Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.270
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 35-40, 2023. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1438316


Introduction: La ligature des varices œsophagiennes constitue un des piliers de la prise en charge de l'hémorragie digestive par rupture des varices œsophagiennes. Cette étude a pour objectif d'analyser la tolérance et l'efficacité de la ligature des varices œsophagiennes dans un échantillon de patients au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Andrainjato Fianarantsoa, Madagascar. Méthodes: Une étude prospective, observationnelle longitudinale sur une période de 21 mois (mois de janvier 2018 au mois d'août 2019) a été réalisée. Le test de Khi carré a été utilisé pour déterminer les corrélations (SPSS® v22). Résultats : Trente-et-un patients à prédominance masculine (sex ratio 1,5), âgés de 43,0 ± 9,0 ans, ont été retenus et 67 séances de ligatures de varices œsophagiennes ont été effectuées. La prophylaxie secondaire était l'indication de la ligature dans 96,8 % (n = 30) des cas. Les varices œsophagiennes étaient de grade III dans 64,4 % (n = 20) des cas. Toutes les ligatures ont été réalisées sous anesthésie générale. Le nombre de bandes élastiques utilisées était de 3,4 ± 1,1. La bonne tolérance de la ligature élastique était de 97,0 % (n = 65) lors de la procédure et de 58,0 % (n = 39) en post-procédure. La douleur thoracique post-procédure était observée dans 65,7 % (n = 44) des cas. L'éradication était obtenue après 3 séances dans 6,45 % (n = 2) des cas et 58,1 % (n = 18) étaient en cours d'éradication après 1,7 ± 0,9 séances. Conclusion : Cette étude a pu déterminer que la ligature des varices œsophagiennes est une technique bien tolérée et efficace dans la prévention de l'hémorragie digestive par rupture des varices œsophagiennes malgré certains inconvénients postopératoires

Humans , Effectiveness , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Esophageal Diseases , Disease Eradication , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Hypertension, Portal
Acta cir. bras ; 37(1): e370103, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364251


Introduction: Portal hypertension still represents an important health problem worldwide. In the search for knowledge regarding this syndrome, experimental studies with animal models have proven to be useful to point the direction to be taken in future randomized clinical trials. Purpose: To validate the experimental model of portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices in a medium-sized animal. Methods: This study included five minipigs br1. Midline laparotomy with dissection of the portal vein and production of a calibrated stenosis of this vein was performed. Measurement of pressure in the portal venous and digestive endoscopic were performed before and five weeks after the production of a stenosis. Results: All animals were 8 months old, average weight of 17 ± 2.5 kg. The mean pressure of the portal vein immediately before the partial ligation of the portal vein was 8.9 + 1.6 mm Hg, with 26.6 + 5.4 mm Hg in the second measurement five weeks later (p < 0.05). No gastroesophageal varices or hypertensive portal gastropathy were seen at endoscopy procedures in our sample at any time in the study. Conclusion: Portal vein ligation in minipigs has been validated in the production of portal hypertension, but not in the formation of esophageal varices.

Animals , Swine, Miniature/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935959


Objective: To investigate the effects of primary preventive treatment under endoscope for esophageal and gastric varices on bleeding rate and its relevant factors. Methods: 127 cases with liver cirrhosis accompanied with esophageal and gastric varices without bleeding history were included in the endoscopic and non-endoscopic treatment group, respectively. Informed consent was obtained from both groups. Gastric varices (Lgf) and esophageal varices (Leg) were diagnosed according to LDRf classification criteria, and the corresponding treatment scheme was selected according to the recommended principle of this method.The incidence rate of bleeding from ruptured esophageal varices were observed at 3, 6 months, and 1, and 2 years in the treated and the untreated group, and the patients with different Child-Pugh scores were followed-up for 2 years. Gender, age, etiology, varicose degree, Child-Pugh grade, platelet count, prothrombin activity, portal vein thrombosis, collateral circulation, portal vein width and other factors affecting the bleeding rate were assessed. Measurement data were described as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s), and qualitative data of categorical variables were expressed as percentage (%), and χ2 test was used. Results: 127 cases were followed up for 2 years. There were 55 cases in the endoscopic treatment group (18 cases underwent band ligation, 2 cases underwent band ligation combined with tissue adhesive embolization, 28 cases underwent sclerotherapy, and 7 cases underwent sclerotherapy combined with tissue adhesive embolization). Recurrent bleeding and hemorrhage was occurred in 5 (9.1%) and 28 cases (38.9%), respectively (P<0.05). In addition, there were 72 cases in the untreated group (P<0.05). Severe varicose veins proportions in treated and untreated group were 91.1% and 85.1%, respectively (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in liver cirrhosis-related medication and β-blocker therapy between the treated and untreated group (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the bleeding rate between the different treated groups (P>0.05). The bleeding rates at 3, 6 months, 1, and 2 years in endoscopic treated and untreated group were 2.00% vs. 2.59% (P>0.05), 2.30% vs. 5.88% (P>0.05), 3.10% vs. 7.55% (P>0.05) and 4.00% vs. 21.62% (P<0.05), respectively. All patients with Child-Pugh grade A, B and C in the treated and the untreated group were followed-up for 2 years, and the bleeding rates were 1.8% vs. 8.1% (P<0.05), 1.1% vs. 9.4% (P<0.05) and 9.1% vs. 10.1% (P>0.05), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the rupture and bleeding of esophageal and gastric varices, varices degree, Child-Pugh grade and presence or absence of thrombosis formation in portal vein (P<0.05); however, no statistically significant differences in gender, age, etiology, platelet count, prothrombin activity, collateral circulation and portal vein width (P>0.05). There was no intraoperative bleeding and postoperative related serious complications in the treated group. Conclusion: The risk of initial episodes of bleeding from esophageal and gastric varices is significantly correlated with the varices degree, Child-Pugh grade, and portal vein thrombosis. Primary preventive treatment under endoscope is safe and effective for reducing the long-term variceal bleeding risk from esophageal and gastric varices.

Humans , Endoscopes , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Prothrombin , Sclerotherapy , Tissue Adhesives , Varicose Veins , Venous Thrombosis/complications
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 21-29, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935904


The Baveno VII workshop held in October 2021 was featured by the subject of personalized care in portal hypertension. The workshop focused on the following 9 topics including: the relevance and indications for measuring the hepatic venous pressure gradient as a gold standard; the use of non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of compensated advanced chronic liver disease and clinically significant portal hypertension; the impact of etiological and of non-etiological therapies in the course of cirrhosis; the prevention of the first episode of decompensation; the management of the acute bleeding episode; the prevention of further decompensation; as well as the diagnosis and management of splanchnic vein thrombosis and other vascular disorders of the liver. This essay provides a compilation and summary of recommendations regarding the abovementioned topics, and presents the most recent research proceedings and the corresponding consensus to our readers.

Humans , Consensus , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Portal Pressure
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 424-431, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927618


Although the treatment strategy of esophageal and gastric varices bleeding in portal hypertension has been diversified and multidisciplinary now,the surgical treatment represented by pericardial devascularization operation will still play an important and irreplaceable role in China. In order to standardize the surgical procedure,guide clinical practice and improve the level of surgical treatment of portal hypertension,Chinese Society of Spleen and Portal Hypertension Surgery,Chinese Surgical Society,Chinese Medical Association organized Chinese experts to formulate this consensus. The main contents include:the position of surgical treatment,surgical indications and contraindications,preoperative evaluation,key points and precautions of surgical procedure,perioperative treatment,prevention and treatment of postoperative complications. The consensus emphasizes the standardization of surgical treatment of portal hypertension,pay attention to the prevention and treatment of postoperative portal vein thrombosis,and expect to provide surgeons with clinical guidance.

Humans , Consensus , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Splenectomy/adverse effects
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 728-743, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388889


Resumen La hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) es una emergencia médico-quirúrgica común que debe ser tratada precozmente por su alta morbimortalidad. Corresponde a sangrado del esófago, estómago o del duodeno proximal, y se divide en etiología no variceal y variceal. Dentro de las no variceales destaca la úlcera péptica como la más frecuente, siendo esta producida por un desbalance entre factores protectores y agresivos. Por otro lado, en las hemorragias variceales destacan las várices gastroduodenales, las cuales son consecuencia del aumento de la presión portal. La incidencia de la HDA a nivel mundial varía entre 37 a 172 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes por año y la mortalidad entre un 5 y un 14% según diferentes estudios. Lamentablemente, no existen cifras nacionales fidedignas de incidencia y prevalencia. El médico debe conocer bien la presentación clínica y la fisiopatología para ser asertivo en la sospecha, diagnóstico y manejo de esta patología. En cuanto al tratamiento, el enfrentamiento se divide en el manejo de urgencias y luego endoscópico, puesto que la resucitación temprana intensiva puede reducir la morbimortalidad en pacientes con HDA. A continuación se hará una revisión actualizada enfocada en los aspectos más relevantes del manejo de esta patología. Se obtuvieron los datos de Pubmed y Scielo, específicamente la búsqueda de artículos originales y de revisiones sistemáticas con las palabras "hemorragia digestiva alta", "úlcera péptica", "várices esofágicas" y otras relacionadas. Los criterios usados fueron artículos preferentemente menores a 5 años de publicación en revistas científicas de alto índice de impacto.

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UHD) is a common medical-surgical emergency that must be treated early due to its high morbidity and mortality. It corresponds to bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, or proximal duodenum, and is divided into non-variceal and variceal etiology. Among the non-variceal, the peptic ulcer stands out as the most frequent, being this produced by an imbalance between protective and aggressive factors. On the other hand, in variceal hemorrhages gastroduodenal varices stand out, are a consequence of increased portal pressure. The incidence of HDA worldwide varies between 37 to 172 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year and mortality between 5 to 14% according to different studies. Unfortunately, there are no reliable national statistics of incidence and prevalence. The physician must have a good understanding of the clinical presentation and pathophysiology to be assertive in the suspicion, diagnosis, and management of this pathology. Regarding treatment, the confrontation is divided into emergency management and then endoscopic, because early intensive resuscitation can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with UHD. This is an updated review which will be focused on the most relevant aspects of the management of this pathology. Data were obtained from Pubmed and Scielo, specifically searching for original articles and systematic reviews with the words "upper gastrointestinal bleeding", "peptic ulcer", "esophageal varices" and other related words. The criteria used were articles preferably less than 5 years old in scientific journals with a high impact index.

Humans , Esophagus/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Jejunum/surgery , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Endoscopy/methods , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345002


ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of choice for patients with schistosomiasis with previous episode of varices is bleeding esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy (EGDS) in association with postoperative endoscopic therapy. However, studies have shown varices recurrence especially after long-term follow-up. Aim: To assess the impact on behavior of esophageal varices and bleeding recurrence after post-operative endoscopic treatment of patients submitted to EGDS. Methods: Thirty-six patients submitted to EGDS were followed for more than five years. They were divided into two groups, according to the portal pressure drop, more or less than 30%, and compared with the behavior of esophageal varices and the rate of bleeding recurrence. Results: A significant reduction on the early and late post-operative varices caliber when compared the pre-operative data was observed despite an increase in diameter during follow-up that was controlled by endoscopic therapy. Conclusion: The drop in portal pressure did not significantly influence the variation of variceal calibers when comparing pre-operative and early or late post-operative diameters. The comparison between the portal pressure drop and the rebleeding rates was also not significant.

RESUMO Racional: O tratamento de escolha para pacientes com hipertensão portal esquistossomótica com sangramento de varizes é a desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia (DAPE) associada à terapia endoscópica. Porém, estudos mostram aumento do calibre das varizes em alguns pacientes durante o seguimento em longo prazo. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da DAPE e tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório no comportamento das varizes esofágicas e recidiva hemorrágica, de pacientes esquistossomóticos. Métodos: Foram estudados 36 pacientes com seguimento superior a cinco anos, distribuídos em dois grupos: queda da pressão portal abaixo de 30% e acima de 30% comparados com o calibre das varizes esofágicas no pós-operatório precoce e tardio além do índice de recidiva hemorrágica. Resultados: Após a DAPE houve diminuição significativa no calibre das varizes esofágicas que, durante o seguimento aumentaram de calibre e foram controladas com tratamento endoscópico. A queda da pressão portal não influenciou significativamente o comportamento do calibre das varizes no pós-operatório precoce nem tardio nem os índices de recidiva hemorrágica. Conclusão: A queda na pressão portal não influenciou significativamente a variação dos calibres das varizes ao comparar os diâmetros pré e pós-operatórios precoces ou tardios. A comparação entre a queda de pressão do portal e as taxas de ressangramento também não foi significativa.

Humans , Schistosomiasis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Recurrence , Splenectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Portal Pressure , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
Clinics ; 76: e2921, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278928


OBJECTIVES: Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) results from rupture of esophageal or gastric varices. It is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how to predict adverse outcomes and identify high-risk patients. In variceal hemorrhage, high Child-Turcotte-Pugh (Child) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores are associated with a worse prognosis. The Rockall system (Rockall), Glasgow-Blatchford (Blatchford), and AIMS65 scores have been validated for risk stratification for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding; however, their use is controversial in AVB. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of Child, MELD, Rockall, Blatchford, and AIMS65 scores in risk stratification for rebleeding and/or mortality associated with AVB. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over 42 months. The outcomes were 6-week rebleeding and mortality. The AUROC was calculated for each score (1-0.9, 0.9-0.8, and 0.8-0.7, indicating excellent, good, and acceptable predictive power, respectively). RESULTS: In total, 222 patients were included. Six-week rebleeding and mortality rates were 14% and 18.5%, respectively. No score was useful for discriminating patients at a higher risk of rebleeding. The AUROCs were 0.59, 0.57, 0.61, 0.63, and 0.56 for Rockall, Blatchford, AIMS65, Child, and MELD scores, respectively. Prediction of 6-week mortality based on Rockall (AUROC 0.65), Blatchford (AUROC=0.60), and AIMS65 (AUROC=0.67) scores were also not considered acceptable. The AUROCs for predicting mortality were acceptable for Child and MELD scores (0.72 and 0.74, respectively). CONCLUSION: Rockall, Blatchford, and AIMS65 scores are not useful for predicting 6-week rebleeding or mortality in patients with AVB. Child and MELD scores can identify patients at higher risk for 6-week mortality but not for 6-week rebleeding.

Humans , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , End Stage Liver Disease , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality , Risk Assessment , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1638, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360019


RESUMO - RACIONAL: O tratamento endoscópico das varizes esofágicas tem sido utilizado como principal intervenção em pacientes com hipertensão portal secundária à esquistossomose, mas com taxas significativas de recorrência de varizes esofágicas e ressangramento. Os resultados em longo prazo do tratamento endoscópico exclusivo são pouco estudados quanto à relação das dimensões esplênicas neste contexto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, por meio da ultrassonografia, o índice esplênico e a dimensão longitudinal (craniocaudal) do baço como preditores de ressangramento e recorrência de varizes no seguimento tardio de pacientes esquistossomóticos não operados, após erradicação endoscópica das varizes esofágicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional retrospectivo por meio da análise de prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de esquistossomose hepatoesplênica. A curva ROC foi usada para determinar o melhor ponto de corte para o índice esplênico médio como preditor de recorrência e sangramento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 54 pacientes, durante o período de 2002 a 2018. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 8 anos. O índice esplênico provou ser um teste sensível em valores acima de 144 como preditor de ressangramento. Na análise da dimensão longitudinal, o valor acima de 20 cm apresentou teste estatisticamente significativo para recorrência de varizes e valor acima de 19 cm apresentou-se como teste muito sensível e estatisticamente significativo para ressangramento. CONCLUSÃO: A análise do índice esplênico e da dimensão craniocaudal, obtidos por ultrassonografia, podem predizer recorrência de varizes e ressangramento após erradicação endoscópica exclusiva.

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Endoscopic treatment for esophageal variceal has been used as the main intervention in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, but with significant rates of recurrence of esophageal variceal and rebleeding. The long-term results of exclusive endoscopic treatment are poorly studied as the relationship of the splenic dimensions in this context. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify, through ultrasonography, whether the splenic index and the longitudinal (craniocaudal) dimension of the spleen are the predictors of rebleeding and variceal recurrence in late follow-up of patients with nonoperated schistosomiasis, after endoscopic eradication of esophageal variceal. METHODS: This is a retrospective and observational study analyzing the medical records of patients diagnosed with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best cutoff point for the mean splenic index as a predictor of recurrence and bleeding. Results: A follow-up of 54 patients were analyzed during the period from 2002 to 2018. The mean follow-up time was 8 years. The splenic index with value >144 was proved to be a sensitive test for rebleeding. In the analysis of the longitudinal dimension, the spleen length of >20 cm showed a statistically significant test for recurrence of variceal and a length >19 cm presented as a very sensitive and statistically significant test for rebleeding. CONCLUSION: Splenic index and craniocaudal dimension analysis, obtained by ultrasonography, can predict recurrence of varicose veins and rebleeding after exclusive endoscopic treatment.

Humans , Schistosomiasis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Spleen/surgery , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(6): 755-762, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143205


Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with upper digestive hemorrhage and primary and secondary endoscopic prophylaxis outcomes in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Methods: This observational and prospective study included 72 children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction who were followed from 2005 to 2017. Risk factors associated with upper digestive hemorrhage and the results of primary and secondary prophylaxis of these patients were evaluated. Results: Fifty patients (69.4%) had one or more episodes of bleeding during follow-up, with a median age at first hemorrhage of 4.81 years. The multivariate analysis showed that medium- to large-caliber esophageal varices were associated with an 18-fold risk of upper digestive hemorrhage (95% CI: 4.33-74.76; p < 0.0001). Primary prophylaxis was administered to 14 patients, with eradication in 85.7%; however, 14.3% of these patients had hemorrhages during the follow-up period and 41.7% had a relapse of varices. Secondary prophylaxis was administered to 41 patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 90.2% of patients. There were relapse and re-bleeding of esophageal varices in 45.9% and 34.1% of the children, respectively. Conclusion: Primary and secondary endoscopic prophylaxes showed high rates of esophageal varix eradication, but with significant relapses. Eradication of esophageal varices cannot definitively prevent recurrent upper digestive hemorrhage, since bleeding from alternate sites can occur. Medium- and large-caliber esophageal varices were associated with upper digestive hemorrhage in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate bleeding risk factors in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.

Resumo Objetivos: Este estudo visou avaliar fatores associados à hemorragia digestiva alta e resultados da profilaxia endoscópica primária e secundária em crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta. Métodos: Este estudo observacional e prospectivo incluiu 72 crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta acompanhadas de 2005 a 2017. Os fatores de risco associados à hemorragia digestiva alta e os resultados da profilaxia primária e secundária desses pacientes foram avaliados. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 50 (69,4%) apresentaram ≥ 1 episódio de sangramento durante o acompanhamento, com idade média da primeira hemorragia de 4,81 anos. A análise multivariada mostrou que varizes esofágicas de médio a grande calibre estavam associadas a um risco 18 vezes maior de hemorragia digestiva alta (IC de 95% 4,33-74,76; p < 0,0001). Foi administrada profilaxia primária em 14 pacientes, com erradicação em 85,7%; contudo, 14,3% desses pacientes apresentaram hemorragias durante o período de acompanhamento e 41,7% apresentaram recidiva de varizes. Foi administrada profilaxia secundária em 41 pacientes. As varizes esofágicas foram erradicadas em 90,2% dos pacientes. Houve recidiva e novos sangramentos de varizes esofágicas em 45,9% e 34,1% das crianças, respectivamente. Conclusão: As profilaxias esofágicas primárias e secundárias apresentaram altas taxas de erradicação de varizes esofágicas, porém com recidivas significativas. A erradicação de varizes esofágicas não pode prevenir de forma definitiva a hemorragia digestiva alta recorrente, pois pode ocorrer sangramento de outros locais. Varizes esofágicas de médio e grande calibre estavam associadas à hemorragia digestiva alta em pacientes com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta. No melhor de nosso conhecimento, nosso estudo é o primeiro a avaliar os fatores de risco de sangramento em crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Endoscopy , Hypertension, Portal , Portal Vein , Sclerotherapy , Prospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 502-508, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249959


Resumen Introducción: Con la escala de Glasgow-Blatchford (EG-B) se califica mediante datos clínicos, el riesgo de resangrado después de hemorragia del tubo digestivo alto (HTDA); y con las escalas de Forrest y Dagradi, mediante endoscopia. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad de la EG-B para identificar riesgo de resangrado a 30 días después de una HTDA; el estándar de oro de comparación fue la endoscopia. Método: Se analizaron 129 expedientes de pacientes con HTDA y endoscopia. Se cuantificaron las escalas de Glasgow-Blatchford, Forrest y Dagradi; se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad y área bajo la curva ROC (ABC-ROC) del riesgo de resangrado reportado por EG-B. Resultados: La EG-B identificó a 53 pacientes con riesgo bajo de resangrado (41.09 %) y 76 con riesgo alto (58.91 %). Con la endoscopia se identificó a 107 pacientes con hemorragia no variceal (82.94 %), 98 con riesgo bajo (89.9 %) y 11 con riesgo alto (10.09 %); además, 22 pacientes con hemorragia variceal (17.05 %), 12 con riesgo bajo (54.54 %) y 10 con riesgo alto (45.45 %). La EG-B mostró sensibilidad de 0.857, especificidad de 0.462 y ABC-ROC de 0.660. Conclusiones: La EG-B es sencilla, objetiva y útil para identificar riesgo de resangrado después de HTDA; se sugiere como herramienta de triaje en urgencias.

Abstract Introduction: The Glasgow-Blatchford scale (GBS) classifies the risk of re-bleeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) using clinical data, whereas the Forrest and Dagradi scales do it by endoscopy. Objective: To assess GBS’s ability to identify re-bleeding risk within 30 days of an UGIB, using endoscopy as the gold standard for comparison. Method: 129 medical records of patients with UGIB and endoscopy were analyzed. The Glasgow-Blatchford, Forrest and Dagradi scales were quantified; sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC) of GBS-reported re-bleeding risk were calculated. Results: GBS identified 53 patients with low re-bleeding risk (41.09 %) and 76 with high risk (58.91 %). Endoscopy identified 107 patients with non-variceal bleeding (82.94 %): 98 with low risk (89.9 %) and 11 with high risk (10.09 %); in addition, it identified 22 patients with variceal hemorrhage (17.05 %): 12 with low risk (54.54 %) and 10 with high risk (45.45 %). GBS showed a sensitivity of 0.857, specificity of 0.462 and an AUC-ROC of 0.660. Conclusions: GBS is simple, objective and useful to identify the risk of re-bleeding after UGIB; it is suggested as a triage tool in the emergency department.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Recurrence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Risk Assessment/methods , Area Under Curve
Medisan ; 24(6) tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1143261


Introducción: Las varices esofágicas son canales vasculares que unen la circulación venosa portal y la sistémica. Se forman como consecuencia de la hipertensión portal, predominantemente en la submucosa del tercio inferior del esófago. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con rotura de varices esofágicas según principales variables clinicoepidemiológicas y terapéutico-endoscópicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal de 20 pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta por rotura de varices esofágicas, los cuales recibieron tratamiento endoscópico con bandas elásticas en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, de noviembre de 2016 a febrero de 2018. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen y se aplicó la prueba de independencia de la Χ2 para identificar alguna asociación significativa entre variables. Resultados: Existió un predominio del sexo masculino (80,0 %) y del grupo etario de 51 a 60 años (40,0 %). La mayoría de los afectados presentó cirrosis hepática (60,0 %) como causa de la hipertensión portal y hematemesis (50,0 %) como forma de hemorragia digestiva alta; asimismo, el gran tamaño de las varices fue el principal factor de riesgo asociado a la rotura (70,0 %) y, luego de practicado el tratamiento endoscópico, no se produjo resangrado en la casi totalidad de los pacientes (95,0 %). Conclusiones: La aplicación de este procedimiento terapéutico resultó ser satisfactoria y no provocó complicación alguna.

Introduction: The esophageal varicose veins are vascular channels that unite the portal venous and systemic circulation. They are formed as consequence of the portal hypertension, predominantly in the submucosa of the inferior section of the esophagus. Objective: To characterize patients with break of esophageal varicose veins according to main clinical epidemiological and therapeutic-endoscopic variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive and longitudinal study of 20 patients with upper digestive bleeding due to break of esophageal varicose veins was carried out, they received endoscopic treatment with banding in the Gastroenterology Service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from November, 2016 to February, 2018. In the statistical analysis the percentage was used as summary measure and the chi-square test was applied to identify the existence of some significant association among variables. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (80.0 %) and the 51 to 60 age group (40.0 %). Most of the patients presented liver cirrhosis (60.0 %) as cause of the portal hypertension and hematemesis (50.0 %) as form of upper digestive bleeding; also, the great size of the esophageal varicose veins was the main risk factor associated with the break (70.0 %) and, after the implementation of the endoscopic treatment, there was no second bleeding in almost all the patients (95.0 %). Conclusions: The application of this therapeutic procedure was satisfactory and it didn't cause any complication.

Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Ligation , Hematemesis , Gastroenterology , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Cirrhosis
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 157-159, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150024


Resumen La hipertensión portal se define como la alteración patológica en el gradiente de presión a nivel del sistema portal, es decir, la diferencia entre la presión de la vena porta y la vena cava inferior. El valor normal es entre 1-5 mm Hg y se considera hipertensión cuando es mayor de 10 mm Hg. En este artículo, se describe el caso de una paciente de 5 años con un cuadro de hipertensión portal secundario a várices esofágicas y trombosis de la vena porta, confirmado por endoscopia de vías digestivas alta y angioresonancia magnética. La paciente fue atendida en la Fundación Clínica Infantil Club Noel de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia, entre los meses de diciembre del 2018 y febrero del 2019.

Abstract Portal hypertension is defined as the pathological increase in the portal pressure gradient, which is the difference between the pressure of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Normally portal vein pressure ranges between 1-5 mmHg and is considered hypertension when it is higher than 10 mmHg. In this study the case of a 5-year-old patient that suffers from secondary portal hypertension to portal venous thrombosis and esophageal varices is presented. The diagnostic is confirmed by an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and by a magnetic angioresonance. The patient was treated at the Fundacion Clinica Infantil Club Noel located in Cali, Colombia, between the months of December 2018 and February 2019.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Portal Vein , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Venous Thrombosis , Hypertension , Hypertension, Portal , Pressure , Vena Cava, Inferior , Portal Pressure , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Endoscopy
Rev. méd. Hosp. José Carrasco Arteaga ; 12(3): 193-198, 30-11-2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255375


INTRODUCCIÓN: El re-sangrado de várices esofágicas posterior a la ligadura de la misma, es una complicación frecuente, que eleva de manera significativa la morbi-mortalidad en este grupo de pacientes. El presente estudio tiene la finalidad de describir la frecuencia de re-sangrado por VE luego de la ligadura endoscópica, así como la frecuencia de ciertos factores y su asociación con el re-sangrado. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS : Estudio observacional, descriptivo y de correlación, transversal. Participaron 179 pacientes a los que se les realizó ligadura endoscópica de varices esofágicas. Para el análisis de asociación se aplicó la prueba Chi 2, se obtuvo razón de prevalencia, con IC 95%. La información fue presentada por medio de tablas con frecuencias y porcentajes. RESULTADOS: El alcoholismo fue la principal causa de la cirrosis hepática en los pacientes con ligadura de varices esofágicas, con un porcentaje de 44.1%. La mayor parte de los casos se encontró dentro de la clase funcional Child Pugh Score B, con una frecuencia del 36.3%. La frecuencia de re-sangrado fue del 49.2% (IC 95% 41.55% ­ 56.76%), siendo más frecuente en varones mayores ≥ 65 años con el 58%, y en el sexo masculino (64.8%). Falleció el 43 % de la muestra, a causa de re-sangrado tras la ligadura. Hubo relación estadísticamente significante de el re-sangrado con factores como: TPT mayor a 33.3 (RP: 1.91, IC 95% 1.07 -3.39, valor p =0.00); anemia moderada, severa (RP: 1.43, IC 95% 1.05 ­ 1.96, valor p = 0.02) y transfusión sanguínea (RP: 2.23, IC 95% 1.37 ­ 3.65, valor p = 0.00). CONCLUSIÓN: La frecuencia de re-sangrado fue del 49.2% (tanto temprana como tardía), la mayoría de pacientes con re-sangrado fueron de sexo masculino y de 65 o más años. Se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa entre el re-sangrado y factores como: tiempo parcial de tromboplastina por encima de valores normales, anemia moderada o severa y el haber recibido transfusiones sanguíneas. La mortalidad por re-sagrando fue del 43% para toda la población de estudio.

BACKGROUND: Re-bleeding of esophageal varices after endoscopic ligation is a frequent complication, that significantly increases morbidity and mortality in this patients. This study aims to describe the frequency of rebleeding due to esophageal varices after endoscopic ligation, as well as the frequency of certain factors and their association with rebleeding. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational, observational study. A total of 179 patients who underwent endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices participated. For the association analysis Chi2 test was applied, prevalence ratio was obtained, with 95% IC. Data was presented with charts, with frequencies and percentages. RESULTS: Alcoholism was the main cause of cirrhosis in patients that underwent ligation of esophageal varices (44.1%). Most of the cases were classified as Child Pugh Sore B functional class, with a frequency of 36.3%. The prevalence of rebleeding was 49.2% (95% CI 41.55%- 56.76%), it was more frequent in patients 65 years old and older (58%), and male patients (64.8%). Death rate due to rebleeding after ligation was 43%. We found significant statistical association of rebleeding with factors such as: TPT >33.3 (PR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.07-3.39, p value =0.00); moderate and severe anemia (PR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.96, p value =0.02), and blood transfusion (PR: 2.23. 95% CI 1.37-3.65, p value=0.00). CONCLUSION: Rebleeding frequency was 49.2% (early and late rebleeding), it was more common in male patients, and patients aged 65 or more. This study found statistical association between rebleeding and: elevated values of partial thromboplastin time, moderate and severe anemia, and blood transfusion. Mortality due to rebleeding was 43%.

Humans , Male , Female , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Alcoholism , Hemorrhage , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Risk Factors , Morbidity
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(11)nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389251


In patients with actively bleeding gastric varices, the treatment of choice is the endoscopic use of sclerosing agents such as cyanoacrylate. We report a 69-year-old man who, after being treated with cyanoacrylate, suffered from recurrent febrile episodes. After an extensive study and broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, discarding other presumably infectious focus, the superinfection of the cyanoacrylate plug was suspected, and its surgical removal was decided. A partial gastrectomy of the gastric fundus, a splenectomy, and a distal pancreatectomy were performed. The patient evolved without fever and without new episodes of bacteremia, but with decompensation of his cirrhosis manifested by ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia, and collections in the pancreatic bed. These complications were managed with medical treatment consisting in a long course of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Thereafter, the patient evolved satisfactorily.

Aged , Humans , Male , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Cyanoacrylates , Sclerosing Solutions/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 377-381, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138797


Resumen Una de las consecuencias más graves de la trombosis de la vena porta extrahepática es la hipertensión portal con sangrado variceal recurrente. Una vez falla la ligadura endoscópica de las várices y el eje esplenoportal no se encuentra permeable, la devascularización tipo Sugiura modificado puede ser la única alternativa. Se ha documentado su uso en pacientes con cirrosis, pero hay poca información en personas no cirróticas. En este artículo se describe una serie de 4 casos de pacientes no cirróticos, en los cuales se realizó dicho procedimiento. Los pacientes fueron seguidos durante 12 meses y ninguno presentó episodios de resangrado de las várices esofágicas, ni tampoco se requirió la ligadura de las várices residuales. Esta cirugía se perfila como una alternativa terapéutica para este tipo de pacientes.

Abstract One of the most serious consequences of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis is portal hypertension with recurrent variceal bleeding. Once endoscopic variceal ligation fails and the spleno-portal axis is not permeable, modified Sugiura devascularization may be the only alternative. Its use in patients with cirrhosis has been reported, but there is little information on non-cirrhotic patients. This article presents a series of four cases of non-cirrhotic patients that underwent this procedure. Patients were followed for twelve months; none presented episodes of esophageal varices re-bleeding nor required ligation of residual varices. This surgery is outlined as a therapeutic alternative for this type of patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis , Hemorrhage , Methods , Therapeutics , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal
Más Vita ; 2(2): 68-75, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1290734


La hemorragia digestiva alta aguda (HDAA) es la emergencia gastrointestinal más frecuente. En los ancianos se asocia con tasas de internación, morbilidad y mortalidad más elevadas que en las personas jóvenes, probablemente por la prevalencia más elevada de múltiples comorbilidades, como las enfermedades pulmonares y cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir los fundamentos teóricos de los factores de riesgos asociados a hemorragia digestivas altas. Metodología: Documental, descriptiva. Resultados: diversos estudios demuestran que los factores de riesgos asociados a las hemorragias digestivas altas son: la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal y várices esofágicas, complicaciones graves con alto riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes de edades avanzadas, por lo que se debe actuar con rapidez, eficacia y efectividad. Conclusión: la bibliografía consultada revela: que a pesar de los avances de la tecnología y de la farmacología, la tasa de mortalidad global por hemorragia digestiva alta no ha mejorado. Esta realidad se explica por el aumento significativo en la edad de los pacientes que hoy ingresan a los servicios de urgencias con esta complicación. En la HDAA es fundamental intentar identificar y tratar la fuente del sangrado, para lo cual resulta esencial la endoscopia temprana(AU)

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (HDAA) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency. In the elderly, it is associated with higher hospitalization, morbidity and mortality rates than in young people, probably due to the higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe the theoretical foundations of the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methodology: Documentary, descriptive. Results: various studies show that the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding are, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and esophageal varices, serious complications with a high risk of mortality in elderly patients, therefore, it is necessary to act quickly, efficiently and effectiveness. Conclusion: the bibliography consulted reveals: that despite advances in technology and pharmacology, the overall mortality rate from upper gastrointestinal bleeding has not improved. This reality is explained by the significant increase in the age of patients who today enter the emergency services with this complication. In HDAA it is essential to try to identify and treat the source of the bleeding, for which early endoscopy is essential(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Angiodysplasia , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/mortality , Aged , Risk Factors , Endoscopy , Esophagitis
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1850-1861, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127046


RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis es un proceso dinámico y actualmente se conoce que cuando se elimina el agente primario de agresión que ha producido la cirrosis, se puede llegar a remitir la fibrosis. En Cuba la enfermedad representa la décima causa de muerte, con una tendencia ascendente en los últimos 20 años y una tasa de 13,4 por 100 000 habitantes. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y endoscópicamente a pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 - 19, donde el universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años ingresados con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida, siento la principal causa el alcoholismo, caracterizado por manifestaciones generales, que en muchos casos debutan por complicaciones, apareciendo várices esofágicas en el 75 % de los casos, aunque gados I y II de Paquet, dependiente a un diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el alcoholismo crónico es la causa más frecuente de cirrosis hepática, debuta de forma frecuente por sus complicaciones, aunque el diagnóstico se hace en etapas precoces, con varices esofágicas incipientes (AU).

Summary Introduction: liver cirrhosis is a dynamic process and currently it is known that, when the primary agent of aggression that has produced the cirrhosis is eliminated, the fibrosis could remit. In Cuba, this diseases is the tenth cause of death, with an increasing tendency in the last twenty years and a rate of 13.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. Objective: to characterize, clinically and endoscopically, patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosis. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, in the period 2017 - 2019, where the universe and the sample were formed by all the patients aged more than 18 years who entered the hospital with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results: in this paper, male patients in their sixties predominated, being alcoholism the main cause of disease, characterized by general manifestations; patients debuted due to complications, appearing esophageal varices in 75 % of the cases, although Paquet I and II grades, in dependence to a disease precocious diagnosis. Conclusions: the authors concluded that chronic alcoholism is the most frequent cause in hepatic cirrhosis, almost always debuting by its complications, though the diagnosis is made in precocious stages, with emerging esophageal varices (AU).

Humans , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Endoscopy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology