIEC and may aid in the design of treatments for infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Shigella flexneri/immunology , Cell Proliferation , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Murinae , /immunology , /immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(2): 144-150, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582417

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli has been isolated frequently, showing flagellar antigens that are not recognized by any of the 53 antisera, provided by the most important reference center of E. coli, The International Escherichia and Klebsiella Center (WHO) of the Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. The objective of this study was to characterize flagellar antigens of E. coli that express non-typeable H antigens. The methods used were serology, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. This characterization was performed by gene amplification of the fliC (flagellin protein) by polymerase chain reaction in all 53 standards E.coli strains for the H antigens and 20 E. coli strains for which the H antigen was untypeable. The amplicons were digested by restriction enzymes, and different restriction enzyme profiles were observed. Anti-sera were produced in rabbits, for the non-typeable strains, and agglutination tests were carried out. In conclusion,the results showed that although non-typeable and typable H antigens strains had similar flagellar antigens, the two types of strains were distinct in terms of nucleotide sequence, and did not phenotypically react with the standard antiserum, as expected. Thirteen strains had been characterized as likely putative new H antigen using PCR-RFLP techniques, DNA sequencing and/or serology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Flagellin/immunology , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Flagellin/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(3): 293-297, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601035

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial effect of Lippia sidoides (rosemary pepper) essential oil was tested against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from homemade Minas cheese produced in Brazil. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determined in the Dilution Test was 13 µL oil mL-1 for both bacteria, which characterizes inhibitory action in broth for a 24-hour interaction period. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) determined in the Suspension Test, with one minute of contact, was 25 µL oil mL-1 for both tested bacteria, obtaining at this concentration a bactericidal effect of 99.9 percent on the viable bacterial cells from each sample. Results demonstrated the bacterial activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against S. aureus and E. coli, suggesting its use as an antibacterial agent in foods.


O efeito antibacteriano do óleo essencial da Lippia sidoides (alecrim-pimenta) foi testado contra as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de queijo minas artesanal, produzido no Brasil. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) determinada por Teste de Diluição foi de 13 µL de óleo mL-1 para as duas bactérias, o que caracteriza ação inibitória em caldo durante vinte quatro horas de interação. A Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM) determinada através de Teste de Suspensão, com um minuto de contato, foi de 25 µL de óleo mL-1 para ambas as bactérias testadas, obtendo-se a esta concentração o efeito bactericida de 99,9 por cento sobre as células bacterianas viáveis em cada uma das amostras. Os resultados demonstraram atividade bactericida do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides contra S. aureus e E. coli, sugerindo a possibilidade do uso como agente antibacteriano em alimentos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli/immunology , Lippia , Oils, Volatile , Plants, Medicinal , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Brazil , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Cheese/analysis
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(3): 298-304, 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601036

ABSTRACT

Através de Testes de diluição em sistema de tubos múltiplos determinou-se in vitro, atividade antibacteriana em inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela"), expressa como Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB/bacteriostasia) e Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia), a partir de formas de extração etanólica (hidroalcoolaturas) e hídrica (decoctos), sobre inóculos padronizados de Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) e Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076). E. faecalis apresentou a maior sensibilidade, seguido por Staphylococcus aureus, enquanto S. enteritidis e E. coli apresentaram-se mais resistentes. Dentre as formas de extração, a hidroalcoolatura apresentou capacidade de inibição e/ou inativação intensa e seletiva frente aos quatro inóculos bacterianos. Os decoctos mostraram-se completamente ineficazes frente às bactérias Gram-negativas, enquanto que as Gram-positivas apresentaram somente bacteriostasia/inibição.


Dilution test in multiple tube system was used to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity in inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela"), expressed as intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB/bacteriostasis) and intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB/bactericidie), from ethanol (hydroalcoholic) and water (decoction) extraction forms on standardized inocula of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076). E. faecalis had the highest sensitivity, followed by S. aureus, while S. enteritidis and E. coli were more resistant. Of the extraction forms, the hydroalcoholic one showed intense and selective inhibition and/or inactivation capacity against four bacterial inocula. Decoctions were completely ineffective against the Gram-negative bacteria, whereas Gram-positive bacteria showed only bacteriostasis/inhibition.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Achyrocline/immunology , Flowers , Food , In Vitro Techniques , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Brazil , Enterococcus faecalis/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology
12.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 73(1): 27-33, ene.-mar. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589183

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades diarreícas, constituyen un problema mundial, con altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en países en vías de desarrollo. Venezuela presentó, en el año 2008, 1.768.509 casos de diarrea, con un 40 por ciento en menores de 5 años. El total de muertes en menores de 5 años en el período 2000-2007 fue de 9311, siendo la tercera causa en este grupo de edad. Entre las bacterias, el género Salmonella, es el más frecuentemente aislado en brotes epidémicos. En niños menores de 6 años. E.coli enteropatógena fue el agente principal, seguido por E.coli enteroinvasiva, Aeromonas sp., salmonella sp y Shigella. Campylobacter es una de las bacterias más frecuentemente en las heces de los lactantes y niños en países en desarrollo. En algunos países, tener en cuenta al Vibrium Cholera y en diarreas nosocomiales al Clostridium difficile. En lactantes y preescolares la etiología viral es la más frecuente y el rotavirus el agente más común, causando aproximadamente 15000 muertes anuales en la región de las Américas. Otros virus causantes de diarreas , son los calicivirus y los adenovirus. Los factores de riesgo están relacionados con el medio ambiente, estilos de vida, factores dependientes de la biología humana y de los sistemas de servicios de salud. Las medidas de prevención y control epidemiológico más importantes son la promoción de la lactancia materna, hábitos adecuados de higiene y saneamiento ambiental, uso adecuado de antibióticos, terapia de rehabilitación oral e intravenosa, inmunizaciones, mejoría de las condiciones socio sanitarias y sistemas eficientes de vigilancia epidemiológica.


Diarrheal diseases constitute a global problem, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particulary in developing countries. Venezuela, for 2008, presented 1.768.509 cases of diarrhea, with 40% in children under 5 years. The total number of dealths in children under years of age in the period 2000-2007 was 9311, being the third learding cause in this age group. Among causing bacterias, Salmonella in the most isolated in outbreaks. In children under 6 years, E.Coli was the principal agent, followed by E.coli., enteroinvasive, Aeromonas sp., Salmonella sp, and Shigella. Campylobacter is one of the most common bacterial in the feces of infants and children in developing countries. In some countries, Vibrium Cholera and Clostridium difficile should be considered. In infants and preshool children, viral etiology is the most frequent and rotavirus the most common agent, causing about 15000 deaths annually in the region of the Americas. Other viruses that cause diarrhea are the calciviruses and adenoviruses. Risk factors are related to the environment, lifestyles, factors dependent on human biology and health care systems. The most important prevention and control measures are the promotion of breastfeeding, proper habits of hygiene and sanitation, proper use of antibiotics, oral and intravenous rehydration therapies, immunization, improvement of sanitary conditions and efficient surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Bacteria/classification , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/mortality , Diarrhea, Infantile/prevention & control , Morbidity/trends , Sanitation/standards , Escherichia coli/immunology , Giardia lamblia/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission
13.
INTJVR-International Journal of Veterinary Research. 2010; 4 (4): 217-219
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-143688

ABSTRACT

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] kit was used for the evaluation of antibodies against Escherichia coliK99, rotavirus and coronavirus in colostrum samples of 240 non-immunized Holstein dairy cows in southern Tehran, Iran. Antibody levels against E. coli K99, coronavirus and rotavirus were higher than a 20% inhibition threshold in 76%, 99% and 100% of samples, respectively. From a total of 240 samples 14 cases [5.83%], 222 cases [92.5%] and 240 cases [100%] showed the strongest positive results [4[+]] for antibodies against E. coli, coronavirus and rotavirus, respectively. These colostrum samples were considered as high titre colostrum. The results showed that only a small number [5.83%] of colostrum samples had enough antibodies to protect the calves against diarrhea due to E. coli K99 after passive transfer. In the cases of rotavirus and coronavirus it was concluded that the colostrum samples obtained from non-immunized, naturally infected cows contained enough antibodies to develop passive immunity against rotavirus and coronavirus in suckling calves


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies , Escherichia coli/immunology , Pregnancy, Animal , Cattle
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(4): 358-367, Apr. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-509175

ABSTRACT

Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 has been shown to increase clearance of bacteria injected into the blood of germ-free mice. Moreover, it induces the production of type 1 cytokines by human peripheral mononuclear cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-12 (IL-12 p40), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)] triggered in vitro by live, heat-killed or lysozyme-treated L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and in vivo by a live preparation. Germ-free, L. delbrueckii-monoassociated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-resistant C3H/HeJ mice were used as experimental models. UFV-H2b20 induced the production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by peritoneal cells and IFN-γ by spleen cells from germ-free or monoassociated Swiss/NIH mice and LPS-hyporesponsive mice (around 40 ng/mL for IL-12 p40, 200 pg/mL for TNF-α and 10 ng/mL for IFN-γ). Heat treatment of L. delbrueckii did not affect the production of these cytokines. Lysozyme treatment decreased IL-12 p40 production by peritoneal cells from C3H/HeJ mice, but did not affect TNF-α production by these cells or IFN-γ production by spleen cells from the same mouse strain. TNF-α production by peritoneal cells from Swiss/NIH L. delbrueckii-monoassociated mice was inhibited by lysozyme treatment. When testing IL-12 p40 and IFN-γ levels in sera from germ-free or monoassociated Swiss/NIH mice systemically challenged with Escherichia coli we observed that IL-12 p40 was produced at marginally higher levels by monoassociated mice than by germ-free mice (40 vs 60 ng/mL), but IFN-γ was produced earlier and at higher levels by monoassociated mice (monoassociated 4 and 14 ng/mL 4 and 8 h after infection, germfree 0 and 7.5 ng/mL at the same times). These results show that L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 stimulates the production of type 1 cytokines in vitro and in vivo, therefore suggesting...


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/immunology , Germ-Free Life/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/microbiology
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 60(6): 1307-1314, dez. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506538

ABSTRACT

Identificaram-se e caracterizaram-se a resistência e a multirresistência aos principais antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina causada por Escherichia coli. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) e o sistema de efluxo foram detectados pelas curvas de crescimento, com base na densidade óptica, em diferentes concentrações da droga e na presença e na ausência do desacoplador da força próton-motora (PMF). E. coli 1 foi resistente à neomicina e à gentamicina; E. coli 3 e 4, à tetraciclina e à estreptomicina; e E. coli 2 e 6 à gentamicina. E. coli 5 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade. Observou-se que MICs de todos os antimicrobianos dos multirresistentes (E. coli 1, 3 e 4) diminuíram na presença do desacoplador, o que sugere sistema de efluxo multidrogas. Após cura, apenas E. coli 1 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade, porém não houve alterações das MICs, antes e após adição do desacoplador. Os resultados indicam possível presença de mecanismo de resistência dependente da PMF codificado, ou parte dele, em plasmídeo.


Resistance and multiresistance to main antimicrobials used for treating bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and efflux systems were detected by the use of growth curves based on optical density at different drug concentrations and both presence and absence of uncoupler of the proton-motive force (PMF). E. coli 1 was resistant to neomycin and gentamycin, E. coli 3 and 4 were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas E. coli 2 and 6 were resistant to gentamycin. E. coli 5 showed sensibility model. MICs of all antimicrobials of the multiresistant samples (E. coli 1, 3, and 4) were decreased in presence of the uncoupler, therefore suggesting the presence of the multidrug efflux system. After healing, only E. coli 1 showed sensibility model, however no alteration occurred in MIC(s) before and after adding the uncoupler. Those data inform the possible presence of a PMF dependent resistance mechanism that is totally or partly codified in plasmid.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cattle
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 26(1): 68-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53956

ABSTRACT

A total of 160 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urine of patients with clinically diagnosed urinary tract infection were included in the study and 50 faecal isolates of E. coli were studied. They were studied for virulence factors, namely mannose-resistant and mannose-sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA, MSHA) and siderophore production.Among 160 urinary isolates of E. coli , 40 (25%) showed MRHA, siderophore production was seen in 156 (97.5%). In 50 faecal isolates, two (4%) were MRHA, four (8%) MSHA and siderophore production in two (4%). The results suggest that MRHA and siderophore production positive strains can be considered as UPEC.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Hemagglutination , Humans , Mannose/metabolism , Siderophores/biosynthesis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urine/microbiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126337

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains were collected from young diarrheic calves in farms and field. Strains that expressed the K99 (F5) antigen were identified by agglutination tests using reference antibodies to K99 antigen and electron microscopy. The K99 antigen from a selected field strain (SAR-14) was heat-extracted and fractionated on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Further purification was carried out by sodium deoxycholate treatment and/or ion-exchange chromatography. Monoclonal antibodies to purified K99 antigen were produced by the hybridoma technique, and a specific clone, NEK99-5.6.12, was selected for propagation in tissue culture. The antibodies, thus obtained, were affinity-purified, characterized and coated onto Giemsastained Cowan-I strain of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The antibody-coated S. aureus were used in a coagglutination test to detect K99+ E. coli isolated from feces of diarrheic calves. The specificity of the test was validated against reference monoclonal antibodies used in co-agglutination tests, as well as in ELISA. Specificity of the monoclonal antibodies was also tested against various Gram negative bacteria. The developed antibodies specifically detected purified K99 antigen in immunoblots, as well as K99+ E. coli in ELISA and co-agglutination tests. The co-agglutination test was specific and convenient for large-scale screening of K99+ E. coli isolates.


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests/methods , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Surface/immunology , Bacterial Toxins/immunology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Chromatography, Gel/veterinary , Chromatography, Ion Exchange/veterinary , Chromatography, Liquid/veterinary , Diarrhea/immunology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli Infections/immunology , Immunoblotting/veterinary , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(8): 875-880, Dec. 2006. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-440575

ABSTRACT

Strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are responsible for significant rates of morbidity and mortality among children, particularly in developing countries. The majority of clinical and public health laboratories are capable of isolating and identifying Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from stool samples, but ETEC cannot be identified by routine methods. The method most often used to identify ETEC is polymerase chain reaction for heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes, and subsequent serotyping, but most clinical and public health laboratories do not have the capacity or resources to perform these tests. In this study, polyclonal rabbit and monoclonal mouse IgG2b antibodies against ETEC heat-labile toxin-I (LT) were characterized and the potential applicability of a capture assay was analyzed. IgG-enriched fractions from rabbit polyclonal and the IgG2b monoclonal antibodies recognized LT in a conformational shape and they were excellent tools for detection of LT-producing strains. These findings indicate that the capture immunoassay could be used as a diagnostic assay of ETEC LT-producing strains in routine diagnosis and in epidemiological studies of diarrhea in developing countries as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques remain as effective and economical choice for the detection of specific pathogen antigens in cultures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Mice , Rabbits , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Bacterial Toxins/immunology , Enterotoxins/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Enterotoxins/genetics , Enterotoxins/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoglobulin G , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serotyping
19.
Salus militiae ; 31(1): 35-36, ene.-jun. 2006. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-513615

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones nosocomiales representan un problema de morbilidad y mortalidad en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Este trabajo se realiza para conocer la prevalencia de gérmenes patógenos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Militar "Dr. Carlos Arvelo". Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo entre enero de 2003 y enero de 2004 de 122 pacientes que ingresaron durante ese período, se tomaron cultivos de: sangre, secreción endotraqueal, orina, punta de catéteres, etc. Del total de pacientes, 57 presentaron cultivos positivos: hemocultivo 40,3 por ciento, secreción endotraqueal 29,8 por ciento, punta de catéter 15,7 por ciento, urocultivo 8,7 por ciento. Los gérmenes mayormente aislados fueron: bacilos gram negativos no fermentador en 26,3 por ciento, estafilococo coagulasa negativo 33,3 por ciento, Levaduras 15,7 por ciento, Pseudomona aeuruginosa 12,2 por ciento, cándida albicans 10,5 por ciento, enterobacterias 3,5 por ciento. Es importante resaltar que en nuestros casos hubo la presencia de bacterias productoras de batalactamasa como Escherichia coli en un 26 por ciento y Klebsiella pneumoniae en 7 por ciento. Al conocer la epidemiolog¡a de la Unidad obtenemos conocimientos acerca de sensibilidad, mecanismos de resistencia para definir el mejor control sobre estas infecciones y así lograr mejorar la morbilidad y mortalidad y disminuir la estadia de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Escherichia coli/immunology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/mortality , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/immunology , Morbidity , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/pathogenicity , Pediatrics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/trends
20.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2006 Jan; 24(1): 30-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the role of humoral immune response and bacterial adherence in the pathogenesis of symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract infection in women. METHODS: The study population consisted of 30 women with symptomatic UTI, 30 women with asymptomatic UTI and 30 healthy women as controls. Bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells was studied and the concentration of serum and urine antibodies to mixed coliform antigen and clinical isolate was determined by ELISA. Surface hydrophobicity of the urine isolates was determined. Student's unpaired t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Compared to asymptomatic UTI, significantly more number of bacteria adhered to the epithelial cells of women with symptomatic UTI (P< 0.001). All cases of UTI had significantly high concentration of urinary IgG antibody to mixed coliform antigens. Asymptomatic UTI cases had higher concentrations of urinary IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies to clinical isolate. Concentration of sIgA level was more in symptomatic UTI. Significant correlation was observed between urinary IgG and adherence of clinical isolate in case of asymptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that greater receptivity of epithelial cells to bacteria may increase the susceptibility to UTI. Humoral immune response and local immunity may modify the pathogenesis of UTI.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Adhesion , Enterobacteriaceae/immunology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Escherichia coli Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Surface Properties , Urinary Tract Infections/immunology , Vagina/cytology
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