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2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 99-105, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications with the use of cyanoacrylate for treatment of gastric varices is the occurrence of potentially life-threatening systemic embolism. Thus, endoscopists are turning towards new techniques, including endoscopic coiling, as a potentially safer and more effective treatment option. However, no studies have been performed comparing the two techniques. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound guided coil and cyanoacrylate injection versus the conventional technique of injection of cyanoacrylate alone. DESIGN: A pilot randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients randomized into group I were treated with coil and cyanoacrylate, and those in group II with cyanoacrylate alone. Flow within the varix was evaluated immediately after the treatment session and one month following initial treatment. If thrombosis was confirmed, additional follow-up was performed 4 and 10 months following initial treatment. All patients underwent a thoracic computerized tomography scan after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients, 16 in each group, were followed for an average of 9.9 months (range 1-26 months). Immediately after the procedure, 6 (37.5%) group-I patients and 8 (50%) group-II patients presented total flow reduction in the treated vessel (P=0.476). After 30 days, 11 (73.3%) group-I patients and 12 (75%) group-II patients were found to have varix thrombosis. In both groups, the majority of patients required only one single session for varix obliteration (73.3% in group I versus 80% in group II). Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 4 (25%) group-I patients and 8 (50%) group-II patients (P=0.144). No significant difference between the groups was observed. CONCLUSION: There is no statistical difference between endoscopic ultrasound guided coils plus cyanoacrylate versus conventional cyanoacrylate technique in relation to the incidence of embolism. However, a greater tendency towards embolism was observed in the group treated using the conventional technique. Both techniques have similar efficacy in the obliteration of varices. Given the small sample size of our pilot data, our results are insufficient to prove the clinical benefit of the combined technique, and do not yet justify its use, especially in light of higher cost. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Uma das complicações mais temidas com o uso de cianoacrilato para tratamento de varizes gástricas é a ocorrência de embolia sistêmica potencialmente fatal. Assim, os endoscopistas estão se aprimorando com novas técnicas, incluindo o uso de coils endoscópico, como uma opção de tratamento potencialmente mais segura e eficaz. No entanto, nenhum estudo foi realizado comparando as duas técnicas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar a segurança e eficácia da injeção de coil com cianoacrilato guiados por ultrassom endoscópico versus a técnica convencional de injeção de cianoacrilato. DESIGN: Um ensaio piloto controlado aleatoriamente. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes randomizados para o grupo I foram tratados com coil + cianoacrilato e os do grupo II apenas com cianoacrilato. O fluxo dentro da variz foi avaliado imediatamente após a sessão de tratamento e um mês após o tratamento inicial. Se a trombose foi confirmada, o acompanhamento adicional era realizado em 4 e 10 meses após o tratamento inicial. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma tomografia computadorizada torácica após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 pacientes, 16 em cada grupo, foram acompanhados por uma média de 9,9 meses (variação de 1-26 meses). Imediatamente após o procedimento, 6 (37,5%) pacientes do grupo I e 8 (50%) pacientes do grupo II apresentaram redução total do fluxo no vaso tratado (P=0,476). Após 30 dias, 11 (73,3%) pacientes do grupo I e 12 (75%) pacientes do grupo II apresentaram trombose da variz. Em ambos os grupos, a maioria dos pacientes necessitou de apenas uma única sessão para obliteração da variz (73,3% no grupo I versus 80% no grupo II). Embolia pulmonar assintomática ocorreu em 4 (25%) pacientes do grupo I e em 8 (50%) pacientes no grupo II (P=0,144). Nenhuma diferença significativa entre os grupos foi observada. CONCLUSÃO Apesar de não haver diferença estatística entre os dois grupos em relação à incidência de embolia neste estudo piloto, observou-se maior tendência de embolia no grupo tratado pela técnica convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Cyanoacrylates/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional/methods , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Hemostasis, Endoscopic/methods , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Endosonography/methods , Middle Aged
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 51-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common esophageal disease in medical practice, and it is suspected according to patients' symptoms. GERD can be classified in erosive esophagitis (EE) according to the presence of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endoscopic findings in patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD comparing epicemiological and risk factors. METHODS: Upper endoscopy reports were examined retrospectively from patients with symptoms of GERD such as heartburn, regurgitation, cough, throat clearing, globus and chest pain. EE was determined based on Los Angeles classification. Comparisons between risk factors in EE and non-EE groups were done with statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 984 endoscopic reports were examined and 676 selected for analysis (281 with EE and 395 with non-EE form). Most were female 381 (56.36%) with a mean age of 44.01±15.40 years. Hiatal hernia was present in 47(6.96%) and smoking in 41(6.07%). Univariate logistic regression showed that male (OR=2.24, CI 95%, 1.63-3.06) and hiatal hernia (OR=4.52, CI 95%, 2.30-8.89) were independent predictors of erosions in the EE group. The presence of hiatal hernia (OR=12.04, CI 95%, 3.57-40.62), smoking (OR=8.46, CI 95%, 3.28-31.32) and aged patients (OR=8.01, CI 95%, 2.42-26.49) were also indicated as a risk factor for severe EE (grades C and D of Los Angeles). CONCLUSION Male gender and hiatal hernia were associated with EE. Aged patients, smoking and hiatal hernia were related to severe EE. It is suggested that the risk factors for EE and non-EE types are different. Cohort studies are necessary to identify the exact mechanisms involved in each disease form.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das doenças digestivas mais comuns na prática médica e deve ser suspeitada de acordo com os seus sintomas clínicos, podendo ser classificada em esofagite erosiva (EE) de acordo com os achados de endoscopia. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados endoscópicos em pacientes com sintomas sugestivos de DGRE comparando fatores de risco e epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Resultados de endoscopias digestiva foram examinados retrospectivamente de pacientes com sintomas relacionados com DRGE como pirose, regurgitação, tosse, pigarro, globus e dor torácica. EE foi determinada de acordo com a classificação de Los Angeles. Comparação de fatores de risco entre os grupos EE e não-EE foram feitos com análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Um total de 984 endoscopias foram examinadas e 676 endoscopias selecionadas para análise (281 com EE e 395 sem EE). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino 381 (56,36%) com uma idade média de 44,01±15,40 anos. Hérnia hiatal esteve presente em 47 (6,96%) e tabagismo em 41 (6,07%). Regressão logística uni variada mostrou que sexo masculino (OR=2,24 - IC 95%: 1,63-3,06) e hérnia hiatal (OR=4,52 - CI 95%: 2,30-8,89) foram fatores de risco independentes de EE. A presença de hérnia hiatal (OR=12,04 - CI 95%: 3,57-40,62), tabagismo (OR=8,46 - CI 95%: 3,28-31,32) e pacientes idosos (OR=8,01 - CI 95%, 2,42-26,49) foram fatores de risco no grupo de EE grave (classes C e D de Los Angeles). CONCLUSÃO: Sexo masculino e hérnia hiatal foram associados com EE. Idade avançada, tabagismo e hérnia hiatal foram relacionados à forma grave de EE. É sugerido que os fatores de risco de pacientes com e sem EE sejam diferentes. Estudos de coorte são necessários para identificar os mecanismos exatos envolvidos em cada forma da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Cyanoacrylates/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional/methods , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Hemostasis, Endoscopic/methods , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Endosonography/methods , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 47(3): 1-14, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985542

ABSTRACT

Las hemorragias que ocurren en el tubo digestivo y en particular las de origen varicoso, constituyen una urgencia médico quirúrgica; a pesar de los avances científico tecnológicos actuales, su pronóstico continúa reservado. Esta revisión, se realizó con el propósito de profundizar en diversos aspectos cognoscitivos vigentes sobre la hemorragia digestiva varicosa. Se llevó a cabo una revisión documental mediante búsqueda temática digital de artículos nacionales y foráneos, publicados en español e inglés durante la presente centuria, concernientes a la hemorragia digestiva varicosa. Existe diversidad de criterios en torno al diagnóstico y tratamiento del sangrado digestivo alto varicoso. Se evidencia la necesidad de una unidad de atención a estos pacientes en los hospitales, la disponibilidad de endoscopia digestiva superior a tiempo completo y de un equipo multidisciplinario para brindar una terapia integradora. El acto operatorio programado solo debe ejecutarse en la clase Child-Pugh ideal, pero como las intervenciones suelen ser urgentes en estadio B o C, se elevan las probabilidades de complicaciones y muerte. Las várices esofagogástricas, a pesar de considerarse una causa infrecuente de hemorragia digestiva alta, tiene por lo general un desenlace tórpido en quienes la presentan, de manera que el diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados constituyen un verdadero desafío para cualquier servicio quirúrgico(AU)


The hemorrhages that occur in the digestive tract and in particular those of variceal origin, constitute a surgical medical emergency; despite current scientific and technological advances, its prognosis remains reserved. This review was carried out with the purpose of delving into various current cognitive aspects of variceal digestive hemorrhage. A documentary review was carried out by digital thematic search of national and foreign articles, published in Spanish and English during the present century, concerning variceal digestive hemorrhage. There is diversity of criteria regarding the diagnosis and treatment of high variceal digestive bleeding. The need for a care unit for these patients in hospitals, the availability of full-time upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and a multidisciplinary team to provide an integrative therapy is evident. The scheduled operative act should only be performed in the ideal Child-Pugh class, but because interventions are usually urgent in stage B or C, the chances of complications and death are increased. Esophagogastric varices, despite being considered an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, usually have a torpid outcome in those who present it, so that adequate diagnosis and treatment are a real challenge for any surgical service(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Databases, Bibliographic , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 162-166, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742488

ABSTRACT

The creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a widely performed technique to relieve portal hypertension, and to manage recurrent variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients where medical and/or endoscopic treatments have failed. However, portosystemic shunt creation can be challenging in the presence of chronic portal vein occlusion. In this case report, we describe a minimally invasive endovascular mesocaval shunt creation with transsplenic approach for the management of recurrent variceal bleeding in a portal hypertension patient with intra- and extrahepatic portal vein occlusion.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Chronic Disease , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Jejunum/pathology , Portacaval Shunt, Surgical , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Portal Vein/pathology , Portal Vein/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(10): 1336-1341, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902448

ABSTRACT

Management of gastrointestinal bleeding caused by fundal varices is particularly difficult to manage. The options are: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). We report a 63 year-old male with a cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C and a 66 year-old female with a cirrhosis caused by a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Both patients had a gastrointestinal bleeding caused by fundal varices and were treated with sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate assisted with BRTO. Flow was interrupted in the gastro-renal shunt by a femoral access in both patients. The male patient had a new bleeding two months later and died. In the female patient an endosonography performed nine months after the procedure showed absence of remaining varices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Sclerotherapy/methods , Cyanoacrylates/therapeutic use , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Portal Vein , Portacaval Shunt, Surgical , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Fatal Outcome , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(1): 21-26, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with portal hypertension and there are few studies involving secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents with esophageal varices. METHODS This is a prospective analysis of 85 patients less than 18 years of age with or without cirrhosis, with portal hypertension. Participants underwent endoscopic secondary prophylaxis with sclerotherapy or band ligation. Eradication of varices, incidence of rebleeding, number of endoscopic sessions required for eradication, incidence of developing gastric fundus varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy were evaluated. RESULTS Band ligation was performed in 34 (40%) patients and sclerotherapy in 51 (60%) patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 81.2%, after a median of four endoscopic sessions. Varices relapsed in 38 (55.1%) patients. Thirty-six (42.3%) patients experienced rebleeding, and it was more prevalent in the group that received sclerotherapy. Gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy developed in 38.7% and 57.9% of patients, respectively. Patients undergoing band ligation showed lower rebleeding rates (26.5% vs 52.9%) and fewer sessions required for eradication of esophageal varices (3.5 vs 5). CONCLUSION Secondary prophylaxis was effective in eradicating esophageal varices and controlling new upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes due to the rupture of esophageal varices. Band ligation seems that resulted in lower rebleeding rates and fewer sessions required to eradicate varices than did sclerotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Os episódios de sangramento das varizes esofágicas são a principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos com hipertensão porta e poucos são os estudos envolvendo a profilaxia secundária em crianças e adolescentes. OBJETIVO Avaliar a eficácia da profilaxia endoscópica secundária na prevenção de hemorragia digestiva alta em crianças e adolescentes com varizes de esôfago. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo com 85 pacientes menores de 18 anos com hipertensão porta, cirróticos e não cirróticos. A profilaxia secundária endoscópica foi realizada através de ligadura elástica ou escleroterapia. Foram avaliadas erradicação de varizes, incidência de ressangramento, número de sessões endoscópicas necessárias para a erradicação, incidência de surgimento de varizes gástricas e da gastropatia da hipertensão porta. RESULTADOS Ligadura elástica foi realizada em 34 (40%) pacientes e escleroterapia em 51 (60%). As varizes de esôfago foram erradicadas em 81,2% após mediana de quatro sessões endoscópicas. Foi observada recidiva de varizes de esôfago em 38 (55,1%) pacientes. Ressangramento por ruptura de varizes de esôfago ocorreu em 36 (42,3%) pacientes e foi mais prevalente no grupo submetido à escleroterapia. O surgimento de varizes gástricas e gastropatia da hipertensão porta ocorreram em 38,7% e 57,9% respectivamente. Os pacientes submetidos à ligadura elástica apresentaram taxas menores de ressangramento (26,5% vs 52,9%) e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago (3,5 vs 5). CONCLUSÃO A profilaxia secundária endoscópica mostrou-se eficaz para erradicação de varizes de esôfago e evitar novos episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta secundária à ruptura de varizes de esôfago. A ligadura elástica endoscópica provavelmente apresenta menores taxas de ressangramento e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago, quando comparada à escleroterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Secondary Prevention , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Recurrence , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Sclerotherapy , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ligation
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(6): 373-375, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841613

ABSTRACT

Las várices gástricas están presentes en cerca de un tercio de los pacientes con hipertensión portal y el sangrado de las mismas representa una causa significativa de mortalidad. El tratamiento de primera línea es la obturación con N-butil-2-cianoacrilato, que si bien es seguro no está libre de complicaciones. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con antecedente de cirrosis criptogénica que se presentó a la consulta febril, taquicárdico e hipoxémico después de la obturación endoscópica con N-butil-2-cianoacrilato. Las imágenes mostraron embolia pulmonar bilateral del material obturante. El objetivo de este trabajo es destacar las manifestaciones clínicas y las imágenes de esta situación para ayudar a su diagnóstico precoz y diferenciarla de otras entidades que requieren un tratamiento específico.


Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Sclerosing Solutions/adverse effects , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Enbucrilate/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Angiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sclerotherapy/adverse effects , Sclerotherapy/methods , Gastroscopy/adverse effects , Gastroscopy/methods , Injections
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 879-885, jul. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794001

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a paucity of good quality research about the diagnosis of esophageal varices and the prophylaxis and treatment of variceal bleeding in pediatric patients with portal hypertension There is little consensus and practically no evidence-based approach about the management of these patients. Aim: To describe the behavior and preferences of pediatric gastroenterologists in Chile in the management of portal hypertension in children. Material and Methods: An online survey was sent to Chilean pediatric gastroenterologists, with questions evaluating the physicians’ approaches to screening of esophageal varices in children with portal hypertension, and their preferred methods of prophylaxis and initial management of variceal bleeding. Results: Thirty five of 69 contacted physicians answered the survey (51%). Twenty nine pediatric gastroenterologists (83%) screen for esophageal varices in patients with clinical evidence of portal hypertension, and 12 (34%) in every patient with chronic liver disease. Twenty eight respondents (80%) use primary prophylaxis, mainly beta blockers. Octreotide, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopy are the most common practices in the initial management of an esophageal varix bleed. The methods mostly used as secondary prophylaxis are band ligation and beta blockers. In the case of recurrent hemorrhage, besides band ligation, management with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) and hepatic transplantation are more likely. Conclusions: Even though most pediatric gastroenterologists in this survey are inclined to offer endoscopic screening of esophageal varices and prophylaxis to patients with portal hypertension, this is not a universal behavior. There are different approaches mainly in the election of secondary prophylaxis and the initial management of variceal bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. CONCLUSION: BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Balloon Occlusion , Contrast Media/chemistry , Demography , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Sclerotherapy , Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114850

ABSTRACT

This report describes two non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis who underwent successful balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices with a satisfactory response and no complications. One patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of Crohn's disease, status post-total abdominal colectomy, and portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other patient was a 51-year-old female with necrotizing pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, and gastric varices. The BRTO procedure was a useful treatment for gastric varices in non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis in the presence of a gastrorenal shunt.


Subject(s)
Adult , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Crohn Disease/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Female , Humans , Mesenteric Veins , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis/complications
15.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 4(4): 195-208, 2014. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258736

ABSTRACT

Background and study aim : Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) effectively controls bleeding esophageal varices (OV); however it has some adverse effects including sclerosant ulcers; chest pain; dysphagia and odynophagia. Gastric acid plays a central role in mediating and aggravating these complications. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are the most potent pharmacologic agents for inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Therefore; these agents are the logical candidates to combat the effects that gastric acid plays in post EVS complications. However; some authors still believe that there is no strong evidence to support their use. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of the use of PPI (rabeprazole) for 8 weeks after endoscopic sclerotherapy for first attack variceal bleeding on the prevention and treatment of complications after EVS. Moreover; we aim to assess the presence of any adverse effects for the use of this drug for this period in this specific patients group.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with first attack variceal bleeding were included in the study. They were allocated randomly into a test group which received 20mg rabeprazole once daily oral dose following endoscopic sclerotherapy starting 6 hours after injection sclerotherapy and continued for 2 months and a control group which did not receive rabeprazole after sclerotherapy. For both groups; endoscopic; laboratory and clinical data were monitored every two weeks for a period 2 months. Results: The test group had significantly lower frequency of all post sclerotherapy adverse symptoms; (dysphagia; odynophagia; heart burn; retrosternal and epigastric pain as well as dyspepsia) as well as lower overall rate of re-bleeding (14 vs 46 in the control group). There were no significant differences in the hematological parameters or endoscopic findings between test and control groups. Moreover; the use of the drug for two months was not associated with any significant infectious or non infectious complications including fever; hepatic encephalopathy; SBP; diarrhea and chest infection. Conclusion: Rabeprazole use decreases post-sclerotherapy symptoms and decrease the rate of rebleeding after sclerotherapy without any increasing the complications related to acid supression


Subject(s)
Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Rabeprazole/administration & dosage , Rabeprazole/adverse effects , Sclerotherapy
17.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 26(1): 49-53, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674142

ABSTRACT

RACIONAL: A esquistossomose mansônica afeta 200 milhões de pessoas em 70 países do mundo. Estima-se que 10% dos infectados evoluirão para a forma hepatoesplênica e, destes, 30% progredirão para hipertensão portal e varizes esofagogástricas, cuja expressão será através de hemorragia digestiva com mortalidade relevante no primeiro episódio hemorrágico. Múltiplas técnicas cirúrgicas foram desenvolvidas para prevenir o ressangramento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil evolutivo das varizes esofágicas após esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda associada à escleroterapia endoscópica na hipertensão portal esquistossomótica. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, de pacientes esquistossomóticos com antecedentes de hemorragia digestiva alta, submetidos à esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda e escleroterapia. As variáveis estudadas foram perfil evolutivo das varizes esofágicas antes e após a operação e índice de recidiva hemorrágica. RESULTADOS: Amostra foi constituída por 30 pacientes distribuídos, quanto ao gênero, em 15 doentes para cada sexo. A idade variou de 19 a 74 anos (mediana=43 anos). Houve redução do grau, calibre e red spots em todos os pacientes (p<0,05). A erradicação das varizes com escleroterapia foi alcançada em 86,7% e exclusivamente com a operação em 15,4% dos pacientes.O tempo de seguimento médio foi de 28 meses, variando de dois a 76 meses. Foram realizadas de uma a sete sessões de escleroterapia e média de três por paciente para erradicar as varizes. Quatro pacientes (13,3%) não completaram o seguimento. A recidiva hemorrágica foi de 16,7%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve redução do grau, calibre e dos red spots das varizes esofágicas em todos os pacientes.


BACKGROUND: The schistosomiasis affects 200 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is estimated that 10% of those infected will develop hepatosplenic status and of these, 30% will progress to portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices, whose expression is through gastrointestinal bleeding with significant mortality in the first bleeding episode. Multiple surgical techniques have been developed to prevent re-bleeding. AIM: To evaluate the evolutional profile of esophageal varices after splenectomy + ligation of the left gastric vein associated with endoscopic sclerotherapy in schistosomal portal hypertension. METHODS: Prospective and observational study including schistosomiasis patients with previous history of upper digestive hemorrhage and underwent to splenectomy + ligation of the left gastric vein and sclerotherapy. The variables were: evolutional profile of esophageal varices before and after surgery and re-bleeding rate. RESULTS: The sample included 30 patients, 15 patients for each gender. The age ranged from 19 to 74 years (median = 43 years). There was a reduction in the degree, caliber and red spots in all patients (p< 0.05). The eradication of varices with sclerotherapy was achieved in 86.7% and with surgery alone in 15.4%. The mean follow-up was 28 months, ranging from two to 76 months. Were carried from one to seven sessions of sclerotherapy and the average was three per patient to eradicate varices. Four (13.3%) did not complete the follow-up. The re-bleeding rate was 16.7%. CONCLUSION: There was a reduction of the degree, caliber and red spots of esophageal varices in all patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/parasitology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Hypertension, Portal/parasitology , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Sclerotherapy , Splenectomy , Schistosomiasis mansoni/therapy , Ligation , Prospective Studies , Stomach/blood supply , Veins/surgery
18.
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology [The]. 2013; 19 (4): 152-159
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140513

ABSTRACT

Bleeding from Gastric Varices [GV] is not only life threatening, but also leads to many hospitalizations, contributes to morbidity and is resource intensive. GV are difficult to diagnose and their treatment can be challenging due to their location and complex structure. To assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopic gastric fundal variceal gluing using periodic endoscopic injections of N-butyl-2-cyanoacylate [NBCA] and to assess the utility of endoscopic ultrasound [EUS] in assessing for the eradication of GV post-NBCA treatment. Analysis of prospectively collected data of a cohort of patients with GV who underwent periodic endoscopic variceal gluing from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes included success of GV obliteration, incidence of rebleeding, complications from the procedure, and analysis of factors that might predict GV rebleeding. The success of GV eradication was assessed by both EUS and direct endoscopy. The cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients that had undergone NBCA injection for GV. The mean age was 60.8 years standard deviations [SD 13.3, range 20-81]. The average follow-up was 28 months [SD 19.61, range 1-64] and the most common cause for GV was alcoholic liver cirrhosis [34.48%]. A total of 91 sessions of NBCA injections were carried out for 29 patients [average of 3.14 sessions/patient, SD 1.79, range 1-8] with a total of 124 injections applied [average of 4.28 injections/patient, SD 3.09, range 1-13]. 24 patients were treated for previously documented GV bleeding while five were treated for primary prevention. Overall, 79% of patients were free of rebleeding once three sessions of histoacryl[registered sign] injection were completed. None of the patients treated for primary prevention developed bleeding during follow-up. 11 of the 24 patients [46%] with previous bleeding however had rebleeding. 4/11 [36%] patients had GV rebleeding while awaiting scheduled additional NBCA sessions. 19/29 [60%] patients had complete eradication of GV, 11/19 [58%] documented by endoscopic assessment alone, 4/19 [21%] by EUS alone and 4/19 [21%] by both techniques. Two of the 11 [18%] patients that had rebleeding had recurrence of GV bleeding after documented eradication by EUS compared to 5/11 [45%] patients documented eradication by endoscopic assessment and 2/11 [18%] patients that had rebleeding after documented eradication by both modalities. Twenty five patients in total had documented residual GV by EUS [14, 56%], direct endoscopic assessment [18, 72%] or both modalities [9, 36%], two of which developed recurrent bleeding [13%]. No immediate or long-term complications of NBCA injection occurred, nor any related endoscopic complications were reported in any of these cases during the time of follow-up. NBCA injection of GV is a safe and successful therapeutic intervention. A minimum of three endoscopic sessions is required to significantly decrease the risk of bleeding/rebleeding. In this small sample of patients, neither EUS nor direct endoscopic assessment was reliable in predicting the recurrence of GV bleeding


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Safety , Treatment Outcome , Gastric Fundus , Tertiary Care Centers , Prospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
19.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 43(2): 89-97, 2013 Jun.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1157372

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: Vasoactive agents plus endoscopic treatment was recommended in esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). However, the use according to severity on admission has been poorly evaluated OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic versus endoscopic plus octreotide treatment in patients with EVB according to severity on admission. METHODS: Between June 2001 and December 2011, 247 patients with EVB were treated using endoscopic or combined endoscopic plus octreotide treatment. Patients were analyzed according to the following cohorts: all patients, those with and without active bleeding, and by Child classes. Initial hemostatic failure, in-hospital rebleeding and in-hospital mortality were compared with both treatments. RESULTS: All patients with combined treatment had less initial hemostatic failure (P = 0.0157) and rebleeding (P = 0.0011) when compared to endoscopic treatment. Active bleeding patients and Child C patients had a significant reduction of initial hemostatic failure when receiving combined treatment vs endoscopic treatment (P = 0.0479 and P = 0.0222, respectively). Child C patients and patients without active bleeding significantly decreased rebleeding with combined treatment (P = 0.0139 and P = 0.0056, respectively). Global mortality was 17


, and did not differ between treatments. None patient in Child A died. CONCLUSIONS: Combined endoscopic plus octreotide treatment in patients with EVB resulted in a reduction of initial hemostatic failure and rebleeding. Moreover, the most relevant effect of combined treatment in decreasing initial hemostatic failure was seen in Child C and active bleeding patients, and for in-hospital rebleeding the same effect was seen in Child C and in patients without active bleeding. Mortality did not differ with both mentioned treatments.


Subject(s)
Esophagoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 49(4): 238-244, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660300

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Non-derivative surgical techniques are the treatment of choice for the control of upper digestive tract hemorrhages after schistosomotic portal hypertension. However, recurrent hemorrhaging due to gastroesophagic varices is frequent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment based on embolization of the left gastric vein to control the reoccurrence of hemorrhages caused by gastroesophagic varices in patients with schistosomiasis previously submitted to non-derivative surgery. METHODS: Rates of reoccurrence of hemorrhages and the qualitative and quantitative reduction of gastroesophagic varices in patients undergoing transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein between December 1999 and January 2009 were studied based on medical charts and follow-up reports. RESULTS: Seven patients with a mean age of 39.3 years underwent percutaneous transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein. The mean time between azigoportal disconnections employed in combination with splenectomy and the percutaneous approach was 8.4 ± 7.3 years, and the number of episodes of digestive hemorrhaging ranged from 1 to 7 years. No episodes of reoccurrence of hemorrhaging were found during a follow-up period which ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Endoscopic postembolization studies revealed reductions in gastroesophagic varices in all patients compared to preembolization endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein in patients with schistosomiasis previously submitted to surgery resulted in a decrease in gastroesophagic varices and was shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage reoccurrence.


INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia por técnicas não derivativas é o tratamento de escolha para o controle da hemorragia digestiva alta secundária à hipertensão portal esquistossomótica. Contudo, a recidiva hemorrágica em decorrência das varizes gastroesofágicas é um evento frequente. O programa de erradicação endoscópica das varizes gastroesofágicas tem o objetivo de prevenir e/ou tratar a recidiva hemorrágica, porém nem todos os doentes respondem ao tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o sucesso do tratamento de embolização da veia gástrica esquerda no controle da recidiva hemorrágica por varizes gastroesofágicas nos doentes esquistossomóticos submetidos previamente a cirurgia não derivativa. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas, por meio de dados colhidos nos prontuários médicos e dos protocolos de seguimento ambulatorial, a incidência da recidiva hemorrágica e a diminuição quantitativa e qualitativa das varizes gastroesofágicas em detrimento das varizes gastroesofágicas dos doentes encaminhados para embolização transhepática da veia gástrica esquerda no período de dezembro de 1999 até janeiro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Sete doentes com média etária de 39,3 anos foram encaminhados para embolização percutânea transhepática da veia gástrica esquerda. O tempo médio decorrido entre a DAPE e a abordagem percutânea foi de 8,4 ± 7,3 anos e o número de episódios de hemorragia digestiva variou de um a sete neste período. Nenhum episódio de ressangramento foi verificado na população do estudo durante o período de acompanhamento, que variou de 6 meses a 7 anos. Após estudo endoscópico pós-embolização, todos os doentes apresentaram diminuição das varizes gastroesofágicas em comparação à endoscopia pré-embolização. CONCLUSÃO: A embolização percutânea transepática da veia gástrica esquerda nos doentes esquistossomóticos, previamente operados, determinou a redução das varizes gastroesofágicas e foi eficiente no controle do ressangramento para a população estudada.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Embolization, Therapeutic , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/parasitology , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach/blood supply , Treatment Outcome , Veins
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