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Clinics ; 76: e2921, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278928


OBJECTIVES: Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) results from rupture of esophageal or gastric varices. It is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how to predict adverse outcomes and identify high-risk patients. In variceal hemorrhage, high Child-Turcotte-Pugh (Child) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores are associated with a worse prognosis. The Rockall system (Rockall), Glasgow-Blatchford (Blatchford), and AIMS65 scores have been validated for risk stratification for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding; however, their use is controversial in AVB. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of Child, MELD, Rockall, Blatchford, and AIMS65 scores in risk stratification for rebleeding and/or mortality associated with AVB. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over 42 months. The outcomes were 6-week rebleeding and mortality. The AUROC was calculated for each score (1-0.9, 0.9-0.8, and 0.8-0.7, indicating excellent, good, and acceptable predictive power, respectively). RESULTS: In total, 222 patients were included. Six-week rebleeding and mortality rates were 14% and 18.5%, respectively. No score was useful for discriminating patients at a higher risk of rebleeding. The AUROCs were 0.59, 0.57, 0.61, 0.63, and 0.56 for Rockall, Blatchford, AIMS65, Child, and MELD scores, respectively. Prediction of 6-week mortality based on Rockall (AUROC 0.65), Blatchford (AUROC=0.60), and AIMS65 (AUROC=0.67) scores were also not considered acceptable. The AUROCs for predicting mortality were acceptable for Child and MELD scores (0.72 and 0.74, respectively). CONCLUSION: Rockall, Blatchford, and AIMS65 scores are not useful for predicting 6-week rebleeding or mortality in patients with AVB. Child and MELD scores can identify patients at higher risk for 6-week mortality but not for 6-week rebleeding.

Humans , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , End Stage Liver Disease , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality , Risk Assessment , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(3): 222-224, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888205


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND - Variceal bleeding has a high mortality among cirrhotics, and screening with endoscopy is indicated at the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Screening with endoscopy implies discomfort, risks and considerable costs. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate platelet count squared/spleen diameter-aspartate aminotransferase ratio (PS/SA), as a non-invasive predictor of esophageal varices in cirrhotics. METHODS - This cross-sectional study evaluated cirrhotics for PS/SA and presence of esophageal varices. Outpatient records of cirrhotic patients were reviewed for the abovementioned data. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of PS/SA were calculated. After the univariate analysis, variables with P<0.10 were submitted to a logistic regression. RESULTS - The study included 164 cirrhotics, 59.70% male, with a mean age of 56.7 years. Hepatitis C was the most frequent cause of cirrhosis, being present in 90 patients. Patients were classified as Child-Pugh A in 52.44% and as Child-Pugh B or C in 47.56%. Esophageal varices were present in 72.56% of the patients at endoscopy. PS/SA, with a cutoff of 3x108, had a sensitivity of 95.80% (confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI=0.92-0.99), a specificity of 22.70% (95%CI=0.10-0.35), a positive predictive value of 77.20% (95%CI=0.70-0.84) and a negative predictive value of 66.70% (95%CI=0.42-0.91). In the logistic regression, only platelet count and Child-Pugh score were associated to esophageal varices (P<0.05). CONCLUSION - PS/SA has an excellent sensitivity to predict esophageal varices, allowing almost one fourth of patients without esophageal varices to spare endoscopy. Nevertheless, PS/SA is not independently associated to esophageal varices.

RESUMO CONTEXTO - A hemorragia varicosa tem elevada mortalidade entre cirróticos, e o rastreamento endoscópico de varizes está indicado no momento do diagnóstico da cirrose. O rastreamento endoscópico implica desconforto, riscos e custos consideráveis. OBJETIVO - Avaliar a razão da contagem de plaquetas ao quadrado/diâmetro do baço-aspartato aminotransferase (PQ/BA) como preditor não-invasivo de varizes esofágicas em cirróticos. MÉTODOS - Este estudo transversal avaliou cirróticos quanto ao PQ/BA e à presença de varizes esofágicas. Prontuários ambulatoriais de cirróticos foram revisados quanto a tais dados. Sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos negativo e positivo do PQ/BA foram calculados. Após a análise univariada, variáveis com P<0,10 foram submetidas à regressão logística. RESULTADOS - O estudo incluiu 164 cirróticos, 59,70% masculinos, com média de idade de 56,7 anos. Hepatite C foi a mais frequente causa de cirrose, estando presente em 90 pacientes. Os pacientes foram classificados como Child-Pugh A em 52,44% e em Child-Pugh B ou C em 47,56%. As varizes esofágicas estiveram presentes à endoscopia em 72,56% dos pacientes. PQ/BA, com um ponto de corte de 3x108, teve sensibilidade de 95,80% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95%=0,92-0,99), especificidade de 22,70% (IC95%=0,10-0,35), valor preditivo positivo de 77,20% (IC95%=0,70-0,84) e valor preditivo negativo de 66,70% (IC95%=0,42-0,91). Na regressão logística, apenas a contagem de plaquetas e o escore de Child-Pugh associaram-se às varizes esofágicas (P<0,05). CONCLUSÃO - PQ/BA apresentou excelente sensibilidade para predizer varizes esofágicas, permitido que cerca de um quarto dos pacientes sem varizes esofágicas evitasse a endoscopia. Entretanto, PQ/BA não se associou de maneira independente às varizes esofágicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Organ Size , Platelet Count , Spleen/enzymology , Spleen/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/blood , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187065


We present a case of a patient with rapid deterioration of esophageal varices caused by portal hypertension accompanied by a large arterioportal shunt that developed after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. We used n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as an embolic material to achieve pinpoint embolization of the shunt, because the microcatheter tip was 2 cm away from the shunt site. Under hepatic arterial flow control using a balloon catheter, the arterioportal shunt was successfully embolized with NBCA, which caused an improvement in the esophageal varices.

Aged , Arteriovenous Fistula/etiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Enbucrilate/therapeutic use , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Hepatic Artery/abnormalities , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Portal Vein/abnormalities
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218256


OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and usefulness of a two-tiered approach to balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) as a treatment for large gastric varices after portal hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients were studied who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices between October 2004 and October 2011 in our institution. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein and the B-RTO catheter was retained until the following morning. Distribution of sclerotic agents in the gastric varices on fluoroscopy was evaluated in all patients on days 1 and 2. When distribution of sclerotic agents in the gastric varices on day 1 had been none or very scanty even though the volume of the sclerotic agent infused was above the acceptable level, a second infusion was administered on day 2. When distribution was satisfactory, the B-RTO catheter was removed. RESULTS: In 8 (16%) patients, little or no sclerotic agent infused on day 1 was distributed in the gastric varices. However, on day 2, sclerotic agents were distributed in all gastric varices. Mean volume of ethanolamine oleate-iopamidol infused on day 1 was 24.6 mL and was 19.4 mL on day 2. Gastric varices were well obliterated with no recurrence. Complications caused by the sclerotic agent such as pulmonary edema or renal insufficiencies were not seen. CONCLUSION: When gastric varices are very large, a strategy involving thrombosis of only the drainage vein on the first day followed by infusing the sclerotic agent on the following day might be effective and feasible.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Catheters, Indwelling , Collateral Circulation , Drug Administration Schedule , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Female , Femoral Vein , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Iopamidol/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oleic Acids/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sclerosing Solutions/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Gut and Liver ; : 704-711, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209555


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The relationship between portal hemodynamics and fundal varices has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiology of fundal varices and to investigate bleeding risk factors related to the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, and to examine the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) between fundal varices and other varices. METHODS: In total, 85 patients with cirrhosis who underwent HVPG and gastroscopic examination between July 2009 and March 2011 were included in this study. The interrelationship between HVPG and the types of varices or the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts was studied. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the HVPG between fundal varices (n=12) and esophageal varices and gastroesophageal varices type 1 (GOV1) groups (n=73) (17.1+/-7.7 mm Hg vs 19.7+/-5.3 mm Hg). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the HVPG between varices with spontaneous portosystemic shunts (n=28) and varices without these shunts (n=57) (18.3+/-5.8 mm Hg vs 17.0+/-8.1 mm Hg). Spontaneous portosystemic shunts increased in fundal varices compared with esophageal varices and GOV1 (8/12 patients [66.7%] vs 20/73 patients [27.4%]; p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Fundal varices had a high prevalence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts compared with other varices. However, the portal pressure in fundal varices was not different from the pressure in esophageal varices and GOV1.

Adult , Aged , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophagus , Female , Gastric Fundus , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Portal Pressure , Renal Veins , Risk Factors , Splenic Vein , Stomach/blood supply , Vascular Fistula/complications
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 88(4): 341-346, jul.-ago. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649465


OBJETIVO: Identificar preditores não invasivos de varizes esofágicas em crianças e adolescentes com hepatopatia crônica ou obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 53 crianças e adolescentes com hepatopatia crônica ou obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta, sem antecedente de hemorragia digestiva ou tratamento de varizes esofágicas, com até 20 anos de idade. Dois grupos foram formados: grupo I (35 pacientes com hepatopatia crônica) e grupo II (18 com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta). Foram realizados hemograma, razão normalizada internacional, albumina, bilirrubina total, ultrassonografia de abdome e endoscopia digestiva alta. O índice esplênico foi determinado dividindo a dimensão esplênica pelo valor do limite superior da normalidade. As variáveis foram comparadas quanto à presença ou não de varizes esofágicas através de análise univariada (testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fischer e de Wilcoxon) e multivariada (regressão logística). A acurácia foi determinada a partir da área sob a curva ROC. RESULTADOS: As varizes esofágicas foram observadas em 48,5% dos pacientes do grupo I e em 83,3% do grupo II. Plaquetopenia (p = 0,0015), esplenomegalia (p = 0,0003) e a razão plaquetas/índice esplênico (p = 0,0007) se mostraram indicadores preditivos de varizes esofágicas entre os pacientes do grupo I. Após análise multivariada, a plaquetopenia (odds ratio = 21,7) se manteve como um indicador independente da presença de varizes esofágicas entre os pacientes com hepatopatia crônica. CONCLUSÃO: O número de plaquetas, o índice esplênico e a razão plaquetas/índice esplênico se mostraram preditivos de varizes esofágicas em crianças e adolescentes com hepatopatia crônica. Não foram encontrados preditores de varizes esofágicas entre os pacientes com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta.

OBJECTIVE: To identify non-invasive predictors of esophageal varices in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease or extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO). METHODS: 53 patients younger than 20 years with chronic liver disease or EHPVO and no history of bleeding or prophylactic treatment of esophageal varices (EV) were assessed. They were divided into 2 groups: group I (35 with chronic liver disease) and group II (18 with EHPVO). Their blood count, international normalized ratio (INR), albumin, bilirubin, abdominal ultrasonography and upper endoscopy results were taken. A splenic index was determined by dividing the patients' spleen dimension by its uppermost limit according to their age. The variables were compared to EV presence or not. Univariate (chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and Wilcoxon exact test) and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were performed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed and the area under the ROC curve was calculated. RESULTS: EV were observed in 48.5% of group I patients and in 83.3% of group II patients. Low platelet count (p = 0.0015), splenomegaly (p = 0.0003) and splenic index (p = 0.0007) were statistically significant predictors of EV among group I patients. The multivariate analysis showed low platelet count (odds = 21.7) as an independent predictor of EV in patients with chronic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Platelet count, splenic index and platelet-splenic index ratio were predictors of EV in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease. There were no EV predictors among group II patients.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Liver Diseases/complications , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/blood , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/blood , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Diseases/blood , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Splenomegaly/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 49(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622564


CONTEXT: Portal vein thrombosis refers to a total or partial obstruction of the blood flow in this vein due to a thrombus formation. It is an important cause of portal hypertension in the pediatric age group with high morbidity rates due to its main complication - the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients with portal vein thrombosis without associated hepatic disease of the Pediatric Hepatology Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil with emphasis on diagnosis, presentation form and clinical complications, and the treatment of portal hypertension. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a series of children and adolescents cases assisted from January 1990 to December 2010. The portal vein thrombosis diagnosis was established by ultrasound. RESULTS: Of the 55 studied patients, 30 (54.5%) were male. In 29 patients (52.7%), none of the risk factors for portal vein thrombosis was observed. The predominant form of presentation was the upper gastrointestinal bleeding (52.7%). In 20 patients (36.4%), the initial manifestation was splenomegaly. During the whole following period of the study, 39 patients (70.9%) showed at least one episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean age of patients in the first episode was 4.6 ± 3.4 years old. The endoscopic procedure carried out in the urgency or electively for search of esophageal varices showed its presence in 84.9% of the evaluated patients. The prophylactic endoscopic treatment was performed with endoscopic band ligation of varices in 31.3% of patients. Only one died due to refractory bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The portal vein thrombosis is one of the most important causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. In all non febrile children with splenomegaly and/or hematemesis and without hepatomegaly and with normal hepatic function tests, it should be suspect of portal vein thrombosis. Thus, an appropriate diagnostic and treatment approach is desirable in an attempt to reduce morbidity and mortality.

CONTEXTO: Trombose da veia porta refere-se a uma obstrução total ou parcial do fluxo de sangue nesta veia devido à formação de um trombo. É uma causa importante da hipertensão porta na faixa etária pediátrica, com taxas elevadas de morbidade devido a sua principal complicação - a hemorragia digestiva alta. OBJETIVO: Descrever o grupo de crianças e adolescentes com trombose de veia porta sem doença hepática associada do Ambulatório de Hepatologia Pediátrica do Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, com ênfase no diagnóstico, forma de apresentação, complicações clínicas e na abordagem da hipertensão porta. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo descritivo de uma série de casos de crianças e adolescentes atendidos de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 2010. O diagnóstico de trombose de veia porta foi estabelecido por ultrassonografia. RESULTADOS: Dos 55 pacientes analisados, 30 (54,5%) eram do gênero masculino. Em 29 pacientes (52,7%) não foi identificado nenhum fator de risco para trombose de veia porta. A forma de apresentação predominante foi hemorragia digestiva alta (52,7%). Em 20 pacientes (36,4%), a manifestação inicial foi esplenomegalia. Durante todo o período de seguimento, 39 pacientes (70,9%) apresentaram, pelo menos, um episódio de hemorragia digestiva alta. A média de idade dos pacientes neste primeiro episódio foi de 4,6 ± 3,4 anos. O exame endoscópico, seja realizado na urgência ou eletivamente para pesquisa de varizes esofágicas, mostrou sua presença em 84,9% dos pacientes avaliados. O tratamento endoscópico profilático foi realizado com ligadura elástica de varizes em 31,3% dos pacientes. Apenas um evoluiu para óbito devido a sangramento refratário. CONCLUSÕES: A trombose de veia porta é uma das causas mais importantes de hemorragia digestiva alta em crianças. Deve-se suspeitar de trombose de veia porta em toda criança com esplenomegalia afebril e/ou hematêmese, sem hepatomegalia e com testes de função hepática normais. Desta forma, uma abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica adequada é desejável na tentativa de reduzir a morbimortalidade.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Portal Vein , Splenomegaly/etiology , Venous Thrombosis , Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Ligation , Risk Factors , Sclerotherapy , Splenomegaly/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89582


OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. RESULTS: In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. CONCLUSION: Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Female , Femoral Vein , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Iopamidol/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oleic Acids/administration & dosage , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 21(4-S1): 28-34, out.- dez. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729278


Hipertensão porta é uma síndrome clínica decorrente de doenças hepáticas e hepáticas, tendo como principal complicação a hemorragia digestiva alta por sangramento de varizes esofagianas. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar revisão atualizada sobre profilaxia secundária de varizes esofagianas em crianças e adolescentes, a partir de revisão da literatura dos últimos 30 anos, A profilaxia secundária está indicada a todos os pacientes com sangramento de varizes esofagianas. Em adultos, o método considerado de melhor eficácia é o uso combinado de beta-bloqueador e ligadura elástica. Na infância, não existe consenso sobre a melhor forma de profilaxia e a maioria dos estudos são relatos de séries de casos. A terapia endoscópica tem apresentado eficácia de 80 a 100% em erradicar as varizes esofágicas. O único estudo randomizado em pediatria que comparou os métodos endoscópicos foi mais favorável à ligadura elástica. Poucos estudos relatam o uso do propranolol na infância. Somente um estudo, não randomiza- do, comparou escleroterapia isolada ou associada ao propranolol e não foi observado benefício com a associação. Desta forma, não há consenso sobre a melhor forma de realizar profilaxia secundária na criança. A terapia endoscópica tem se mostrado eficaz em erradicar as varizes esofágicas, porém, o papel do propranolol em pediatria ainda precisa ser definido.

Portal hypertension is a clinical syndrome resulting from hepatic and extra-hepatic diseases. Its main complication is high digestive hemorrhage from esophageal varices bleeding. The aim of this work is to present an updated revision on secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices bleeding in children and adolescents through a revision of the literature from the past thirty years. The secondary prophylaxis is appropriated to ali the patients with esophageal varices bleeding. In adults, the method of better efficiency is considered to be the combined use of betablockers and endoscopic band ligation. As for childhood, there is not a consensus on the best form of prophylaxis and most of the studies are reports of series of cases. The endoscopic treatment has been presenting efficiency in eradicating from 80 to 100 % of the esophageal varices. The only randomized study in pediatrics that compared the endoscopics methods was more favorable to the endoscopic band ligation. Few studies report the use of propranolol in the childhood. Only one study, not randomized, compared endoscopic sclerotherapy isolated ar associated to propranolol and benefit was not observed with the association. Thus, there is no consensus on the best form of carrying out secondary prophylaxis in the child. The endoscopic therapy has shown itself efficient in eradicating the esophageal varices. The role of propranolol in pediatrics still needs to be defined.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/drug therapy , Sclerotherapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 48(4): 248-251, Oct.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607504


CONTEXT: Band ligation (BL) is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY) can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients submitted to diagnostic endoscopy, CY and BL for treatment of esophageal varices. METHODS: A prospective study comprising the period from 2004 to 2007 was conducted at Hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil. Cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C) were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according treatment: BL Group (patients undergoing band ligation, n = 20) and CY Group (patients receiving cyanoacrylate injection for esophageal variceal, n = 18). Cirrhotic patients with no esophageal varices or without indication for endoscopic treatment were recruited as control (diagnostic group n = 20). Bacteremia was evaluated by blood culture at baseline and 30 minutes after the procedure. RESULTS: After 137 scheduled endoscopic procedures, none of the 58 patients had fever or any sign suggestive of infection. All baseline cultures were negative. No positive cultures were observed after CY or in the control group - diagnostic endoscopy. Three (4.6 percent) positive cultures were found out of the 65 sessions of band ligation (P = 0.187). Two of these samples were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which could be regarded as a contaminant. The isolated microorganism in the other case was Klebsiella oxytoca. The patient in this case presented no evidence of immunodeficiency except liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in bacteremia rate between these three groups. BL or CY injection for non-bleeding esophageal varices may be considered as low-risk procedures regarding bacteremia even when performed on patients with advanced liver disease.

CONTEXTO: A ligadura elástica é considerada o melhor tratamento endoscópico para o sangramento agudo por varizes esofágicas ou para profilaxia do sangramento varicoso, sendo a escleroterapia com N-2-butil-cianoacrilato uma alternativa para os pacientes com doença hepática avançada e distúrbio de coagulação. Bacteriemia é uma complicação rara associada à ligadura elástica, por outro lado, a incidência de bacteriemia relacionada com o uso de N-2-butil-cianoacrilato permanece desconhecida. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a incidência de bacteriemia transitória entre os pacientes cirróticos submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta diagnóstica, escleroterapia com N-2-butil-cianoacrilato ou ligadura elástica para tratamento das varizes esofágicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado entre 2004 e 2007 foi conduzido no Hospital da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, Brasil. Cirróticos com doença hepática avançada (Child B ou C) foram incluídos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tratamento: grupo ligadura elástica (pacientes submetidos a ligadura elástica, n = 20) e grupo N-2-butil-cianoacrilato (pacientes submetidos a injeção de N-2-butil-cianoacrilato, n = 18). Cirróticos sem varizes esofágicas ou com varizes esofágicas sem indicação de tratamento endoscópico foram recrutados como controles (grupo endoscopia diagnóstica, n = 20). Bacteriemia foi avaliada por hemocultura basal e 30 minutos após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Dos 137 procedimentos endoscópicos realizados, nenhum dos 58 pacientes apresentou febre ou qualquer sinal sugestivo de infecção. Todas as hemoculturas de base foram negativas. Nenhuma cultura positiva foi observada após o uso de N-2-butil-cianoacrilato ou no grupo controle. Três (4,6 por cento) culturas positivas foram encontradas após as 65 sessões de ligadura elástica (P = 0,187). Duas dessas foram positivas para Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, provavelmente relacionadas à contaminação. O microorganismo isolado no terceiro caso foi Klebsiella oxytoca. Nesse caso, o paciente apresentava a própria doença hepática como única situação relacionada à imunodeficiência. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença significante na incidência de bacteriemia entre os três grupos de pacientes. Ligadura elástica ou injeção de N-2-butil-cianoacrilato para profilaxia do sangramento varicoso podem ser considerados procedimentos de baixo risco quanto ao surgimento de bacteriemia, mesmo em pacientes com doença hepática avançada.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/etiology , Enbucrilate/therapeutic use , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/drug therapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Sclerotherapy/methods , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Esophagoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Ligation/adverse effects , Ligation/methods , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sclerotherapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 82(5): 381-387, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612166


Children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis frequently develop portal hypertension. The main complication of the portal hypertension are the development of esophageal varices who are at risk of variceal bleeding, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Guidelines for adults with portal hypertension recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy to identify those with varices that may benefit from prophylactic therapy, however there are no consensus in the pediatric age. This revision includes the incidence, diagnostic and the evidence for primary prophylactic treatment of the esophageal varices in children.

Pacientes pediátricos con daño hepático crónico o con trombosis de la vena porta frecuentemente desarrollan hipertensión portal. La principal complicación de la hipertensión portal es el desarrollo de várices esofágicas que conlleva riesgo de hemorragia variceal, la cual se asocia a significativa morbimortalidad. Las guías clínicas para adultos recomiendan realizar, en pacientes cirróticos, una endoscopia como screening para el diagnóstico de várices esofágicas y su tratamiento profiláctico, sin embargo, en pacientes pediátricos no existe consenso. En esta revisión se actualiza la incidencia, diagnóstico y evidencia del tratamiento profiláctico primario de várices esofágicas en pediatría.

Humans , Child , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hepatic Insufficiency/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78286


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endoscopic findings and clinical relevance of portal hypertensive colopathy are not well described in Korea. We aimed to do a retrospective study of mucosal changes in the colon of patients with liver cirrhosis and to find their association with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical data and endoscopic findings of 48 patients with liver cirrhosis and 48 patients, matched for age and sex, with irritable bowel disease (IBS) who underwent colonoscopy over a 5 year span. RESULTS: Patients with liver cirrhosis were more likely to have colitis-like lesions and vascular abnormalities than IBS patients. Low platelet count (p=0.005) and severe esophageal varices (p=0.011) were associated with portal hypertensive colopathy, whereas the etiologies and severity of cirrhosis were not associated with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Portal hypertensive colopathy can be defined with colitis-like lesions or vascular lesions. These lesions are more frequently present in patients with more severe esophageal varices and thrombocytopenia.

Adult , Aged , Colonoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(3): 275-278, jul.-set. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567309


CONTEXT: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated to esophageal varices is the most dramatic complication of cirrhosis. It is recommended screening every cirrhotic for esophageal varices with endoscopy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the capacity of the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio in non-invasively predicting esophageal varices in a population of cirrhotics originated in an independent center from the one in which it was developed. METHODS: The study included patients from the ambulatory care clinic of cirrhosis of a Brazilian hospital and studied platelet count, spleen diameter and presence of esophageal varices, as well as Child and MELD scores. It used a cutoff value of 909 for the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, as previously published. A sample of 139 patients was needed to grant results a 95 percent confidence level. RESULTS: The study included 164 cirrhotics, 56.7 percent male, with a mean age of 56.6 ± 11.6 years. In the univariate analysis, platelet count, spleen diameter, presence of ascites, Child and MELD scores and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were related to esophageal varices (P<0.05). The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio had sensitivity of 77.5 percent (95 percent CI = 0.700-0.850), specificity of 45.5 percent (95 percent CI = 0.307-0.602), positive predictive value of 79.5 percent (95 percent CI = 0.722-0.868), negative predictive value of 42.6 percent (95 percent CI = 0.284-0.567) and accuracy of 68.9 percent (95 percent CI = 0.618-0.760). In the multivariate analysis, platelet count was the only variable which related to esophageal varices (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Platelet count/ spleen diameter ratio is not adequate to predict esophageal varices in cirrhotics.

CONTEXTO: Hemorragia digestiva por varizes esofágicas é a complicação mais dramática da cirrose. É recomendada triagem de varizes esofágicas em todo o cirrótico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o índice de contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço como predição de varizes esofágicas em uma população distinta daquela em que ele foi desenvolvido. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu pacientes do ambulatório de cirrose de um hospital brasileiro quanto ao número de plaquetas, diâmetro ecográfico do baço, presença de varizes esofágicas, Child e MELD. O ponto de corte do índice foi de 909. Amostra de 139 pacientes foi estimada para conferir nível de confiança de 95 por cento. RESULTADOS: Incluíram-se 164 cirróticos, 56,7 por cento homens e com média de idade de 56,6 anos. Na análise univariada, número de plaquetas, diâmetro do baço, ascite, Child, MELD e o índice de contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço relacionaram-se às varizes esofágicas (P<0,05). Na multivariada, só a contagem de plaquetas associou-se a elas (P<0,05). O índice de contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço apresentou sensibilidade de 77,5 por cento (IC 95 por cento = 0,700-0,850), especificidade de 45,5 por cento (IC 95 por cento = 0,307-0,602), valor preditivo positivo de 79,5 por cento (IC 95 por cento = 0,722-0,868), valor preditivo negativo de 42,6 por cento (IC95 por cento = 0,284-0,567) e precisão de 68,9 por cento (IC 95 por cento = 0,618-0,760). CONCLUSÃO: O índice de contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço não é adequado para a triagem de varizes esofágicas em cirróticos.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Spleen/pathology , Brazil , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/blood , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Organ Size , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 21(5): 757-763, sept. 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999302


Cirrosis hepática es una enfermedad prevalente en el mundo. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento debe ser dominio de todo médico general e internista. En los últimos años han ocurrido notables avances en el diagnóstico, fisiopatología, tratamiento y en la identificación de factores pronósticos de cirrosis y de sus complicaciones mayores. Particular atención ha existido en desarrollar medidas preventivas de sus complicaciones como por ejemplo: hemorragia por várices esofágicas, peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, síndrome hepatorrenal. Estas medidas preventivas han influido de forma muy favorable en el pronóstico de los pacientes cirróticos. En este artículo se discuten las diversas estrategias preventivas que han demostrado su efectividad en cirrosis hepática

Liver cirrhosis is a prevalent disease around the world. Its diagnosis and treatment must be in the knowledge of every general physicians and internist.Over the last years, there have been notorious advances in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, treatment and the identification of prognosis factors for cirrhosis major complications.There has been particular attention to the development of preventive measures for its complications, such as variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome. These preventive measures have had a favorable influence on the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. This article discusses several preventive strategies that have proven its effectiveness in hepatic cirrhosis

Humans , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Hepatorenal Syndrome/prevention & control , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/microbiology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Ascitic Fluid/microbiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/ethnology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65181


A 41-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis had recurrent portal hypertension and bleeding from esophageal varices due to complete occlusion of a previously inserted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent. Because recanalization of the stent by the transjugular approach was unsuccessful, ultrasound-guided entry to the splenic vein and portal vein was used. After catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis, successful opening of the stent was achieved and a stent was placed. We herein report a rare case in which thrombolysis and recanalization of a TIPS stent were performed via a percutaneous transhepatic approach.

Adult , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic/adverse effects , Reoperation , Stents/adverse effects , Vascular Patency
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140617


Liver cirrhosis represents the final common pathway of virtually all chronic liver diseases, and is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix rich in fibrillar collagens. Patients with cirrhosis are at risk of developing many potential complications. The most common complication seen in patients with liver cirrhosis is ascites, and the most lethal one is bleeding varices. Other intermediate and late stage complications include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatorenal syndrome. The mortality and morbidity attributable to liver disease in Korea have decreased continuously over the past decades, probably due to the implementation of universal vaccination and potent antiviral therapies. In addition, recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and in various management approaches to cirrhosis complications will contribute to the steady improvement in patient outcomes in this country. This review article outlines recent changes in etiologies and prognosis, and the advances in management of cirrhosis in Korea.

Ascites/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hepatic Encephalopathy/etiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Korea/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/etiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors