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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 487-494, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248939

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different periods of pre-slaughter fasting (F1: 2 to 24 hours and F2: 48 to 72 hours) on the counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms and the presence of Salmonella spp. in carcasses of bullfrogs. Two different stages of the slaughter process were analyzed: after bleeding (A) and after the final carcasses cleaning (B). Samples from each fasting period were analyzed to count hygiene indicator microorganisms (n=30) and Salmonella spp. (n=140). For aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, the variation in fasting periods caused a reduction of 0.69 log10 CFU / g (P<0.05) in F2 when compared to F1 at point B of the slaughter. Coliforms at 35º C and Escherichia coli showed no differences (P >0.05) between the fasting analyzed periods. Considering the presence of E. coli, it was observed that F2 resulted in a reduction of 30% (P<0.05) positivity on point B. For Salmonella spp., the results showed that F2 contributed to an 11.5% reduction in the presence of this bacteria at point B. (P<0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that 48 to 72 hours of pre-slaughter fasting resulted in a positive impact on the microbiological quality of bullfrog carcasses.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes períodos de jejum pré-abate (F1: duas a 24 horas e F2: 48 a 72 horas) nas contagens de micro-organismos indicadores de higiene e na presença de Salmonella spp. em carcaças de rãs-touro. Foram analisadas duas etapas do processo de abate: após a sangria (A) e após a toalete final da carcaça (B). As amostras de cada período de jejum foram utilizadas para contagem de indicadores de higiene (n = 30) e Salmonella spp. (n = 140). Para aeróbios mesófilos, a variação no tempo de jejum causou uma redução de 0,69 log10 UFC/g (P<0,05) em F2 quando comparado a F1 na etapa B do abate. Os coliformes a 35ºC e Escherichia coli não apresentaram diferenças (P>0,05) entre os dois períodos de jejum analisados. Considerando a presença de E. coli, F2 resultou em uma redução de 30% (P<0,05) de positividade na etapa B. Para Salmonella spp., os resultados mostraram que F2 contribuiu para uma redução de 11,5% na presença desse micro-organismo na etapa B. Portanto, conclui-se que 48 a 72 horas de jejum pré-abate tiveram um impacto positivo na qualidade microbiológica das carcaças de rã-touro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rana catesbeiana/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Food Hygiene , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Safety , Fasting , Animal Culling
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06747, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279541

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed at subtyping of Stx1 and Stx2 genes and characterization of antimicrobial resistance in 106 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from cattle and sheep feces. PCR was used to determine the subtypes, and the disk-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance. Ten antibiotics from five different classes were tested. Among the isolates of bovine origin, two subtypes of Stx1 (Stx1a and Stx1c), and four subtypes of Stx2 (Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c, and Stx2d) were identified. In isolates of sheep origin, two subtypes of Stx1 (Stx1a and Stx1c), and four subtypes of Stx2 (Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c, and Stx2 g) were identified. The results obtained suggest the presence of high diversity in Stx1 and Stx2 genes. Further, 96.6% (57/59) of bovine fecal strains and 89.4% (42/47) of sheep fecal strains showed resistance to at least one tested antibiotic. In both animal species, most strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR) (67.8% in cattle and 59.6% in sheep), with no significant difference between host animals. Adult animals were eight times more likely to have STEC with greater pathogenic potential. STEC with the highest pathogenic potential were three times more likely to be multidrug-resistant than STEC with the lowest pathogenic potential. The data reported in this study suggests the occurrence of strains with high potential pathogenicity in the region studied. Therefore, the ruminants of this region are carriers of strains that can cause infections in humans.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo subtipar os genes Stx1 e Stx2 e caracterizar a resistência antimicrobiana em 106 isolados de Escherichia coli produtoras de toxinas Shiga (STEC) isoladas de fezes de bovinos e ovinos. A PCR foi utilizada para determinar os subtipos e o método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para avaliar a resistência antimicrobiana. Dez antibióticos de cinco classes diferentes foram testados. Entre os isolados de origem bovina, foram identificados dois subtipos de Stx1 (Stx1a e Stx1c) e quatro subtipos de Stx2 (Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c e Stx2d). Nos isolados de origem ovina, foram identificados dois subtipos de Stx1 (Stx1a e Stx1c) e quatro subtipos de Stx2 (Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c e Stx2g). Os resultados obtidos sugerem a presença de alta variabilidade nos genes Stx1 e Stx2. Além disso, 96,6% (57/59) dos isolados fecais de bovinos e 89,4% (42/47) dos isolados de ovinos mostraram resistência a pelo menos um antibiótico testado. Em ambas as espécies animais, a maioria das cepas foi multirresistente (MDR) (67,8% em bovinos e 59,6% em ovinos), sem diferença significativa entre as espécies animais do reservatório. Os animais adultos tiveram oito vezes mais chances de apresentar STEC com maior potencial patogênico. STEC com o maior potencial patogênico teve três vezes mais chances de ser multirresistente do que o STEC com o menor potencial patogênico. Os dados relatados neste estudo sugerem a ocorrência de cepas com alto potencial de patogenicidade na região estudada. Portanto, os ruminantes dessa região são hospedeiros de isolados que podem causar infecções em humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/microbiology , Sheep/microbiology , Shiga Toxins , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents , Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 931-935, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129612

ABSTRACT

Bacterial resistance is a reality in both human and veterinary health, it limits the therapeutic arsenal and raises the costs of the patient's treatment. A dog with signs of cystitis received treatment with 5mg/kg enrofloxacin at three consecutive times, with low effectiveness. The presence of urethral uroliths was identified and urohydropulsion was done. The animal presented a new obstruction, for which a cystotomy was performed, but continued with signs of infection. Uroculture and antimicrobial susceptibility test were then performed. Escherichia coli was identified, which was resistant to 13 antibiotics, being sensitive only to piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin. In the screening test for ß-lactamase, the production of ESßL was detected. The qPCR indicated the presence of the bla CTXm, bla DHA, bla OXA, bla IMP, bla TEM, bla GIM, bla SIM, bla SPM and bla SME genes, which may lead to a phenotypic resistance profile for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, aztreonam, cefepime cefoxitin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam. This case reaffirms the value that laboratory analysis adds to the diagnosis and treatment of cystitis and urolithiasis, which can define the direction of evolution of the prognosis and the speed at which the patient's health will be restored.(AU)


A resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos é uma realidade, tanto na saúde humana quanto veterinária, limita o arsenal terapêutico e eleva os custos relacionados ao tratamento do paciente. Um cão, com sinais de cistite, recebeu tratamento com enrofloxacina, na dose de 5mg/kg, em três momentos seguidos, com baixa efetividade. Identificou-se presença de urólitos uretrais e foi feita uro-hidropropulsão. O animal apresentou nova obstrução, para a qual foi realizada uma cistotomia, mas continuou com sinais de infecção. Realizou-se, então, urocultura e teste de antibiograma. Foi identificada Escherichia coli, que se mostrou resistente a 13 antibióticos, sendo sensível somente à piperacilina-tazobactam e amicacina. No teste de triagem para ß-lactamase, detectou-se a produção de ESßL. A qPCR indicou presença dos genes blaCTXm, blaDHA, blaOXA, blaIMP, blaTEM, blaGIM, blaSIM, blaSPM e blaSME, que podem conduzir um perfil fenotípico de resistência para ampicilina, amoxicilina-ácido clavulânico, aztreonam, cefepima, cefoxitina, cefuroxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, imipenem, piperacilina-tazobactam. Este caso reafirma o valor que a análise laboratorial agrega ao diagnóstico e tratamento da cistite e da urolitíase, podendo definir o sentido de evolução do prognóstico e a velocidade em que a saúde do paciente será restabelecia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cystitis/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Urolithiasis , Cystotomy/veterinary , Enrofloxacin
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e429, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126702

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En los países en vías de desarrollo las enfermedades diarreicas agudas son causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad. Entre las primeras causas se encuentra Escherichia coli diarrogénicos, que afecta a pacientes en edades extremas de la vida y con inmunodeficiencias. Objetivo: Identificar los patotipos de Escherichia coli diarrogénicos que más inciden y los fenotipos de resistencia antimicrobiana expresados por el patotipo predominante. Métodos: Se estudiaron 184 aislamientos procedentes de 15 centros provinciales de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología de Cuba e Isla de la Juventud. La investigación se realizó desde julio de 2012 hasta febrero de 2014. La identificación de género, especie y patotipos fue realizada por métodos de diagnóstico convencional y molecular. La determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por el método de Bauer y Kirby, y las normas del Clinical and Laboratory Institute Standards de 2013. Resultados: Se identificaron 108 (58 por ciento) Escherichia coli diarrogénicos. Los patotipos confirmados fueron: en la PCR múltiple 1, 5 (6 por ciento) de Escherichia coli enteropatogénico, 4 (4 por ciento) de enterotoxigénico y 0 (0 por ciento) de enterohemorrágico. La PCR múltiple 2 reveló 72 (82 por ciento) Escherichia coli enteroagregativo, que resultó el predominante en el estudio. La PCR 3 (simple) detectó 7 (8 por ciento) de enteroinvasivo. El 100 por ciento del patotipo predominante mostró resistencia, al menos a un antimicrobiano de los probados, un solo patron de resistencia a dos antimicrobianos, y nueve patrones de multirresistencia. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la importancia del uso de pruebas moleculares rápidas para la confirmación de los patotipos de E. coli diarrogénicos, los que provocan deshidratación ligera, complicaciones graves y la muerte. Se logra identificar los cuatro patotipos más frecuentes y E. coli enteroagregativo, el de mayor incidencia en la población estudiada. El patotipo predominante mostró altos porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana a betalactámicos y buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana a los aminoglucósidos y cefalosporinas de tercera generación. La investigación aporta conocimientos, no revelados en estudios anteriores con aislados cubanos, lo que es considerado de alto valor para los clínicos, pediatras y epidemiólogos del país(AU)


Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. One of the leading causes is diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which affects patients at extreme ages and with immunodeficiencies. Objective: Identify the most active pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes expressed by the prevailing pathotype. Methods: A study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2014 of 184 isolates obtained from 15 provincial Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology Centers in Cuba and the Isle of Youth. Identification of the genus, species and pathotypes was based on conventional and molecular diagnostic methods. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the Bauer-Kirby method in compliance with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute of 2013. Results: A total 108 (58 percent) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified. The following pathotypes were confirmed: Multiplex PCR 1 revealed 5 (6 percent) enteropathogenic, 4 (4 percent) enterotoxigenic and 0 (0 percent ) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Multiplex PCR 2 found 72 (82 percent) enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, which was the prevailing type in the study. PCR 3 (simple) detected 7 (8 percent) enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. 100 percent of the prevailing pathotype displayed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, a single resistance pattern to two antimicrobials, and nine multiresistance patterns. Conclusions: The study showed the importance of the use of rapid molecular tests to confirm diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, which cause mild dehydration, serious complications and death. Identification could be done of the four most common pathotypes and enteroaggregative E. coli, the one with the highest incidence in the study population. The prevailing pathotype displayed high percentages of antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams and good antimicrobial sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The study contributed knowledge not revealed by previous research about Cuban isolates. Such information is considered to be highly valuable for clinicians, pediatricians and epidemiologists in the country(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/complications
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190759, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190429, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057306

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most encountered infections in the world. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility, phylogeny, and virulence genes of 153 Escherichia coli strains isolated from UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to different classes of antimicrobials was determined by the VITEK-2 automated system. Presence of virulence genes and phylogenetic groups were investigated by PCR. RESULTS: Regarding susceptibility to antimicrobials, ampicillin resistance was most abundant (67.3%), followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50.9%); least abundant was resistance to amikacin (1.3%) and nitrofurantoin (1.3%). Multi drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 34.6% of the isolates, and all isolates were found to be susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and fosfomycine. The majority of the isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B23 (35.9%), followed by A1 (20.9%), D1 (18.9%), D2 (12.4%), A0 (%5.9), B1 (3.9%) and B2 (1.9%). Among E. coli strains examined, 49% had iucD, 32.7% papE-F, 26.1% papC, 15% cnf2, 11.1% sfa, 7.8% cnf1, 1.3% afaE, 1.3% afaD, 1.3% hlyA, 0.7% f17a-A, 0.7% clpG and 0.7% eaeA genes. CONCLUSIONS Our research demonstrated that virulence factors were distributed among different phylogroup/subgroups, which play a role in UTIs pathogenesis in humans. For this reason, complex and detailed studies are required to determine the relationship between virulence factors and specific E. coli strains that cause UTIs in humans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genotype
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0092020, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1121090

ABSTRACT

Abortion and complications in reproduction are important causes of economic loss in horse breeding. Studies of its causal agents can help to identify the primary pathogens or other factors involved and define appropriate measures to reduce its occurrence. This research aimed to investigate the primary causes of equine abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in regions of Brazil. Tissue from aborted fetuses, stillbirths, neonates and foals submitted to the Biological Institute of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2010 to July 2013 were processed for viral and bacterial isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Bacterial infection was the primary detected cause of abortion, found in 16 of the 53 animals submitted for bacterial analysis followed by viruses analysis in 2 of 105 animals, and noninfectious causes (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in 2 of 105 animals. Fungi were found in a single sample of 53 tested. The most frequent bacteria recovered were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, combined E. coli and Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. The following agents were each observed in a single sample: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp., and Rhodococcus equi. The predominant identification of fecal and other opportunistic bacteria as opposed to pathogens commonly associated with equine abortion, such as Leptospira spp. and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), suggests the need of improving hygiene management of breeding mares to prevent bacterial infection that may cause fetal loss, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality.(AU)


Abortamento e complicações na reprodução são importantes causas de perda econômica na equideocultura. Estudos dos agentes causais podem ajudar a identificar patógenos ou outros fatores envolvidos e definir medidas apropriadas para reduzir sua ocorrência. Esta pesquisa investigou as causas primárias de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos de diversas regiões do Brasil. Tecidos de fetos abortados, natimortos e potros submetidos ao Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2010 a julho de 2013, foram processados por meio de técnicas de isolamento viral e bacteriano, PCR, histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Infecção bacteriana foi a causa mais detectada, encontrada em 16 de 53 amostras submetidas à análise bacteriana, seguida de causa viral em 2 de 105 amostras, e causas não infecciosas (isoeritrólise neonatal) em 2 de 105 amostras. Fungo foi encontrado em uma única amostra de 53 testadas. As bactérias isoladas mais frequentemente foram Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli associada a Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. associado a Bacillus spp. Os seguintes agentes foram observados em uma única amostra cada: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp. e Rhodococcus equi. A identificação predominante de bactérias fecais e outras bactérias oportunistas, ao invés de outros patógenos comumente associados a quadros de abortamento equino, tais como Leptospira spp. e Herpesvírus equino tipo 1, sugere a necessidade de maior atenção no manejo higiênico das éguas em reprodução, a fim de prevenir infecções bacterianas que possam causar perda fetal, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/complications , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Horses , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Brazil , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cause of Death , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Abortion, Veterinary/mortality , Aborted Fetus , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e1082018, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130111

ABSTRACT

The product quality is a competitive advantage that plays a differential role among companies. In the food industry, which is based on the Quality Management System, such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which cover the hygiene procedure, aiming at food safety. In view of the above, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of a selected dairy from the São Luís Island - MA. An application of the checklist was performed, swab collection from the hands of the manipulators and equipment and the collection of water and yogurt for microbiological analysis. After this step, a training was performed for food handlers and finally, new collections and microbiological analysis were performed. All the microbiological analysis performed were satisfactory, except for the water sample, one before and again for training. It can be verified that the hygienic-sanitary condition of the dairy was good. However, after a lecture and new microbiological analyzes, improvements were observed in the results.(AU)


A qualidade dos produtos é uma vantagem competitiva que desempenha um papel diferencial entre empresas. Na indústria alimentar, faz-se necessária a adoção do Sistema de Gestão de Qualidade, como as Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF), que abrangem os procedimentos essenciais de higiene, visando à segurança alimentar. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias de um laticínio selecionado da ilha de São Luís, Maranhão. Foi realizado um checklist, coleta por swabs das mãos dos manipuladores e de equipamentos e coleta de água e iogurte para análises microbiológicas. Após essa etapa, foi executado um treinamento para os manipuladores de alimentos e, por fim, novas coletas e análises microbiológicas foram realizadas. Todas as análises microbiológicas realizadas mostraram-se satisfatórias, com exceção da amostra de água, uma antes e outra após o treinamento. Pode-se constatar que a condição higiênico-sanitária do laticínio era boa. Contudo, após uma palestra e a realização de novas análises microbiológicas, foram observadas melhorias nos resultados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Yogurt , Industrial Sanitation , Dairying , Food Safety , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Hygiene , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food , Food Handling , Hand/microbiology
9.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 50(1-2): 4-13, Diciembre 2019. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118292

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto urinario afectan al ser humano a lo largo de su vida y son frecuentes tanto en el ámbito comunitario como en el nosocomial. El objetivo de este estudio fue Identificar los principales agentes etiológicos y el perfil de resistencia a los antibióticos, presentado por los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados de los urocultivos de pacientes con infección urinaria que acudieron al Laboratorio "Luis Razetti" Mérida -Venezuela, entre enero y junio de 2015. Este estudio fue de tipo observacional, de corte transversal y descriptivo. La población y muestra estuvo conformada por 149 pacientes de ambos sexos, cuyas muestras de orina fueron procesadas utilizado el método del asa calibrada y la identificación bacteriana mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó a través del método de difusión del disco en agar. Escherichia coli predominó en un 84,6 %, seguido de Proteus mirabilis y Enterococcus faecalis, ambos con (4,7 %). Los porcentajes más altos de resistencia para los aislados de E. coli, se observaron para ampicilina (92,06 %), ampicilina/sulbactam (68,25 %), ácido nalidíxico (38,89 %), ciprofloxacina (38,89 %) y trimetroprim­sulfametoxazol (54,76 %); y presentaron altos niveles de sensibilidad a Nitrofurantoína (80,95 %). El 5,15 % de las cepas de E. coli se mostraron fenotípicamente productoras de belalactamasa de espectro extendido y el 35,29 % de las otras Enterobacteriaceae aisladas, presentaron un perfil fenotípico compatible con la producción de la enzima Inhibitory-resistant TEM (IRT). Es importante destacar que estos estudios permiten conocer la etiología a de infecciones urinarias en la comunidad, así como los perfiles de resistencia y sensibilidad a nivel local, datos relevantes para establecer pautas de tratamiento empírico adaptadas a cada medio.


Urinary tract infections affect the human being throughout his life and are among the most frequent in both the community and nosocomial settings. The Aim of this study was to Identify the main etiological agents and antibiotic resistance profile presented by isolated microorganisms in the urocultures of patients with urinary tract infection who attended the Laboratory "Luis Razetti" Mérida -Venezuela, between January and June 2015. This study was observational, cross-sectional and descriptive. The population and sample consisted of 149 patients of both sexes, whose urine samples were processed using the calibrated handle method and bacterial identification through conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility is determined through the disk diffusion method in agar. Escherichia coli dominated by 84.6 %, followed by Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis, both with (4.7 %). The highest percentages of resistance for E. coli were observed for ampicillin (92.06 %), ampicillin/sulbactam (68.25 %), nalidixic acid (38.89 %), ciprofloxacin (38.89 %) trimetroprim-sulfamethoxazole (54.76 %); and had high levels of sensitivity to Nitrofurantoin (80.95 %). 5.15 % of E. coli strains were phenotypically producing extended-spectrum belalactamase and 35.29 % of others Enterobacteriaceae isolated had a phenotypic profile compatible with the production of the Enzyme Inhibitoryresistant TEM (IRT). It is important to note that these studies allow knowing the etiology of urinary tract infections in the community as well as resistance and sensitivity profiles at the local level, relevant data to establish empirical processing guidelines tailored to each medium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Phenotype , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1968-1976, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055145

ABSTRACT

Diarrheagenic (DEC) and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections (ExPEC), respectively. We aimed to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility, gene encoding virulence factors associated to DEC and APEC, and phylogenetic classification in E. coli isolated from 320 samples of feed and ingredients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the disk diffusion method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index and Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) were calculated. Phylogenetic classification was performed on samples harboring DEC and/or APEC virulence-associated genes. A total of 110 E. coli strains were isolated in 15% (49/320) of the evaluated inputs (n=13 vegetable meal; n=33 animal meal, n=3 feed). In general, the isolates showed the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance to sulfonamide and cefazolin and 18% (20/110) were multi-drug resistant. MAR index of feed samples was the highest (0.467). Six and five strains had APEC and DEC virulence-associated genes, respectively, and belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. These findings point to the need for strict microbiological control during the production process of these foods.(AU)


Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas (DEC) e patogênicas para aves (APEC) são associadas a infecções intestinais e extraintestinais (ExPEC), respectivamente. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade antimicrobiana, a presença de genes que codificam os fatores de virulência relacionados à DEC e APEC, e a classificação filogenética em E. coli isoladas de 320 amostras de ração para frangos e ingredientes. A sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método disco-difusão e calculou-se o índice de resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos (IRMA) e a resistência a múltiplas drogas (MDR). Nas amostras que possuíam genes de virulência relacionados à DEC e/ou APEC, foi realizada a classificação filogenética. Foram isoladas 110 amostras de E. coli em 15% (49/320) dos insumos avaliados (n=13 farelos vegetais; n=33 farinhas de origem animal; n=3 rações). De forma geral, os isolados apresentaram as maiores frequências de resistência antimicrobiana à sulfonamida e à cefazolina e 18% (20/110) foram resistentes a múltiplas drogas. O IRMA das rações foi o mais alto (0,467). Os genes que codificam fatores de virulência associados à APEC e DEC foram detectados em seis e cinco isolados, respectivamente, pertencentes aos grupos filogenéticos A e B1. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de rigoroso controle microbiológico durante o processo de produção desses alimentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/virology , Virulence Factors , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Animal Feed/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial
11.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(3): 2-11, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Infección Necrotizante de tejidos blandos (INTB) tiene una elevada morbimortalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir del manejo perioperatorio de menores de 15 años que cursaron con INTB durante 15 años en un Hospital pediátrico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: serie de pacientes identificados INTB entre 2000 y 2015 en el Hospital Roberto del Río. Se describen variables demográficas, clínicas, vacuna, tratamiento, cirugías, complicaciones, microorganismos, seguimiento, y fallecimientos. RESULTADOS: 22 pacientes, con mediana de 2 años y 9 meses de edad. 50% estaban cursando con una varicela. Dos fallecieron. Ninguno era previamente vacunado contra el virus varicela zoster. La localización fue tronco (14), extremidades (7), cuello (1). Los pacientes conscientes presentaron hiperestesia cutánea. Se realizó aseo quirúrgico con una mediana de 6,8 horas desde el inicio de la hiperestesia y 2 horas desde la sospecha diagnóstica. Los microorganismos fueron: S. pyogenes (38%) y E. coli (31%). Los antibióticos más frecuentes fueron penicilina más clindamicina. La herida se manejó con cierre primario, injertos y/o colgajos. Cinco evolucionaron con secuelas que necesitaron tratamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: Se identificó que la INTB puede presentarse con varicela. Debe sospecharse en lesiones cutáneas e hiperestesia desproporcionada. Resección amplia y precoz son fundamentales para el tratamiento.


INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) has a high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to describe the perioperative management of children under 15 years of age who have had this condition for 15 years in a pediatric hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: cases series of patients identified by Pathological Anatomy with NSTI during 2000 and 2015 at the Dr. Roberto del Río Hospital. Demographic variables, treatment, antecedents of vaccination, surgeries, complications, microorganisms, follow-up, and deaths are described. RESULTS: 22 patients were identified, with a median of 2 years 9 months of age (interquartile range: 13 months to 5 years y 10 months). 50% of the cases were associated to chickenpox. Two died. No patient was previously vaccinated against varicella zoster virus. The location was trunk (14), extremities (7) and neck (1). All conscious patients presented cutaneous hyperesthesia. Surgical debridement was performed with a median of 6.8 hours from the onset of hyperesthesia and 2 hours from diagnostic suspicion. The most frequent microorganisms were: Streptococcus pyogenes (38%) and Escherichia coli (31%). The most frequent antibiotics used were penicillin plus clindamycin. The wound was handled with primary closure, grafts and / or flaps. Five patients evolved with sequelae that needed treatment. CONCLUSION: It was identified that STNI in children is associated with chickenpox. It should be suspected in cutaneous lesions and disproportionate hyperesthesia. Aggressive resection is essential for treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Soft Tissue Infections/pathology , Soft Tissue Infections/therapy , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/pathology , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolation & purification , Soft Tissue Infections/surgery , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/surgery , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/microbiology , Perioperative Care , Debridement , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1488-1496, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038649

ABSTRACT

A ordem dos Passeriformes é uma das mais pressionadas pelas ações antrópicas, especialmente as relativas ao tráfico de animais, que, devido às más condições de manejo e higiênico-sanitárias, favorecem a infecção dos espécimes por patógenos virulentos e zoonóticos, como cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp., cujo isolamento em suabes cloacais, bem como a análise dos genes de virulência das cepas de E. coli foram objetivos do estudo. Para isso, 120 Passeriformes silvestres nativos, recebidos pelo Cetas/CE, foram avaliados individualmente. As cepas isoladas foram submetidas a teste de disco difusão para determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Em etapa posterior, foi realizada PCR para a detecção de oito genes de virulência dos principais patotipos diarreiogênicos de E. coli. Quanto aos resultados, nenhuma cepa de Salmonella spp. foi isolada, no entanto a ocorrência de E. coli foi de 40,8%. Foi observada elevada resistência, principalmente aos antimicrobianos tetraciclina, ampicilina e sulfazotrim, ocorrendo multirresistência em 42,8% das cepas. Pela análise molecular, foram diagnosticados quatro entre os nove genes pesquisados, com a identificação de EPEC típicas, EPEC atípicas, ETEC, EHEC e EAEC. Os resultados apontam para a importância de Passeriformes como possíveis disseminadores de zoonoses.(AU)


The order Passeriformes is one of the most pressured by anthropic actions, especially those related to animal trafficking. Due to poor sanitary and hygienic conditions, the infection of the specimens is favored by virulent and zoonotic pathogens such as strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., whose isolation in cloacal swabs as well as the analysis of the virulence genes of E. coli strains were the objectives of the study. For this, 120 native wild Passeriformes, received by CETAS/CE were individually evaluated. The isolated strains were submitted to diffusion disc test to determine sensitivity to antimicrobials. In a later stage, PCR was performed for the detection of eight virulence genes from the main E. coli diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Regarding the results, no strain of Salmonella spp. was isolated; however, the occurrence of E. coli was 40.8%. High resistance was observed, mainly to the antimicrobials Tetracycline, Ampicillin and Sulfazotrim, with multi-resistance in 42.8% of the strains. By molecular analysis, four of the nine genes were diagnosed, identifying typical EPEC, atypical EPEC, ETEC, EHEC and EAEC. The results point to the importance of Passeriformes as possible disseminators of zoonoses.(AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Passeriformes/parasitology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/parasitology
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 410-416, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286526

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los patotipos de Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica (ETEC) y enteroagregativa (EAEC) son importantes agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea en niños menores de cinco años de México y países en desarrollo, en quienes causan numerosas muertes. Ambos se han asociado con retraso en el crecimiento infantil y son los principales agentes causales de la "diarrea del viajero". La patogénesis de ambas bacterias se inicia cuando estas se adhieren al epitelio intestinal mediante fimbrias, denominadas factores de colonización en las cepas ETEC aisladas de humano y fimbrias de adherencia agregativa en las cepas de EAEC. Una vez que ETEC se adhiere al enterocito produce una o ambas de sus toxinas e induce la secreción de iones de cloruro, sodio y agua al lumen intestinal, produciendo su característica diarrea acusa. EAEC se une al epitelio intestinal formando una biopelícula, induce la producción de moco, libera sus toxinas y promueve inflamación. Modelos de infección de EAEC y ETEC con ratones C57BL/6 silvestres y deficientes del ligando de CD40 (con microbiotas intactas), respectivamente, revelaron que la desnutrición y la dieta baja en cinc incrementan la infección de EAEC causando retraso en el crecimiento y que ETEC coloniza, persiste e induce respuesta inmune humoral local y sistémica.


Abstract Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathotypes are important etiological agents causative of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in Mexico and in developing countries, where they cause numerous deaths. Both have been associated with delayed growth in children and are the main causative agents of traveler's diarrhea. The pathogenesis of both bacteria starts by adhering to the intestinal epithelium by means of fimbriae, called colonization factors in human ETEC isolates and aggregative adherence fimbriae in EAEC isolates. Once ETEC adheres to the enterocyte, it produces one or both of its toxins and induces the secretion of chloride and sodium ions and water into the intestinal lumen, producing its characteristic watery diarrhea. EAEC binds to the intestinal epithelium forming a biofilm, induces the production of mucus, releases its toxins and promotes inflammation. EAEC and ETEC infection models with wild-type C57BL/6 and CD40 ligand-deficient mice (with intact microbiota), respectively, revealed that undernutrition and low-zinc diet increases EAEC infection, causing growth retardation, and that ETEC colonizes, persists and induces local and systemic humoral immune response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child, Preschool , Rats , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Travel-Related Illness , Mexico/epidemiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 447-454, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042661

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Escherichia coli es causa frecuente de un amplio espectro de infecciones, desde una infeccion urinaria no complicada hasta la sepsis grave y el choque septico, asociadas con desenlaces de alto impacto como ingreso a UCI y mortalidad. Objetivos: Determinar las diferencias en mortalidad. ingreso a UCI/UCE, presencia de cepas BLEE y tratamiento antimicrobiano en pacientes con sepsis grave y choque séptico por E. coli, con o sin bacteriemia, asi como su variabilidad dependiendo del foco infeccioso. Material y Métodos: Análisis secundario de estudio de cohorte prospective multicéntrico. Resultados: De 458 pacientes que tenian infeccion por E. coli, 123 tenian aislamiento solo en hemocultivo, 222 solo en urocultivo y 113 en ambas muestras. El aislamiento solo en hemocultivo se asocio mayor frecuencia de ingreso a UCI (n = 63; 5,2%). mayor necesidad de ventilacion mecánica (n = 19; 15,5%), mayor mortalidad y estancia hospitalaria (n = 22; 18%; mediana de 12 dias, RIQ= 7-17, respectivamente), pero con menor presencia de cepas productoras de BLEE en comparacion con urocultivos y hemocultivo, urocultivo (n = 20; 17,7% y n = 46; 20,7%, respectivamente). Recibieron tratamiento antimicrobiano en las primeras 24 h 424 pacientes (92,6%), con mas frecuencia piperacilina/ tazobactam (n = 256,60,3%). La proporcion de pacientes tratados empiricamente con carbapenemicos vs no carbapenemicos fue similar en los tres grupos. Discusión: El foco infeccioso. sumado a factores de nesgo para cepas productoras de BLEE, son herramientas utiles para definir pronostico y tratamiento en esta población, debido a la variabilidad clínica y microbiologica en los distintos aislados. Conclusión: Los pacientes con aislamiento de E. coli solo en hemocultivo presentan con mayor frecuencia desenlaces desfavorables en comparación con los pacientes con E. coli en urocultivo, con o sin bacteriemia. Llama la atencion en nuestro medio la menor cantidad de cepas productoras de BLEE en los pacientes con solo hemocultivo positivo.


Background: Escherichia coli is a common cause of a broad spectrum of infections, from non-complicated urinary tract infection, to severe sepsis and septic shock, that are associated to high impact outcomes, such as ICU admission and mortality. Aims: To establish differences in mortality, ICU admission, ESBL positive strains and antibiotic treatment, between patients with E. coli related severe sepsis and septic shock, with or without bacteremia and its variability based on the source of infection. Method: Secondary data analysis of a multicentric prospective cohort study. Results: From 458 patients with E. coli isolation, 123 had E. coli exclusively in blood culture, 222 solely in urine culture, and 113 in both samples. Escherichia coli isolation exclusively in blood culture was associated with higher frequency of ICU admission (n = 63; 51.2%), higher rate of mechanical ventilation requirement (n = 19; 15.5%), higher mortality and longer hospital stay (n = 22; 18%; median of 12 days, IQR= 7 - 17, respectively); but with a lower occurrence of ESBL strains, compared to patients with positive urine culture and positive blood/urine cultures (n = 20; 17.7% and n = 46; 20.7%, respectively). 424 patients (92.6%) received antibiotic treatment in the first 24 hours. The most commonly prescribed was piperacilin/tazobactam (n = 256;60.3%). The proportion of patients empirically treated with carbapenems vs non-carbapenems was similar in the three groups. Discussion: The source of infection, associated with ESBL strains risk factors, are useful tools to define prognosis and treatment in this population, because of their clinical and microbiological variability. Conclusion: Patients with E. coli isolation exclusively in the blood culture had higher frequency of non-favorable outcomes in comparison to patients with E. coli in urine culture with or without bacteremia. Additionally, in our population patients with E. coli solely in blood culture have lower prevalence of ESBL positive strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy
15.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 23(2): 133-135, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040491

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se realizó este estudio en el servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Universitario Pediátrico José Luis Miranda, de Santa Clara, en el período de junio 2015 - mayo 2016. Se analizaron los aislamientos de microorganismos en los cultivos realizados a los neonatos hospitalizados, con el objetivo de investigar la prevalencia y sensibilidad de estos gérmenes. Se confirmaron 69 aislamientos, en los cuales predominaron los gérmenes grampositivos; el estafilococo prevaleció de forma significativa y ofreció resistencia creciente a cefazolina. Dentro de los gramnegativos, la escherichia coli resultó el microorganismo con mayor aislamiento, mientras que el acinetobacter se comportó resistente a las cefalosporinas.


ABSTRACT A study was carried out in the Neonatology service at "José Luis Miranda" Pediatric University Hospital, in Santa Clara, from June, 2015 to May, 2016. The isolations of microorganisms in the cultures performed on hospitalized neonates were analyzed with the aim of investigating the prevalence and sensitivity of these germs. Sixty-nine isolates were confirmed, in which the gram-positive ones predominated; staphylococcus prevailed significantly and offered a high resistance to cefazolin. Escherichia coli was the microorganism with the highest isolation among the gram-negative bacteria, while acinetobacter exhibited resistant to cephalosporins.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Neonatal Sepsis
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 201-208, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002799

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the presence of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family and determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates in canaries bred in northeastern Brazil; in addition, the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) was also verified in these birds. Samples were collected during an exhibition organized by the Brazilian Ornithological Federation in July 2015 in Fortaleza, Brazil. A total of 88 fecal samples were collected and submitted to pre-enrichment step using buffered peptone water, followed by enrichment with the following broths: brain-heart infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis, and Selenite-Cystine. Subsequently, aliquots were streaked on MacConkey, brilliant green and salmonella-shigella agar plates. Colonies were selected according to morphological characteristics and submitted to biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests with disk-diffusion technique. E. coli strains were evaluated for the presence of eight DEC genes and five APEC genes through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. The most frequent species observed were Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (9.1%). A single rough strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was identified in one sample (1.1%). High resistance rates to amoxicillin (78.7%) and ampicillin (75.4%) were identified. Polymyxin B (9.8%), gentamycin (6.6%), and enrofloxacin (6.6%) were the most efficient antibiotics. The total number of multidrug-resistant strains (isolates resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes) was 23 (37.7%). Four E. coli strains were tested for the virulence genes, and two were positive for APEC virulence genes: one strain was positive for iutA and the other for hlyF. In conclusion, canaries in northeastern Brazil participating in exhibitions may present Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria in the intestinal microbiota with antimicrobial resistance. These results indicate that, although the E. coli strains recovered from canaries in this study have some virulence genes, they still do not fulfill all the requirements to be considered APEC.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de enterobactérias e determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados oriundos de canários belgas criados em cativeiro do Nordeste do Brasil, adicionalmente verificou-se a presença de Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas (DEC) e E. coli patogênica aviária (APEC) nesses animais. A colheita das amostras ocorreu durante uma exposição de canários belgas organizada pela Federação Ornitológica do Brasil (FOB), em julho de 2015, na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Um total de 88 amostras de fezes foram coletadas e submetidas a pré-enriquecimento utilizando água peptonada, caldo de enriquecimento Brain Heart Infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Selenito-Cistina. Fez-se triagem em placas de ágar MacConkey, Verde Brilhante e ágar Salmonella Shigella. As colônias foram selecionadas e submetidas à identificação bioquímica e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana. Estirpes de Escherichia coli foram avaliadas quanto a presença de 8 genes de virulência de DEC e cinco de APEC por reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional (PCR). As enterobactérias encontradas com maior frequência foram Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12,5%) e Enterobacter aerogenes (9,1%). Uma única estirpe de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (rugosa) esteve presente em um dos isolados (1,1%). Altos percentuais de resistência foram encontrados para dois antibióticos: amoxicilina (78,7%) e ampicilina (75,4%). Polimixina B (9,8%), gentamicina (6,8%) e enrofloxacina (6,5%) foram os antibióticos com melhor eficiência. O total de estirpes multirresistentes (a mais de três classes de antimicrobianos) foi de 23 (37,7%). Das quatro estirpes de E. coli isoladas, duas foram positivas para os genes de APEC, sendo uma estipe para o gene iss e outra para os genes iutA e hlyF. Portanto, canários belgas criados em cativeiro no Brasil que participam de exposições podem apresentar Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli e outras enterobactérias em sua microbiota intestinal com resistência antimicrobiana. Estes resultados indicam que as estirpes de E. coli isoladas de canário belga no presente estudo apresentam alguns, mas não todos, genes de virulência para serem caracterizadas como E. coli patogênica para aves (APEC).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Canaries/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Pantoea/isolation & purification , Serratia liquefaciens/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Virulence , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 25-31, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare effects of 5% topical povidone iodine with prophylactic topical azithromycin and moxifloxacin on bacterial flora in patients undergoing intravitreal injection. Methods: A total of 132 patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with azithromycin or moxifloxacin, or no treatment (control group). In total, 528 specimens were obtained at the time of admission, 4 days before intravitreal injection, 4 days after intravitreal injection, and 8 days after intravitreal injection. Samples were immediately sent to the microbiology laboratory for incubation. Results: The microorganism observed most frequently was coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (23.8%). When the results of samples obtained on Day 4 before injection were assessed, growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was significantly lower in the moxifloxacin group, compared with controls (p=0.049). Acinetobacter baumannii continued to grow after administration of azithromycin (p=0.033). When the results of four days after intravitreal injection were evaluated, growth of coagulase-ne gative Staphylococcus was higher in controls, compared with patients who received azithromycin or moxifloxacin (p=0.004). Eradication rate was significantly higher in the moxifloxacin group than in the control group (p=0.001). Samples obtained on Day 8 after intravitreal injection showed similar levels of bacterial growth in all groups (p=0.217). Conclusion: Moxifloxacin was more effective than 5% povidone iodine in controlling the growth of conjunctival bacterial flora. Use of moxifloxacin in combination with 5% povidone iodine resulted in a synergistic effect.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos de iodopovidona tópico a 5% com azitromicina e moxifloxacina profiláticas sobre a flora bacteriana em pacientes submetidos à injeção intravítrea. Métodos: Um total de 132 pacientes foram aleatoriamente designados para receber tratamento com azitromicina ou moxifloxacina ou nenhum tratamento (grupo controle). No total, 528 amostras foram obtidas no momento na admissão, 4 dias antes da injeção intravítrea, 4 dias após a injeção intravítrea e 8 dias após a injeção intravítrea. As amostras foram imediatamente enviadas para o laboratório de microbiologia para incubação. Resultados: O microorganismo mais frequentemente observado foi o Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (23,8%). Quando os resultados das amostras obtidas no dia 4 antes da injeção foram avaliados, o crescimento do Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo foi significativamente menor no grupo mo xifloxacina, em comparação com os controles (p=0,049). Acinetobacter baumannii continuou a crescer após a administração de azitromicina (p=0,033). Quando os resultados de 4 dias após a injeção intravítrea foram avaliados, o crescimento do Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo foi maior no controle, em comparação com pacientes que receberam azitromicina ou moxifloxacina (p=0,004). A taxa de erradicação também foi significativamente maior no grupo moxifloxacina do que no grupo controle (p=0,001). As amostras obtidas no dia 8 após injeção intravítrea mostraram níveis semelhantes de crescimento bacteriano em todos os grupos (p=0,217). Conclusão: A moxifloxacina foi mais eficaz do que 5% de iodopovidona no controle do crescimento da flora bacteriana conjuntival. O uso de moxifloxacina em combinação com 5% de iodopovidona resultou em um efeito sinérgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Moxifloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Acinetobacter/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects
18.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(6): 755-764, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1049291

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en el municipio Guantánamo no se ha esclarecido la sensibilidad de la bacteria Escherichia coli a los diferentes antimicrobianos que se utilizan en las infecciones del tracto urinario. Objetivo: determinarlos patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de esta bacteria aisladas en urocultivos de pacientes adultos ambulatorios con esta infección en el municipio Guantánamo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de enero a marzo de 2019 en el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología de Guantánamo. El universo se conformó por el total de pacientes (N=567) con urocultivos positivos, de los que se seleccionó una muestra constituida por aquellos con urocultivo positivo en los que se aisló la bacteria Escherichia coli (n=341). Resultados: las cepas de Escherichia coli mostraron una resistencia menor del 18,0 por ciento para la cefalexina, gentamicina, kanamicina, ciprofloxacina y la nitrofurantoina. Los antibióticos betalactámicos (ampicillin y amoxicilina) y macrólidos (azitromicina) mostraron resistencia de 61,6, 64,6 y 54,5 por ciento , respectivamente. La resistencia del cotrimoxazol y ácido nalidíxico osciló entre 25,0 al 28,6 por ciento . Fue alta la sensibilidad de Escherichia coli a la nitrofurantoína (92,9 por ciento ). Se encontraron patrones de ultirresistencia en 57 cepas (16,6 por ciento ). Conclusiones: en el territorio guantanamero, la prescripción de antimicrobianos del tipo de la cefalexina, la gentamicina, la kanamicina, la ciprofloxacina y la nitrofurantoina parecen ser las opciones más beneficiosas para la terapia de las ITU por Escherichia coli(AU)


Introduction: the sensitivity of the Escherichia coli bacteria to the different antimicrobials used in urinary tract infections has not been clarified in the Guantanamo municipality. Objective: to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of this bacterium isolated in urine cultures of outpatient adults with this infection in the municipality of Guantanamo. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out from January to March 2019 in the Microbiology Laboratory of the Provincial Center of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology of Guantanamo. The universe was formed by the total number of patients (N=567) with positive urine cultures, from which a sample consisting of those with positive urine culture was selected in which the Escherichia coli bacteria were isolated (n=341). Results: Escherichia coli strains showed a resistance less than 18.0 percent for cephalexin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. The beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and macrolides (azithromycin) showed resistance of 61.6, 64.6 and 54.5 percent, respectively. The resistance of cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid ranged from 25.0 to 28.6 percent. The sensitivity of Escherichia coli to nitrofurantoin was high (92.9 percent). Multiresistance patterns were found in 57 strains (16.6 percent). Conclusions: in the Guantanamo territory, the prescription of antimicrobials of the type of cephalexin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin seem to be the most beneficial options for the therapy of UTIs by Escherichia coli(AU)


Introdução: a sensibilidade da bactéria Escherichia coli aos diferentes antimicrobianos utilizados nas infecções do trato urinário não foi esclarecida no município de Guantánamo. Objetivo: determinar os padrões de resistência antimicrobiana desta bactéria isolada em urinas de adultos ambulatoriais com esta infecção no município de Guantánamo. Método: um estudo descritivo e transversal foi realizado de janeiro a março de 2019 no Laboratório de Microbiologia do Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiologia e Microbiologia de Guantánamo. O universo foi formado pelo número total de pacientes (N=567) com culturas de urina positivas, das quais foi selecionada uma amostra composta por pacientes com cultura de urina positiva, na qual as bactérias Escherichia coli foram isoladas (n=41). Resultados: as cepas de Escherichia coli apresentaram resistência inferior a 18,0 por cento para cefalexina, gentamicina, canamicina, ciprofloxacina e nitrofurantoína. Os antibióticos beta-lactâmicos (ampicilina e amoxicilina) e os macrólidos (azitromicina) apresentaram resistência de 61,6, 64,6 e 54,5 por cento, respectivamente. A resistência do cotrimoxazol e ácido nalidíxico variou de 25,0 a 28,6 por cento. A sensibilidade de Escherichia coli à nitrofurantoína foi alta (92,9 por cento). Padrões de multirresistência foram encontrados em 57 cepas (16,6 por cento). Conclusões: no território de Guantánamo, a prescrição de antimicrobianos do tipo de cefalexina, gentamicina, canamicina, ciprofloxacina e nitrofurantoína parece ser a opção mais benéfica para o tratamento de ITU por Escherichia coli(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180012, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ground bovine meat is commonly consumed by the population of Brazil. However, it constitutes an excellent medium for the multiplication of microorganisms due to available nutrients and handling practices prior to consumption. Here, we examined 100 samples of ground beef for the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes by PCR, and characterized isolates by analyzing their adherence to HEp-2 cells, serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and phylogeny. Enteroaggregative E. coli was detected in five (5%) meat samples, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in three (3%), and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in two (2%). According to the phylogeny, six isolates (60%) were classified in group A, two (20%) in group B1, and two (20%) in group E. The detected serotypes were O3:H2, O93:H9, O93:H46, O105ab:H7, O152:H8, O156:H10, and O175:H7. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that one sample (10%) was resistant to ampicillin, two (20%) to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and two (20%) to cephalothin. Based on these results, bovine ground meat for human consumption can serve as a reservoir of DEC, which emphasizes the importance of appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions during handling at every stage from slaughter to table.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Red Meat/microbiology , Serotyping/instrumentation , Gastroenteritis/pathology
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180499, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013306

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION : Escherichia coli ranks among the most common sources of urinary tract infections (UTI). METHODS: Between November 2015 and August 2016, 90 isolates of E. coli were isolated from patients at Rize Education and Research Hospital in Turkey. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. These E. coli isolates were also screened for virulence genes, β-lactamase coding genes, quinolone resistance genes, and class 1 integrons by PCR. RESULTS: With respect to the antibiotic resistance profile, imipenem and meropenem were effective against 98% and 90% of isolates, respectively. A high percentage of the isolates showed resistance against β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations, quinolones, and cephalosporins. PCR results revealed that 63% (57/90) of the strains carried class 1 integrons. In addition, a high predominance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed. The qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes were found in 24 (26.6%), 6 (6.6%), and 3 (3.3%), isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was fim (82.2%).The afa, hly, and cnf1 genes were detected in 16.6%, 16.6%, and 3.3% of isolates, respectively. Moreover, we observed eleven different virulence patterns in the 90 E. coli isolates. The most prevalent pattern was fım, while hly-fım, afa-aer-cnf-fım, aer-cnf, afa-aer, and afa-cnf-fım patterns were less common. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the E. coli virulence genes investigated in this study were observed in E. coli isolates from UTI patients. Virulence genes are very important for the establishment and maintenance of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Turkey , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Quinolones , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
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