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Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06831, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250487


Avian colibacillosis is an acute and globally occurring infectious disease of domestic and wild birds caused by Escherichia coli, and it is associated with considerable economic losses mainly due to the morbidity and mortality associated. The present study aimed to describe the pathological, bacteriological and immunohistochemical aspects of avian colibacillosis in broiler chickens of Mozambique. Forty-nine broiler chicken presented anorexia, decreased weight gain, ataxia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and death in a clinical course of 3-5 days. The birds were raised in five farms (small, medium and large farms) with manual and automatic breeding system, with flocks ranging from 100 to 20,000 birds. At the necropsy, all birds had poor body condition, and the pericardium and the Glisson's capsule of all avian exhibited different degrees of adherence often associated with severe fibrin deposition. The thoracic and abdominal air sacs were thickened and adhered to the costal wall. Mild, moderate or marked hepatomegaly associated with white pinpoint multifocal areas (100%, 49/49) and mild to moderate splenomegaly in 75.5% (37/49) with a mottled surface were observed. The lungs and kidney were enlarged and reddish. Histologically, a multiorgan fibrinoheterophilic polyserositis was observed in 75.5% of the cases (37/49), which were characterized by inflammatory infiltrates composed mainly of degenerative heterophils, macrophages and plasma cells, associated with fibrin deposits and intermixed by coccobacillary bacterial basophilic aggregates. These affected mainly the pericardium (28.6%, 14/49), the pleura (18.4%, 9/49), the Glisson's capsule (10.2%, 5/49), the ventriculus (10.2, 5/33), and the proventriculus (8.2%, 4/49) serosa. Multifocal to coalescing areas of coagulative necrosis associated with similar inflammatory cells were observed mainly in the spleen (28.6%, 14/49), liver (24.5%, 12/49), and intestines (22.4%, 11/49). A similar infiltrate was also observed affecting the the lungs (16.3%, 8/49), the kidney (16.3%, 8/49) and the myocardium (14.3%, 7/49). Isolation and identification of E. coli was obtained in 12 cases through bacterial culture. Some organs (2 cases of each farms) were selected and submitted to immunohistochemistry anti-E. coli, and a positive stain was observed in all tested cases in liver (3/3), heart (4/4), spleen (1/1), lungs (4/4), intestines (4/4), bursa of Fabricius (1/1), ventriculus (1/1), and proventriculus (1/1) tissue sections. These results demonstrate that E. coli was the cause of mortality in these birds. Therefore, biosecurity and management measures should be employed to prevent and control the disease occurrence in Mozambique's poultry farming.(AU)

A colibacilose aviária é uma doença aguda de ocorrência mundial que acomete aves domésticas e silvestres, causada por Escherichia coli e resulta em perdas econômicas consideráveis devido à elevada morbidade e mortalidade das aves. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os aspectos patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de colibacilose aviária em frangos de corte de Moçambique. Um total de 49 frangos de corte apresentaram anorexia, baixo ganho de peso, ataxia, diarreia, dispneia e morte em um curso clínico de 3 a 5 dias. As aves eram provenientes de 5 granjas (pequenas, média e grandes), com sistema de criação manual e automático, com rebanhos que variavam de 100 a 20.000 aves. À necropsia, todas as aves exibiam condição corporal ruim a caquética, além de pericárdio e cápsula de Glisson de todas aves (100%; n=49) com diferentes graus de aderência e deposição de fibrina de forma difusa acentuada. Os sacos aéreos torácicos e abdominais estavam espessados e aderidos à parede costal. Foi observado ainda hepatomegalia discreta, moderada a severa frequentemente associada com áreas multifocais puntiformes brancacentas (100%; 49/49), e esplenomegalia discreta a moderada, associado a áreas multifocais moteadas (75,5%; 37/49). Os pulmões e rins estavam aumentados e com coloração avermelhada. Histologicamente, observou-se majoritariamente serosite fibrinoheterofílica em 75,5% dos casos (37/49), caracterizadas por infiltrado inflamatório composto por heterófilos degenerados, macrófagos, linfócitos e plasmócitos, com deposição de fibrina entremeada por uma miríade de estruturas bacterianas cocobacilares. Esta lesão foi observada principalmente em pericárdio (28,6%; 14/49), pleura (18,4%; 9/49), cápsula de Glisson (10,2%; 5/49), ventrículo (10,2; 5/33) e em proventrículo (8,2%; 4/49). Áreas multifocais a coalescentes de necrose de coagulação associada a infiltrado inflamatório semelhante ao descrito foi observado principalmente no baço (28,6%; 14/49), fígado (24.5%; 12/49), e intestinos (8,2%; 4/49). Um infiltrado inflamatório semelhante também foi visualizado em pulmões (16,3%; 8/49), rins (16,3%; 8/49) e miocárdio (14,3%; 7/49), Colônias puras de E. coli foram identificadas e isoladas em 12 casos. Alguns órgãos (2 de cada granja) foram submetidos ao exame imuno-histoquímico anti-E. coli e marcação positiva foi visualizada em todos casos testados, como em fígado (3/3), coração (4/4), baço (1/1), pulmão (4/4), intestinos (4/4), bursa de Fabricius (1/1), rim (1/1), ventrículo (1/1) e proventrículo (1/1). Estes resultados demonstram que E. coli foi a causa de morte destas aves. Sendo assim, a adoção de boas medidas de biosseguridade e de manejo são indispensáveis para a prevenção e controle da ocorrência da doença nas granjas de frango de corte de Moçambique.(AU)

Animals , Poultry , Weights and Measures , Immunohistochemistry , Chickens/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Weight Gain , Mortality , Bacterial Structures/pathogenicity
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1843, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363591


Feed is the main route of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and is responsible for a large part of the cost of poultry production, so the inclusion of alternative foods in diets for monogastrics has been a constant. Among alternative foods most used in modern poultry farming are animal meal, however, when contaminated they constitute a route of transmission of several pathogenic agents, including Escherichia coli. In addition, there is a zoonotic potential, as poultry products are intended for human consumption. The objective of this research was to detect virulence genes, as well as to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolates from meat meal samples. A total of 40 Escherichia coli isolates were analyzed and the virulence genes surveyed iss, ompT, hlyF, iutA, and fimA identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The antimicrobial agents tested were: amoxycillin (30 µg), ceftiofur (30 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg), doxycycline (30 µg), florfenicol (30 µg), fosfomycin (200 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), norfloxacin (10 µg) and oxacillin (1 µg). It was possible to observe the occurrence of the iss resistance gene in 100% of Escherichia coli isolates, followed by hlyF (85%), fimA (75%), ompT (17.5%) and iutA (5%). Regarding the simultaneous detection for the genes, a greater association between the genes iss, hlyF and fimA (60%) was verified. All isolates showed resistance to oxacillin (100%), followed by doxycycline (25%), amoxicillin (22.5%), norfloxacin (17.5%), ceftiofur (15%), florfenicol (12.5%), fosfomycin (12.5%), ciprofloxacin (10%) and gentamycin (2.5%). In this study, a variation of the multiple antimicrobial resistance index (IRMA) was observed between 0.22 and 0.77. The indiscriminate use of of antimicrobials as performance enhancers in production animals, may have contributed to the increase in antimicrobial resistance, with the occurrence of multiresistant Escherichia coli carrying virulence genes. Virulence genes present in Escherichia coli isolates are studied to understand the degree of influence they exert in the establishment of the disease, one of the most researched genes is the iss gene, involved in the processes that promote serum resistance. In this study, iss (100%) was present in all the isolates analyzed, although it is not the only mechanism used by these bacteria to reach internal organs and trigger an infection, this gene encodes an important mechanism associated with high levels of virulence. The second highest prevalence found was of the hlyF gene (85%), the high prevalence of hlyF suggests virulence potential, involved with the production of hemolysin and improvement of outer membrane vesicles associated with the release of toxins. The fimA gene (75%) was detected in a slightly lower percentage when compared to iss and hlyF. With the second lowest prevalence, the ompT gene (17.5%), is involved in a process that includes the proteolytic degradation of antimicrobial peptides and with the lowest prevalence the iutA gene (5%). Certain combinations of virulence genes make the strains easier to survive, adhere to, colonize and even the ability to develop septicemic conditions. Multiresistant E. coli strains, is a fact of concern for both animal and human health, since the presence of multiresistant strains, originating from poultry, can be transmitted from chicken carcasses. In this sense, the importance of sanitary control of the inputs used in animal feed is emphasized, as well as the prudent use of antimicrobials in animal production, with a view to producing a safe food, minimizing not only the economic losses, but also the risks to human health.(AU)

Animals , Poultry , Diet/veterinary , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Animal Feed/analysis , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e429, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126702


Introducción: En los países en vías de desarrollo las enfermedades diarreicas agudas son causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad. Entre las primeras causas se encuentra Escherichia coli diarrogénicos, que afecta a pacientes en edades extremas de la vida y con inmunodeficiencias. Objetivo: Identificar los patotipos de Escherichia coli diarrogénicos que más inciden y los fenotipos de resistencia antimicrobiana expresados por el patotipo predominante. Métodos: Se estudiaron 184 aislamientos procedentes de 15 centros provinciales de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología de Cuba e Isla de la Juventud. La investigación se realizó desde julio de 2012 hasta febrero de 2014. La identificación de género, especie y patotipos fue realizada por métodos de diagnóstico convencional y molecular. La determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por el método de Bauer y Kirby, y las normas del Clinical and Laboratory Institute Standards de 2013. Resultados: Se identificaron 108 (58 por ciento) Escherichia coli diarrogénicos. Los patotipos confirmados fueron: en la PCR múltiple 1, 5 (6 por ciento) de Escherichia coli enteropatogénico, 4 (4 por ciento) de enterotoxigénico y 0 (0 por ciento) de enterohemorrágico. La PCR múltiple 2 reveló 72 (82 por ciento) Escherichia coli enteroagregativo, que resultó el predominante en el estudio. La PCR 3 (simple) detectó 7 (8 por ciento) de enteroinvasivo. El 100 por ciento del patotipo predominante mostró resistencia, al menos a un antimicrobiano de los probados, un solo patron de resistencia a dos antimicrobianos, y nueve patrones de multirresistencia. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la importancia del uso de pruebas moleculares rápidas para la confirmación de los patotipos de E. coli diarrogénicos, los que provocan deshidratación ligera, complicaciones graves y la muerte. Se logra identificar los cuatro patotipos más frecuentes y E. coli enteroagregativo, el de mayor incidencia en la población estudiada. El patotipo predominante mostró altos porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana a betalactámicos y buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana a los aminoglucósidos y cefalosporinas de tercera generación. La investigación aporta conocimientos, no revelados en estudios anteriores con aislados cubanos, lo que es considerado de alto valor para los clínicos, pediatras y epidemiólogos del país(AU)

Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. One of the leading causes is diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which affects patients at extreme ages and with immunodeficiencies. Objective: Identify the most active pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes expressed by the prevailing pathotype. Methods: A study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2014 of 184 isolates obtained from 15 provincial Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology Centers in Cuba and the Isle of Youth. Identification of the genus, species and pathotypes was based on conventional and molecular diagnostic methods. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the Bauer-Kirby method in compliance with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute of 2013. Results: A total 108 (58 percent) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified. The following pathotypes were confirmed: Multiplex PCR 1 revealed 5 (6 percent) enteropathogenic, 4 (4 percent) enterotoxigenic and 0 (0 percent ) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Multiplex PCR 2 found 72 (82 percent) enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, which was the prevailing type in the study. PCR 3 (simple) detected 7 (8 percent) enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. 100 percent of the prevailing pathotype displayed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, a single resistance pattern to two antimicrobials, and nine multiresistance patterns. Conclusions: The study showed the importance of the use of rapid molecular tests to confirm diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, which cause mild dehydration, serious complications and death. Identification could be done of the four most common pathotypes and enteroaggregative E. coli, the one with the highest incidence in the study population. The prevailing pathotype displayed high percentages of antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams and good antimicrobial sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The study contributed knowledge not revealed by previous research about Cuban isolates. Such information is considered to be highly valuable for clinicians, pediatricians and epidemiologists in the country(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/complications
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1488-1496, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038649


A ordem dos Passeriformes é uma das mais pressionadas pelas ações antrópicas, especialmente as relativas ao tráfico de animais, que, devido às más condições de manejo e higiênico-sanitárias, favorecem a infecção dos espécimes por patógenos virulentos e zoonóticos, como cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp., cujo isolamento em suabes cloacais, bem como a análise dos genes de virulência das cepas de E. coli foram objetivos do estudo. Para isso, 120 Passeriformes silvestres nativos, recebidos pelo Cetas/CE, foram avaliados individualmente. As cepas isoladas foram submetidas a teste de disco difusão para determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Em etapa posterior, foi realizada PCR para a detecção de oito genes de virulência dos principais patotipos diarreiogênicos de E. coli. Quanto aos resultados, nenhuma cepa de Salmonella spp. foi isolada, no entanto a ocorrência de E. coli foi de 40,8%. Foi observada elevada resistência, principalmente aos antimicrobianos tetraciclina, ampicilina e sulfazotrim, ocorrendo multirresistência em 42,8% das cepas. Pela análise molecular, foram diagnosticados quatro entre os nove genes pesquisados, com a identificação de EPEC típicas, EPEC atípicas, ETEC, EHEC e EAEC. Os resultados apontam para a importância de Passeriformes como possíveis disseminadores de zoonoses.(AU)

The order Passeriformes is one of the most pressured by anthropic actions, especially those related to animal trafficking. Due to poor sanitary and hygienic conditions, the infection of the specimens is favored by virulent and zoonotic pathogens such as strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., whose isolation in cloacal swabs as well as the analysis of the virulence genes of E. coli strains were the objectives of the study. For this, 120 native wild Passeriformes, received by CETAS/CE were individually evaluated. The isolated strains were submitted to diffusion disc test to determine sensitivity to antimicrobials. In a later stage, PCR was performed for the detection of eight virulence genes from the main E. coli diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Regarding the results, no strain of Salmonella spp. was isolated; however, the occurrence of E. coli was 40.8%. High resistance was observed, mainly to the antimicrobials Tetracycline, Ampicillin and Sulfazotrim, with multi-resistance in 42.8% of the strains. By molecular analysis, four of the nine genes were diagnosed, identifying typical EPEC, atypical EPEC, ETEC, EHEC and EAEC. The results point to the importance of Passeriformes as possible disseminators of zoonoses.(AU)

Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Passeriformes/parasitology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/parasitology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180499, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013306


Abstract INTRODUCTION : Escherichia coli ranks among the most common sources of urinary tract infections (UTI). METHODS: Between November 2015 and August 2016, 90 isolates of E. coli were isolated from patients at Rize Education and Research Hospital in Turkey. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. These E. coli isolates were also screened for virulence genes, β-lactamase coding genes, quinolone resistance genes, and class 1 integrons by PCR. RESULTS: With respect to the antibiotic resistance profile, imipenem and meropenem were effective against 98% and 90% of isolates, respectively. A high percentage of the isolates showed resistance against β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations, quinolones, and cephalosporins. PCR results revealed that 63% (57/90) of the strains carried class 1 integrons. In addition, a high predominance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed. The qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes were found in 24 (26.6%), 6 (6.6%), and 3 (3.3%), isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was fim (82.2%).The afa, hly, and cnf1 genes were detected in 16.6%, 16.6%, and 3.3% of isolates, respectively. Moreover, we observed eleven different virulence patterns in the 90 E. coli isolates. The most prevalent pattern was fım, while hly-fım, afa-aer-cnf-fım, aer-cnf, afa-aer, and afa-cnf-fım patterns were less common. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the E. coli virulence genes investigated in this study were observed in E. coli isolates from UTI patients. Virulence genes are very important for the establishment and maintenance of infection.

Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Turkey , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Quinolones , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 133-137, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950503


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The competence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of the host is a key role to the colonization and disease development. The virulence genes are crucial for EAEC pathogenicity during adherence, internalization and persistence in the host. The overwhelming majority of antigen encounters in a host occurs on the intestine surface, which is considered a part of innate mucosal immunity. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) can be activated by microorganisms and induce an immune response. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the interaction of invasive EAEC strains with T84 intestinal epithelial cell line in respect to bacterial invasiveness, persistence and cytokines production. METHODS: We evaluated intracellular persistence of invasive EAEC strains (H92/3, I49/3 and the prototype 042) and production of cytokines by sandwich ELISA in T84 cells upon 24 hours of infection. RESULTS: The survival rates of the prototype 042 was 0.5x103 CFU/mL while survival of I49/3 and H92/3 reached 3.2x103 CFU/mL and 1.4x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Infection with all EAEC strains tested induced significant amounts of IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to uninfected T84 cells. CONCLUSION: These data showed that infection by invasive EAEC induce a proinflammatory immune response in intestinal epithelial T84 cells.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A competência de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) para aderir ao epitélio intestinal do hospedeiro é um papel fundamental para a colonização e o desenvolvimento da doença. Os genes de virulência são cruciais para a patogenicidade de EAEC durante a aderência, a internalização e a persistência no hospedeiro. A grande maioria dos encontros de antígenos em um hospedeiro ocorre na superfície do intestino, que é considerada parte da imunidade inata da mucosa. As células epiteliais intestinais (IECs) podem ser ativadas por micro-organismos e induzir uma resposta imune. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a interação de cepas invasoras de EAEC com a linhagem celular epitelial intestinal T84 em relação a invasão bacteriana, a persistência e a produção de citocinas. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos a persistência intracelular de cepas invasoras de EAEC (H92/3, I49/3 e o protótipo 042) e a produção de citocinas por ELISA "sanduíche" em células T84 após 24 horas de infecção. RESULTADOS: As taxas de sobrevivência da cepa protótipo 042 foi de 0,5x103 UFC/mL, enquanto a sobrevivência de I49/3 e H92/3 atingiu 3,2x103 UFC/mL e 1,4x103 UFC/mL, respectivamente. A infecção com todas as cepas EAEC testadas induziu quantidades significativas de IL-8, IL-6 e TNF-α em comparação com células T84 não infectadas. CONCLUSÃO: Estes dados mostraram que a infecção por EAEC invasoras induzem uma resposta imune pró-inflamatória em células epiteliais intestinais T84.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Virulence , Bacterial Adhesion , Cytokines/metabolism , Adhesins, Escherichia coli , Diarrhea, Infantile/microbiology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Escherichia coli/physiology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(2): 47-53, abr.-jun. -2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969346


Organic response to infection is characterized by a systemic reaction known as acute phase response (APR). In order to know the effect of the administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on physiological, hematological and biochemical variables, 10 sheep weighing 45 ± 5 kg were divided in two groups: Experimental group treated with 3 doses of 1 µ LPS and control group treated with saline solution (SS) at the same frequency as experimental group. Body temperature (BT°), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were monitored. Blood samples for hemogram and enzyme activity for aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were collected between 1 and 24 h post-LPS. LPS-treated sheep presented mean values of BT (41.2 ± 0.4°C), HR (132 ± 12.3 beats/min) and RR (107.2 ± 25 cycles/min) higher than those observed in control sheep (39.8 ± 0.2°C, 88.8 ± 8.7 beats/min and 53.6 ± 17.1 cycles/min respectively). Between 4 and 8 hours post-injection (hpi) of LPS the leukocyte count was associated with lymphopenia, followed by leukocytosis at 24 hours. No changes were observed in the activity of AST and GGT enzymes. The results characterize APR induced by LPS in sheep, representing a useful model to study cardiovascular, hematological and biochemical responses to infection. (AU)

A resposta orgânica à infecção é caracterizada por uma reação sistêmica conhecida como resposta de fase aguda (RFA). Para conhecer o efeito da administração de lipopolissacárideo (LPS) de Escherichia coli sobre as variáveis fisiológicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, 10 carneiros pesando 45 ± 5 kg foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo experimental tratado com três doses de 1 µ -1 de LPS e grupo controle tratado com solução salina (SS) na mesma frequência que o grupo experimental. Temperatura corporal (T°C), frequência cardíaca (FC) e frequência respiratória (FR) foram monitoradas. As amostras de sangue foram tomadas para hemograma e atividade da enzima aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e gama- -glutamiltransferase (GGT) entre uma e 24 h pós-LPS. Ovelhas tratadas com LPS apresentaram valores médios de T°C (41,2 ± 0,4°C), FC (132 ± 12,3 batimentos/min) e FR (107,2 ± 25 ciclos/min) acima dos observados em ovelhas do tratamento controle (39,8 ± 0,2°C, 88,8 ± 8,7 batimentos/min e 53,6 ± 17,1 ciclos/min, respectivamente). Entre 4 e 8 horas após a injeção de LPS, a contagem de leucocitos foi asociado com linfopenia, seguida de leucocitose as 24 horas. Nenhuma mudança na atividade das enzimas AST e GGT foi observada. Os resultados caracterizam uma resposta de fase aguda induzida por LPS em ovelhas, o que representa um modelo útil para estudar os sistemas cardiovascular, hematológico e bioquímico em resposta à infecção.(AU)

La respuesta orgánica a la infección se caracteriza por una reacción sistémica conocida como respuesta de fase aguda (RFA). Para conocer el efecto de la administración de lipopolisacárido (LPS) de Escherichia coli sobre las variables fisiológicas, hematológicas y bioquímicas, 10 ovejas con un peso de 45 ± 5 kg se dividieron en dos grupos: grupo experimental tratado con 3 dosis de 1 µ LPS y grupo control tratado con solución salina (SS) en la misma frecuencia que el grupo experimental. Temperatura corporal (T°C), frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y frecuencia respiratoria (FR) fueron monitoreadas. Se tomaron muestras de sangre para hemograma y actividad enzimática para el aspartato amino transferasa (AST) y gamma glutamil transferasa (GGT) entre 1 y 24 h post-LPS. Las ovejas tratadas con LPS presentaron valores medios de T°C (41.2 ± 0.4°C), FC (132 ± 12.3 latidos / min) y FR (107.2 ± 25 ciclos/min) por encima de los observados en ovinos controles (39.8 ± 0.2°C, 88.8 ± 8.7 latidos/min y 53.6 ± 17.1 ciclos/min respectivamente). Entre las 4 y 8 horas después de la inyección de LPS, el recuento de leucocitos se asoció a linfopenia, seguida de leucocitosis a las 24 horas. No se observaron cambios en la actividad de las enzimas AST y GGT. Los resultados caracterizan una respuesta de fase aguda inducida por LPS en ovinos, representando un modelo útil para estudiar los sistemas cardiovascular, hematológico y bioquímico en respuesta a la infección.(AU)

Animals , Sheep/microbiology , Sheep/blood , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/administration & dosage , Endotoxins , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0112016, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-908645


Antimicrobial sensitivity and pathogenicity level of 90 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from livers and intestines from commercial layer hens presenting diarrhea were analyzed. To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, all samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 11 commercial drugs. The results have showed none of the strains was susceptible to all antibiotics tested. All samples showed resistance to two or more drugs. According to the mortality rate of the birds, the in-vivo pathogenicity test classifies the strains into four classes: high, intermediate, low and nonpathogenic. The test has showed 23 (25.5%) of the samples were highly pathogenic, 21 (23.3%) of intermediate pathogenicity, 23 (25.5%) low pathogenic, and 23 (25.5%) nonpathogenic. When the results of the classes of pathogenicity from isolates have been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility, nonpathogenic strains were less sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin and increased sensitive to streptomycin antimicrobial compared to the others classes of pathogenic. Nonpathogenic strains showed resistance to many antimicrobials, an alert for poultry, since these bacteria might acquire the virulence genes and infect birds, others animals and even human beings.(AU)

Foram verificados a sensibilidade antimicrobiana e o índice de patogenicidade de 90 amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas do fígado e do intestino de pintainhas de postura comercial com diarreia. Para avaliar a sensibilidade antimicrobiana, todas as amostras foram submetidas ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana por meio de 11 drogas comerciais. Os resultados demonstraram que nenhuma das estirpes foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados. Todas as amostras apontaram resistência a duas ou mais drogas. De acordo com o índice de mortalidade das aves, o teste de patogenicidade in vivo classificou as estirpes em quatro classes: alta, intermediária, baixa e não patogênica. O teste revelou que 23 (25,5%) das amostras foram de alta patogenicidade, 21 (23,3%) de patogenicidade intermediária, 23 (25,5%) de baixa patogenicidade e 23 (25,5%) não patogênicas. Quando os resultados das classes de patogenicidade dos isolados foram associados à sensibilidade antimicrobiana, estirpes não patogênicas apresentaram menor sensibilidade ao antimicrobiano ampicilina e maior sensibilidade ao antimicrobiano estreptomicina, quando comparadas com as estirpes das demais classes de patogenicidade. Estirpes não patogênicas exibiram resistência a vários antimicrobianos, representando um alerta para a avicultura, uma vez que essas bactérias podem adquirir genes de virulência e, assim, infectar aves, outros animais e até mesmo o seres humanos.(AU)

Animals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chickens/virology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Anti-Infective Agents , Poultry , Birds
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1073-1082, set.-out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876983


Respiratory diseases are common in young horses but little is known about such infections in mule foals. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from tracheal wash (TW) and fecal samples (FS) of mule foals, with or without cytological evidence of respiratory disease. Strains were analyzed against 13 antimicrobials, for presence of Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), and virulence genes. Phylogrouping and Randomic (RAPD)-PCR profiles were used to evaluate their genetic relatedness. E. coli strains from TW and FS showed greatest resistance to tetracycline, while Klebsiella strains were mainly resistant to ampicillin; multidrug resistance and ESBL production were also detected. The blaCTX gene prevailed among the E. coli isolates, while the blaSHV gene was more frequently found in K. pneumoniae. The fimH gene was detected in most of the isolates and multiple virulence factors were identified in three E. coli isolates. Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to the B1 phylogroup, but B2 strains displayed more virulence genes. The RAPD assay revealed genetic diversity among strains and was able to distinguish FS isolates from TW isolates. Knowledge of the bacteria associated with the respiratory tract of mule foals is important in the treatment of sick animals.(AU)

Doenças respiratórias são comuns em potros de equinos, porém pouco se sabe sobre tais infecções em potros de muar. Este estudo buscou caracterizar Escherichia coli e Klebsiella sp. isolados de lavados traqueais (TW) e amostras fecais (FS) de potros de muar com e sem evidências citológicas de doença respiratória. As amostras bacterianas foram testadas contra 13 antimicrobianos, para a presença de genes de resistência estendida às betalactamases (ESBL) e de virulência. Filogrupagem e perfis de PCR randômicos (RAPD) foram usados para avaliar sua relação genética. As amostras de E. coli de TW e FS mostraram maior resistência à tetraciclina, enquanto as amostras de Klebsiella foram mais resistentes à ampicilina; multirresistência e produção de ESBL também foram detectadas. O gene blaCTX foi mais frequente entre E. coli, enquanto o gene blaSHV foi mais encontrado entre K. pneumoniae. O gene fimH foi detectado na maioria dos isolados de E. coli, enquanto múltiplos genes de virulência foram identificados em três isolados de E. coli. A maioria dos isolados de E. coli pertenceu ao filogrupo B1, porém somente isolados do filogrupo B2 apresentaram mais genes de virulência. Os ensaios de RAPD demonstraram a diversidade genética entre as amostras e distinguiram amostras TW e FS. O conhecimento de bactérias associadas a infecções de trato respiratório de potros de muar é importante no tratamento de animais doentes.(AU)

Animals , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Equidae/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Virulence
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 41(3): 378-384, maio, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-999583


This study will determine the pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from the wetland waters and crows feces within the UWBothell campus. This emanated from the need to determine whether the American crow (Corvus brachyrhyncos) has arole in the epidemiology of diarrheal disease along with its significant con-tribution to the high level of fecal coliformsin the stream water that runs through the crow roosting area. Modified from previous studies, we developed protocolsto culture Escherichia coli and Campylobacter, both are known to be pathogenic and present in crow feces, to isolateDNA from cultures or samples, and to perform PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)/qPCR (Quantitative PolymeraseChain Reaction) to detect virulence genes. We found that the virulence genes eae and rfb that are necessary to causediarrhea were absent in a representative number of E. coli strains isolated from the water samples and the fecal samples.The virulence genes flaA and cad in the Campylobacter species were detected in fecal samples (77.8% and 73%,respectively) and in water samples (75% each). In conclusion, our hypothesis could not be verified, but our resultssuggest that the Campylobacter isolated from wetland water and crow feces are potentially pathogenic. However, theresults are not conclusive and more sample and virulence genes specific to ex-traintestinal pathogenic E. coli, need to bescreened in order to accurately assess the pathogenicity of these bacteria

Este estudo determinará a patogenicidade de bactérias isoladas das águas pantanais e fezes de corvos den-tro do campusUW (University of Washington) Bothell. Este estudo emanou da necessidade de determinar se o corvo americano (Corvusbrachyrhyncos) tem um papel na epidemiologia da doença diarréica, junta-mente com sua contribuição significativapara o alto nível de coliformes fecais na água do fluxo que per-corre a área onde as aves se alojam. Modificado a partirde estudos anteriores, desenvolvemos protocolos para cultura de Escherichia coli e Campylobacter, ambas conhecidaspor serem patogênicas e presentes em fezes de corvos, isolar DNA de culturas ou amostras e realizar PCR/qPCR paradetectar genes de virulên-cia. Descobriu-se que os genes de virulência eae e rfb que são necessários para causar diarreiaestavam au-sentes num número representativo de estirpes de E. coli isoladas das amostras de água e das amostras fecais.Os genes de virulência flaA e cad em espécies de Campylobacter foram detectados em amostras fecais (77,8% e73%, respectivamente) e em amostras de água (75% cada). Concluindo, nossa hipotese não pôde ser confirmada, masnossos resultados sugerem que a Campylobacter isolada das amostras de água e de fezes de corvo é potencialmentepatogênica. No entanto, os resultados não são conclusivos e mais amostras e genes de virulência específicos para E. coliextraintestinal patogênica necessitam ser identificados, a fim de avaliar com precisão a patogenicidade destas bactérias

Animals , Crows , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Coliforms , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Dysentery
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 3-30, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839325


ABSTRACT Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.

Humans , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Prevalence , Virulence Factors/genetics , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(5): 393-396, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766277


SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuniof urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacterby filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coliand Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

RESUMO Os pombos selvagens (Columbia livia) vivem em estreito contato com os seres humanos e outros animais. Podem transmitir agentes potencialmente patogênicos e zoonóticos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram isolar e detectar cepas de Escherichia coli diarreiogênica e Campylobacter jejuni de pombos selvagens urbanos de uma área de Lima, Peru. Amostras de fezes frescas foram coletadas em parques urbanos para o isolamento microbiológico para cepas de E. coli em ágar seletivo e Campylobacterpor método de filtração. Identificação molecular de patótipos diarreiogênicos de E. coli e Campylobacter jejuni foi realizado por PCR. Vinte e dois parques foram amostrados e 16 colônias de Campylobacter spp. foram isolados. O 100% dos isolados foram identificados como Campylobacter jejuni. Além disso, 102 colônias de E. coli foram isoladas e 5,88% resultaram como tipo enteropatogênico (EPEC) e 0,98% como produtora de toxina Shiga (STEC). Os pombos selvagens urbanos de Lima no Peru podem atuar como reservatório ou ser portador de agentes zoonóticos entéricos potencialmente patogênicos.

Animals , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Columbidae/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Campylobacter jejuni/pathogenicity , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Feces/microbiology , Peru , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urban Population , Virulence Factors/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 875-878, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755809


The invasin gimB (genetic island associated with human newborn meningitis) is usually found in ExPEC (Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli) such as UPEC (uropathogenic E. coli), NMEC (neonatal meningitis E. coli) and APEC (avian pathogenic E. coli). In NMEC, gimB is associated with the invasion process of the host cells. Due to the importance of E. coli as a zoonotic agent and the scarce information about the frequency of gimB-carrying strains in different animal species, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gimB in isolates from bovine, swine, canine and feline clinical samples. PCR was conducted on 196 isolates and the identity of the amplicons was confirmed by sequencing. Of the samples tested, only E. coli SB278/94 from a bovine specimen was positive (1/47) for gimB, which represents 2.1% of the bovine isolates. The ability of SB278/94 to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells was confirmed by adherence and gentamicin-protection assays using HeLa cells. This is the first study that investigates for gimB in bovine, canine and feline E. coli isolates and shows E. coli from the intestinal-bovine samples harboring gimB.


Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/genetics , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestines/microbiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Gentamicins/pharmacology , HeLa Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(9): 781-787, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767741


Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food) supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu) was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically), and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK), lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine-transferase (ALT) and aspartate-transferase (AST) as compared with control group (P<0.05). Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations) significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels...

Infecção ocasionada por Escherichia coli (E. coli) é uma enfermidade comum na indústria avícola. O uso de antibióticos para tratar doenças bacterianas vem enfrentando sérias críticas e preocupações. As plantas medicinais podem ser alternativas eficazes por causa de suas atividades sinérgicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do extrato de canela sobre os níveis de as enzimas hepáticas bem como sobre a expressão dos genes relativos, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α) e fator nuclear -kappa B (NF-κB) em fígado de frangos de corte infectados com E. coli. Noventa frangos Ross-308 foram divididos em grupos saudáveis ou infectados com E. coli, que receberam dietas controle ou com suplementação contendo extrato de canela (em concentrações de 100 ou 200 mg/kg de alimento). Suspensão de E. coli (108UFC) foi injetado por via subcutânea, após 12 dias de administração do extrato de canela. Setenta e duas horas após a injeção de E. coli, amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise bioquímica das enzimas do fígado no soro (espectrofotometria), e amostras de tecido de fígado foram obtidas para a determinação da expressão de genes de marcadores inflamatórios TNF-α e NF-κB, através PCR em tempo real. A infecção com E. coli aumentou significativamente os níveis de expressão dos genes TNF-α e NF-κB, assim como algumas enzimas hepáticas, incluindo creatina-quinase (CK), lactato-desidrogenase (LDH), alanina-transferase (ALT) e aspartato-transferase (AST), em comparação com o grupo de controle (P<0.05). A pré-administração do extrato de canela na dieta dos frangos (em ambas as concentrações) reduziu significativamente os níveis de expressão tecidual de TNF-α e NF-kB, da mesma forma que das enzimas CK e ALT no soro de frangos infectados com E. coli, em comparação com o grupos somente infectado com E. coli (P<0.05 e P<0.01). Os níveis de LDH e AST foram significativamente menores apenas para o grupo suplementado com extrato de canela na concentração...

Animals , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Galliformes/microbiology , NF-kappa B , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Creatine Kinase , Liver/enzymology , Alkaline Phosphatase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Plants, Medicinal , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 88-94, June 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757146


En la provincia del Chaco, el agua subterránea representa una fuente alternativa, y muchas veces única, para el consumo humano; esta es utilizada en el 14 % de los hogares. A pesar de que se reconoce el riesgo de la exposición al agua contaminada, la prevalencia de los diferentes patotipos de Escherichia coli en ambientes acuáticos no ha sido bien caracterizada. E. coli enteroagregativo (ECEA) es un patógeno emergente cuya importancia en la salud pública mundial se incrementó y quedó claramente establecida en los últimos años. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de ECEA típico mediante el reconocimiento de los factores de virulencia aap, AA probe y aggR por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, en fuentes de agua subterráneas de la provincia del Chaco. Se identificó E. coli en 36 (38,7 %) de las 93 muestras estudiadas, provenientes de diferentes localidades. De esos 36 aislamientos, se identificaron 6 (16,7 %) portadores de los genes de ECEA, lo que representa una prevalencia del 6,4 % considerando las 93 fuentes de agua subterránea estudiadas. De esos 6 aislamientos, 3 eran portadores del gen aap, 2 del gen AA probe y uno de la combinación aggR/aap. El presente trabajo representa el primer aporte en el estudio de la presencia y distribución de genes de virulencia de ECEA en fuentes de agua subterránea de la región.

Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for many communities in Northern Argentina; particularly, in the province of Chaco, where about 14 % of households use this natural resource. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is an emerging pathogen whose global importance in public health has increased in recent years. Despite the significant risk of disease linked to contaminated water exposure, the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes in aquatic environments is still not so well defined. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of typical enteroaggregative E. coli through the recognition of its virulence factors aap, AA probe and aggR by molecular techniques. A total of 93 water samples from different small communities of Chaco were analyzed. E. coli was identified in 36 (38.7 %) of the tested samples. Six strains isolated from different samples harbored the studied genes. Of these 6 isolates, 3 carried the aap gene, 2 the AA probe and the last one the combination of aap/aggR genes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring enteroaggregative virulence genes in groundwater sources was 6.4 %. This work represents the first contribution to the study of the presence and distribution of virulence genes of EAEC in groundwater sources in this region of Argentina.

Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Groundwater/microbiology , Trans-Activators/genetics , Water Pollution , Argentina , Escherichia coli Proteins/physiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Trans-Activators/physiology , Virulence/genetics , Water Supply
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 95-102, June 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757147


The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7 %) healthy and 225 (36.3 %) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1 % isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una caracterización molecular actualizada de cepas patógenas bovinas de Escherichia coli aisladas de un muestreo aleatorio en tambos de una de las principales zonas lecheras de Argentina. Se obtuvieron hisopados rectales de 395 terneros neonatos sanos (63,7 %) y 225 diarreicos (36,3 %) pertenecientes a 45 tambos de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. Los genes de virulencia f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae y vt se analizaron mediante PCR y se investigó la prevalencia de los perfiles de virulencia en función de la distribución geográfica. La prevalencia de aislamientos de E. coli patogénicos con al menos un gen de virulencia fue del 30,1 %. Once perfiles de virulencia fueron identificados, dependiendo de la combinación de genes presentes. La mayor parte de las muestras presentó un solo gen de virulencia, y no predominó ninguna combinación de genes de fimbrias y toxinas. No hubo asociación entre la frecuencia y la distribución de los genes de virulencia y el estado de salud de los terneros. La mayoría de los perfiles de virulencia fueron compatibles con cepas ECET y se distribuyeron cubriendo toda el área geográfica muestreada. No se reconoció ningún patrón de agrupamiento espacial para dichos perfiles. Este trabajo provee información actualizada sobre la caracterización molecular de E. coli patógena en rodeos lecheros de Córdoba, Argentina. Estos resultados serían importantes para formular programas preventivos y terapias eficaces contra la diarrea bovina causada por E. coli.

Animals , Animals, Newborn/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle/microbiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Argentina/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dairying , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Fimbriae, Bacterial/genetics , Prevalence , Sampling Studies , Virulence/genetics
Clinics ; 70(2): 136-143, 2/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741419


OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. .

Humans , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Feces/microbiology
Clinics ; 70(2): 102-106, 2/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741423


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. RESULTS: Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. CONCLUSION: The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy. .

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholangitis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Klebsiella/drug effects , Klebsiella/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 479-484, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732264


The present study analyzed the action of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or fluoride on hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite powder was suspended in different solutions: deionized water, 500 µg F/mL, 1,100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL plus 1%TMP and 500 µg F/mL plus 3%TMP. The pH value of the solutions was reduced to 4.0 and after 30 min, raised to 7.0 (three times). After pH-cycling, the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The concentrations of calcium fluoride, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus were also determined. Adding 1% or 3% TMP to the solution containing 500 µg F/mL produced a higher quantity of calcium fluoride compared to samples prepared in a 1,100 µg F/mL solution. Regarding the calcium concentration, samples prepared in solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP were statistically similar and showed higher values. Using solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP resulted in a calcium/phosphorus ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. It is concluded that the association of TMP and fluoride favored the precipitation of a more stable hydroxyapatite.

O presente estudo avaliou a ação do trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) e/ou fluoreto sobre a hidroxiapatita. Pó de hidroxiapatita foi suspenso em diferentes soluções: água deionizada, 500 µg F/mL, 1100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL adicionado a 1%TMP e 500 µg F/mL associado a 3%TMP. O pH das soluções foi reduzido para 4,0 e depois de 30 min, elevado para 7,0 (três vezes). Depois do processo de ciclagem de pH, as amostras foram analisadas por difração de raios-X e espectroscopia por infravermelho. As concentrações de fluoreto de cálcio, fluoreto, cálcio e fósforo também foram determinadas. A adição de 1% ou 3% TMP na solução contendo 500 µg F/mL produziu uma maior quantidade de fluoreto de cálcio comparado às amostras tratadas com uma solução de 1100 µg F/mL. A respeito da concentração de cálcio, amostras tratadas com soluções de 1100 µg F/mL e 500 µg F/mL adicionado ao TMP foram estatisticamente similares e mostraram maiores valores. Soluções de 1100 µg F/mL e 500 µg F/mL adicionado ao TMP resultaram em uma proporção molar Ca/P mais próxima à da hidroxiapatita. Conclui-se que a associação de TMP e F favoreceu a precipitação de uma hidroxiapatita mais estável.

Animals , Mice , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Endotoxins/toxicity , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Tungsten Compounds , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Ileum/microbiology , Ileum/pathology , Polymyxin B/pharmacology , Quinolinium Compounds/pharmacology , Tungsten/pharmacology , Xanthine Oxidase/antagonists & inhibitors
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1131-1138, Oct.-Dec. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741262


Shigellosis produces inflammatory reactions and ulceration on the intestinal epithelium followed by bloody or mucoid diarrhea. It is caused by enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) as well as any species of the genus Shigella, namely, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. This current species designation of Shigella does not specify genetic similarity. Shigella spp. could be easily differentiated from E. coli, but difficulties observed for the EIEC-Shigella differentiation as both show similar biochemical traits and can cause dysentery using the same mode of invasion. Sequencing of multiple housekeeping genes indicates that Shigella has derived on several different occasions via acquisition of the transferable forms of ancestral virulence plasmids within commensal E. coli and form a Shigella-EIEC pathovar. EIEC showed lower expression of virulence genes compared to Shigella, hence EIEC produce less severe disease than Shigella spp. Conventional microbiological techniques often lead to confusing results concerning the discrimination between EIEC and Shigella spp. The lactose permease gene (lacY) is present in all E. coli strains but absent in Shigella spp., whereas β-glucuronidase gene (uidA) is present in both E. coli and Shigella spp. Thus uidA gene and lacY gene based duplex real-time PCR assay could be used for easy identification and differentiation of Shigella spp. from E. coli and in particular EIEC.

Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Shigella/genetics , Shigella/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysentery, Bacillary/diagnosis , Dysentery, Bacillary/pathology , Escherichia coli/classification , Genotype , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Shigella/classification