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Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(4): 735-740, 20230906. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511131


Introducción. La ingesta de cáusticos continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en los países en vía de desarrollo, por lo que a veces es necesario realizar un reemplazo esofágico en estos pacientes. Aún no existe una técnica estandarizada para este procedimiento. Caso clínico. Masculino de 10 años con estenosis esofágica por ingesta de cáusticos, quien no mejoró con las dilataciones endoscópicas. Se realizó un ascenso gástrico transhiatal por vía ortotópica mediante cirugía mínimamente invasiva como manejo quirúrgico definitivo .Discusión. Actualmente existen varios tipos de injertos usados en el reemplazo esofágico. La interposición colónica y gástrica son las que cuentan con mayores estudios, mostrando resultados similares. Conclusiones. La elección del tipo y posición del injerto debe ser individualizada, tomando en cuenta las características de las lesiones y la anatomía de cada paciente para aumentar la tasa de éxito.

Introduction. The ingestion of caustics continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, which is why sometimes is necessary to perform an esophageal replacement in these patients. There is still no standardized technique for this procedure. Clinical case. A 10-year-old male with esophageal stricture due to caustic ingestion, who did not improve with endoscopic dilations. A laparoscopic transhiatal gastric lift was performed orthotopically as definitive surgical management using minimally invasive surgery. Discussion. Currently there are several types of grafts used in esophageal replacement. Colonic and gastric interposition are the ones that have the most studies, showing similar results. Conclusions. Choice of type and position of the graft must be individualized, taking into account the characteristics of the lesions and anatomy of each patient, in order to increase the success rate.

Humans , Pediatrics , Caustics , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Diseases , Esophageal Stenosis , Esophagus
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 330-333, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986794


Surgery is the primary treatment for esophageal cancer, but the postoperative complication rate remains high. Therefore, it is important to prevent and manage postoperative complications to improve prognosis. Common perioperative complications of esophageal cancer include anastomotic leakage, gastrointestinal tracheal fistula, chylothorax, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Respiratory and circulatory system complications, such as pulmonary infection, are also quite common. These surgery-related complications are independent risk factors for cardiopulmonary complications. Complications, such as long-term anastomotic stenosis, gastroesophageal reflux, and malnutrition are also common after esophageal cancer surgery. By effectively reducing postoperative complications, the morbidity and mortality of patients can be reduced, and their quality of life can be improved.

Humans , Quality of Life , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Digestive System Fistula/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 325-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986793


Due to the anatomical specificity of esophagus, esophagectomy can be carried out using different approaches, such as left transthoracic, right transthoracic and transhiatal approaches. Each surgical approach is associated with a different prognosis due to the complex anatomy. The left transthoracic approach is no longer the primary choice due to its limitations in providing adequate exposure, lymph node dissection, and resection. The right transthoracic approach is capable of achieving a larger number of dissected lymph nodes and is currently considered the preferred procedure for radical resection. Although the transhiatal approach is less invasive, it could be challenging to perform in a limited operating space and has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Minimally invasive esophagectomy offers a wider range of surgical options for treating esophageal cancer. This paper reviews different approaches to esophagectomy.

Humans , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986792


Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor in China. For resectable ones, surgery is still the primary treatment. At present, the extent of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Extended lymphadenectomy makes metastatic lymph nodes more likely to be resected, which contributed to pathological staging and postoperative treatment. However,it may also increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect prognosis. Therefore, it is controversial how to balance the optimal extent/number of dissected lymph nodes for radical resection with the lower risk of severe complications. In addition, whether the lymph node dissection strategy should be modified after neoadjuvant therapy needs to be investigated, especially for patients who have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy. Herein, we summarize the clinical experience on the extent of lymph node dissection in China and worldwide, aiming to provide guidence for the extent of lymph node dissection in esophageal cancer.

Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Esophagectomy
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 312-318, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986791


The efficacy of surgery alone for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is limited. In-depth studies concerning combined therapy for ESCC have been carried out worldwide, especially the neoadjuvant treatment model, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (nICT), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy combined with immunotherapy (nICRT), etc. With the advent of the immunity era, nICT and nICRT have attracted much attention from researchers. An attempt was thus made to take an overview of the evidence-based research advance regarding the neoadjuvant therapy of ESCC.

Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Chemoradiotherapy , Esophagectomy
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 307-311, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986790


Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumor with a high incidence in China. At pesent, advanced esophageal cancer patients are still frequently encountered. The primary treatment for resectable advanced esophageal cancer is surgery-based multimodality therapy, including preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy plus immunotherapy, followed by radical esophagectomy with thoraco-abdominal two-field or cervico-thoraco-abdominal three-field lymphadenectomy via minimally invasive approach or thoracotomy. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy, or immunotherapy may also be administered if suggested by postoperative pathological results. Although the treatment outcome of esophageal cancer has improved significantly in China, many clinical issues remain controversial. In this article, we summarize the current hotspots and important issues of esophageal cancer in China, including prevention and early diagnosis, treatment selection for early esophageal cancer, surgical approach selection, lymphadenectomy method, preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, postoperative adjuvant therapy, and nutritional support treatment.

Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophagectomy/methods
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 48-53, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970172


Objective: To examine the safety and effectiveness of inflatable video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (IVMTE). Methods: Totally 269 patients admitted to the Anhui Provincial Hospital of Anhui Medical University who underwent IVMTE (IVMTE group, n=47) or thoracoscopy combined with minimally invasive Mckeown esophageal cancer resection (MIME group, n=222) from September 2017 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 31 males and 16 females in IVMTE group, aged (68.6±7.5) years (range: 54 to 87 years). There were 159 males and 63 females in MIME group, aged (66.8±8.8) years (range: 42 to 93 years). A 1∶1 match was performed on both groups by propensity score matching, with 38 cases in each group. The intraoperative conditions and postoperative complication rates of the two groups were compared by t test, Wilcoxon rank, χ2 test, or Fisher exact probability method. Results: Patients in IVMTE group had less intraoperative bleeding ((96.0±39.2) ml vs. (123.8±49.3) ml, t=-2.627, P=0.011), shorter operation time ((239.1±47.3) minutes vs. (264.2±57.2) minutes, t=-2.086, P=0.040), and less drainage 3 days after surgery (85(89) ml vs. 675(573) ml, Z=-7.575, P<0.01) compared with that of MIME group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of drainage tube-belt time, postoperative hospital stay, and lymph node dissection stations and numbers (all P>0.05). The incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 1 to 2 pulmonary infection (7.9%(3/38) vs. 31.6%(12/38), χ²=6.728, P=0.009), total complications (21.1%(8/38) vs. 47.4%(18/38), χ²=5.846, P=0.016) and total lung complications (13.2%(5/38) vs. 42.1%(16/38), χ²=7.962, P=0.005) in the IVMTE group were significantly lower. Conclusion: Inflatable video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy combined with laparoscopic esophagectomy is safe and feasible, which can reach the same range of oncology as thoracoscopic surgery.

Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Esophagectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy , Thoracoscopy , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 508-513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984750


Objective: To understand the characteristics and influencing factors of lymph node metastasis of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to explore the reasonable range of lymph node dissection and the value of right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection. Methods: The clinicopathological data with thoracic ESCC were retrospectively analyzed, and the characteristics of lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and its influencing factors were explored. Results: Eighty out of 516 patients had lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the metastasis rate was 15.5%. Among 80 patients with lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, 25 cases had isolated metastasis to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node but no other lymph nodes. The incidence of isolated metastasis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node was 4.8% (25/516). A total of 1 127 lymph nodes along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve were dissected, 115 lymph nodes had metastasis, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.2%. T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and tumor location were associated with right paraglottic nerve lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate along the right recurrent laryngeal in patients with upper thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (23.4%, 26/111) was higher than that of patients with middle (13.5%, 40/296) and lower (12.8%, 14/109) thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.033). In patients with poorly differentiated ESCC (20.6%, 37/180) the metastasis rate was higher than that of patients with moderately (14.6%, 39/267) and well-differentiated (5.8%, 4/69; P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate of patients with stage T4 (27.3%, 3/11) was higher than that of patients with stage T1 (9.6%, 19/198), T2 (19.0%, 16/84) and T3 (18.8%, 42/1 223; P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that tumor location (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90, P=0.013), invasion depth (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, P=0.007), and differentiation degree (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.13-2.49, P=0.011) were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve of ESCC. Conclusions: The lymph node along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a higher rate of metastasis and should be routinely dissected in patients with ESCC. Tumor location, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation degree are risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve in patients with ESCC.

Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Esophagectomy
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 368-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984731


Objective: To investigate the outcome of patients with esophagogastric junction cancer undergoing thoracoscopic laparoscopy-assisted Ivor-Lewis resection. Methods: Eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with esophagogastric junction cancer and underwent Ivor-Lewis resection assisted by thoracoscopic laparoscopy at the National Cancer Center from October 2019 to April 2022 were collected. The neoadjuvant treatment mode, surgical safety and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Results: Siewert type Ⅱ (92.8%) and adenocarcinoma (95.2%) were predominant in the cases. A total of 2 774 lymph nodes were dissected in 84 patients. The average number was 33 per case, and the median was 31. Lymph node metastasis was found in 45 patients, and the lymph node metastasis rate was 53.6% (45/84). The total number of lymph node metastasis was 294, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.6%(294/2 774). Among them, abdominal lymph nodes (100%, 45/45) were more likely to metastasize than thoracic lymph nodes (13.3%, 6/45). Sixty-eight patients received neoadjuvant therapy before surgery, and nine patients achieved pathological complete remission (pCR) (13.2%, 9/68). Eighty-three patients had negative surgical margins and underwent R0 resection (98.8%, 83/84). One patient, the intraoperative frozen pathology suggested resection margin was negative, while vascular tumor thrombus was seen on the postoperative pathological margin, R1 resection was performed (1.2%, 1/84). The average operation time of the 84 patients was 234.5 (199.3, 275.0) minutes, and the intraoperative blood loss was 90 (80, 100) ml. One case of intraoperative blood transfusion, one case of postoperative transfer to ICU ward, two cases of postoperative anastomotic leakage, one case of pleural effusion requiring catheter drainage, one case of small intestinal hernia with 12mm poke hole, no postoperative intestinal obstruction, chyle leakage and other complications were observed. The number of deaths within 30 days after surgery was 0. Number of lymph nodes dissection, operation duration, and intraoperative blood loss were not related to whether neoadjuvant therapy was performed (P>0.05). Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy or immunotherapy was not related to whether postoperative pathology achieved pCR (P>0.05). Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted Ivor-Lewis surgery for esophagogastric junction cancer has a low incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, high safety, wide range of lymph node dissection, and sufficient margin length, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

Humans , Blood Loss, Surgical , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Laparoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology
Medisan ; 26(6)dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440547


Introducción: El cáncer de esófago se manifiesta clínicamente en etapas avanzadas y presenta gran letalidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes operados de cáncer de esófago según variables epidemiológicas, clínicas, diagnósticas e histopatológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 87 pacientes con cáncer de esófago, operados en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, en el periodo 2014-2018. Resultados: Dicha afección predominó en pacientes del sexo masculino (94,2 %) entre los 65 y 74 años de edad (37,9 %); el tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma epidermoide (89,6 %) y la localización en el tercio medio (49,4 %). Los hábitos tóxicos que primaron fueron el tabaquismo (87,4 %) y el consumo de alcohol (75,8 %). La disfagia y la pérdida de peso se manifestaron en 73,5 y 66,6 % de la serie, respectivamente. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante imágenes, tales como esofagograma, tomografía contrastada de tórax, abdomen y pelvis; así como por medio de endoscopia y biopsia. Conclusiones: Se demostró que los hombres son los más afectados y es más frecuente el diagnóstico en mayores de 60 años de edad. Se observó el vínculo con el hábito de fumar y el consumo de alcohol. La disfagia es el síntoma más común y tardío de la enfermedad. El estudio de las características clínico-histológicas de los pacientes con cáncer de esófago permite un adecuado enfoque diagnóstico de esta afección, así como el desarrollo de acciones de salud preventivas sobre los principales factores de riesgo identificados.

Introduction: The esophagus cancer is clinically manifested in advanced stages and presents great lethality. Objective: To characterize the patients operated on esophagus cancer according to epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, histological and pathological variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 87 patients with esophagus cancer was carried out; they were operated in the General Surgery Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, in the period 2014-2018. Results: This affection prevailed in patients from the male sex (94.2 %) between the 65 and 74 years (37.9 %); the most frequent histhologic type was the squamous cell carcinoma (89.6 %) and the localization in the mean third (49.4 %). The toxic habits that prevailed were nicotine addiction (87.4 %) and consumption of alcohol (75.8 %). The dysphagia and loss of weight showed in 73.5 and 66.6 % of the series, respectively. The diagnosis was carried out by means of images, such as esophagogram, chest, abdomen and pelvis contrast tomography, as well as by means of endoscopy and biopsy. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that men are the most affected and it is more frequent the diagnosis in those over 60 years. The link with the habit of smoking and consumption of alcohol was observed. The dysphagia is the most common and late symptom of the disease. The study of clinical, histological and pathological characteristics of patients with esophagus cancer allows an appropriate diagnostic approach of this affection, as well as the development of preventive health actions about the main identified risk factors.

Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 14-23, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395909


Introduction: Boerhaave syndrome is a spontaneous rupture of the esophageal wall caused by a sudden increase in intraesophageal pressure. It represents an incidence of approximately 15% of all esophageal perforations, which do not exceed 3.1 per 1 million inhabitants per year. Objectives: To communicate the clinical presentation and management of patients with this syndrome, as well as to reveal the different options available in our service for its treatment. Methods: Search in the statistical data of the regional Hospital of Talca for patients with a diagnosis of Boerhaave syndrome. Five patients were found. Information was obtained from their clinical records and is presented as a clinical case report with a descriptive analysis of their management. Results: Of the 5 clinical cases presented, a classic clinical presentation can be observed, most of the patients presented with vomiting that later evolved with thoracic and/or epigastric pain, associated with imaging studies suggesting esophageal perforation. Management was surgical in 100% of the cases, applying different techniques described in the literature. Discussion and Conclusion: Boerhaave syndrome is a medical-surgical emergency that requires timely management. In spite of the variety of management and the consequences of each one of them, all the patients had an evolution that allowed them to preserve their lives until nowadays. Keeping a high index of suspicion and choosing the best management will have an impact on morbidity and mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases , Mediastinal Diseases/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagectomy/methods , Delayed Diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408240


Introducción: La esofagectomía es uno de los procedimientos con más alta morbilidad posoperatoria en cirugía oncológica digestiva. Objetivo: Describir las complicaciones relacionadas con la esofagectomía subtotal programada según variables de interés. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en los Servicios de Cirugía General de los hospitales "Saturnino Lora" y "Juan Bruno Zayas" de Santiago de Cuba, desde 2010 hasta 2019. La población estuvo conformada por 81 pacientes, de la cual se reclutó una muestra aleatoria de 68 enfermos sometidos a esofagectomía subtotal programada por cáncer de esófago. Fueron investigadas las siguientes variables: presencia de complicaciones posoperatorias y tipo de técnica quirúrgica utilizada. Además, se clasificaron en grados según Dindo Clavien. Resultados: Todos los enfermos fueron operados por técnica abierta mediante esofagectomía subtotal programada, donde la resección mediante la técnica de Ivor-Lewis se realizó en el 69,2 por ciento. Para todas las técnicas quirúrgicas empleadas predominó la atelectasia (39,7 por ciento) como complicación posquirúrgica, y entre las infecciosas la neumonía en 30 enfermos (44,1 por ciento), mientras que para las complicaciones quirúrgicas no infecciosas el neumotórax fue mayormente incidente, para el 25,0 por ciento. El mayor número de complicaciones se ubicó en el grado II de Dindo Clavien. Conclusiones: La presencia de complicaciones posquirúrgicas de la enfermedad es notable, en correspondencia a lo reflejado por la literatura médica. Existió relación significativa entre la presencia del hábito de fumar, de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y la de toracotomía con algunas de las complicaciones encontradas(AU)

Introduction: Esophagectomy is one of the procedures with the highest postoperative morbidity in digestive cancer surgery. Objective: To describe the complications related to scheduled subtotal esophagectomy according to variables of interest. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the General Surgery Services at Saturnino Lora and Juan Bruno Zayas hospitals in Santiago de Cuba, from 2010 to 2019. The population consisted of 81 patients, out of which a random sample of 68 patients undergoing elective subtotal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer was selected. The variables investigated were presence of postoperative complications and type of surgical technique used. In addition, they were classified in grades according to Clavien-Dindo. Results: All the patients were operated by open technique by programmed subtotal esophagectomy, the resection by the Ivor-Lewis technique was performed in 69.2 percent. For all the surgical techniques used, atelectasis (39.7 percent) prevailed as a postsurgical complication, and among the infectious complications, pneumonia prevailed in 30 patients (44.1 percent), while for non-infectious surgical complications, pneumothorax was mostly incidental for 25.0 percent. The highest number of complications was in Clavien-Dindo grade II. Conclusions: The presence of post-surgical complications of the disease is notable, corresponding to what is reflected in the medical literature. There was significant relationship between the presence of smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and thoracotomy with some of the complications found(AU)

Humans , Postoperative Complications , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Esophagectomy/methods , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Correspondence as Topic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Medisan ; 26(2)abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405789


Introducción: La morbilidad y la mortalidad continúan siendo altas a escala mundial como consecuencia de la esofagectomía programada por cáncer de esófago. Objetivo: Identificar los factores predictores de complicaciones posquirúrgicas y de muerte, la estadía hospitalaria y las causas de muerte en la población estudiada. Método: Se efectuó un estudio de cohorte de 81 pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer de esófago, atendidos en los hospitales Saturnino Lora y Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2019, de los cuales se escogió una muestra aleatoria de 68. Para identificar los factores predictivos asociados con las complicaciones y la mortalidad se definieron 2 cohortes de enfermos: los expuestos y los no expuestos a los factores de interés, tales como la realización de toracotomía, las reintervenciones, además de las complicaciones médicas y quirúrgicas infecciosas. Se utilizó el método estadístico de bondad de ajuste de Hosmer-Lemeshow con un nivel de significación α= 0,10. Resultados: Si se realiza toracotomía, la probabilidad de que se desarrollen complicaciones quirúrgicas infecciosas es 2,3 veces mayor que si no se lleva a cabo el proceder; asimismo, el riesgo de fallecer por dichas complicaciones (p=0,024), en contraposición a cuando no se presentan, asciende a 370,0 % (IC 90 %: 1,5-14,8). Conclusión: La realización de toracotomía se establece como factor predictor de complicaciones y la presencia de reintervenciones y de complicaciones médicas y quirúrgicas infecciosas como predictores de muerte en la esofagectomía programada.

Introduction: Morbidity and mortality continue being high worldwide as consequence of the esophagectomy programmed due to esophagus cancer. Objective: To identify the predictor factors of postsurgical and death complications, hospitalization and death causes in the studied population. Method: A cohort study of 81 patients with diagnosis of esophagus cancer was carried out. They were assisted in Saturnino Lora and Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso hospitals in the province of Santiago de Cuba from January, 2010 to December, 2019, of which a random sample of 68 was chosen. To identify the prediction factors associated with the complications and mortality 2 cohorts of sick patients were defined: the exposed and those not exposed to interest factors, such as the thoracotomy realization, reinterventions, besides the infectious medical and surgical complications. The statistical method of Hosmer-Lemeshow was used with a significance level of α = 0,10. Results: If thoracotomy is carried out, the probability that infectious surgical complications are developed is 2.3 times more that if it is not carried out; also, the risk of dying due to this complications (p=0.024), in opposition to when they are not presented, ascends to 370.0 % (IC 90 %: 1.5-14.8). Conclusion: The thoracotomy realization is established as predictor factor of complications and the presence of reinterventions and infectious medical and surgical complications as death predictors in the programmed esophagectomy.

Esophageal Neoplasms/complications , Esophagectomy
Med. infant ; 29(1): 23-29, Marzo 2022. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366940


Introducción: existen dos rutas para realizar el reemplazo de esófago (RE), la retroesternal (RRE) y la mediastinal posterior (RMP). El objetivo del estudio es comparar los pacientes que recibieron un ascenso gástrico parcial empleando estas dos rutas. Material y métodos: Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 51 pacientes con ascenso gástrico parcial, en 27 años en el Hospital Garrahan. Se utilizó la vía RRE en 25 casos y la RMP en 26. Fueron comparados los datos epidemiológicos de los grupos y las variables para valorar la dificultad del acto quirúrgico, evolución inmediata y alejada. El estudio es comparativo, retro-prospectivo y longitudinal. Resultados: las características generales de los pacientes fueron similares. Los que recibieron el ascenso gástrico por vía RMP presentaron una menor incidencia de dehiscencia (p=0,017), de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) (p=0,001) y de dumping (p=0,0001). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos al comparar la duración del procedimiento, días de internación total y en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), días de permanencia en asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM), inicio de alimentación oral y estenosis de la anastomosis. Se observó una tendencia clínicamente relevante, que no alcanzó significancia estadística en las complicaciones intraquirúrgicas y número de dilataciones postoperatorias. No hubo necrosis del ascenso. Fallecieron 2 pacientes. Conclusiones: considerando la menor incidencia de dehiscencia, ERGE y dumping reemplazados por RMP, elegimos a ésta como nuestra primera opción para el reemplazo esofágico en la infancia (AU)

Introduction: The two routes for esophageal replacement (ER) are retrosternal (RRE) and posterior mediastinal (PMR). The aim of the study was to compare patients who received a partial gastric pull-up using either of these two routes. Material and methods: The clinical records of 51 patients who underwent partial gastric pull-up over 27 years at the Garrahan Hospital were reviewed. The RRE route was used in 25 and the RMP in 26 cases. The epidemiological data of the groups and the variables to evaluate the complexity of the surgical procedure, and shortand long-term outcome were compared. A comparative, retroprospective, and longitudinal study was conducted. Results: the general characteristics of the patients were similar. Those who underwent gastric pull-up via PMR had a lower incidence of dehiscence (p=0.017), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (p=0.001), and dumping (p=0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups when comparing the duration of the procedure, days of total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, days on mechanical ventilation (MV), initiation of oral feeding and stenosis of the anastomosis. A clinically relevant trend, which did not reach statistical significance, was observed in intraoperative complications and number of postoperative dilatations. There was no necrosis of the pull-up. Two patients died. Conclusions: considering the lower incidence of dehiscence, GERD, and dumping associated with PMR, this was our first choice for esophageal replacement in infancy (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Esophagectomy/methods , Esophageal Atresia/surgery , Esophageal Atresia/chemically induced , Esophagoplasty/methods , Postoperative Complications , Comparative Study , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(1): 20-25, mar. 2022. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1376372


RESUMEN Antecedentes: en la última década ha comenzado a investigarse el uso de la captación de fluorescencia mediante luz infrarroja para la visualización de ganglios linfáticos en tumores de estómago y esófago. Objetivo: evaluar la factibilidad de la evaluación del drenaje linfático de cáncer de esófago mediante el uso de fluorescencia y verde de indocianina (ICG). Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo que incluyó pacientes con tumores de la unión gastroesofágica resecables (estadios I, II y III). Antes de comenzar la cirugía se inyectaron por endoscopia 4 mL de ICG doblemente diluida en agua estéril (1,25 mg/mL = 5 mg) en la submucosa del esófago en los cuatro cuadrantes (1 mL por cuadrante) alrededor del tumor. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 6 pacientes. En todos ellos se logró identificar el drenaje linfático del tumor hacia la primera estación ganglionar: en 6/6 (100%), el drenaje linfático con fluorescencia se detectó en las estaciones ganglionares N°s 3 y 7 (curvatura menor y arteria gástrica izquierda). En ningún paciente se identificó fluorescencia en ganglios mediastinales. Conclusión: la visualización del drenaje linfático de tumores de la unión gastroesofágica mediante el uso de fluorescencia con ICG es factible.

ABSTRACT Background: Over the past decade, fluorescence imaging with infrared light has been used to visualize lymph nodes in tumors of the stomach and esophagus. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of evaluating lymphatic drainage in esophageal cancer using fluorescence and indocyanine green (ICG). Material and methods: We conducted a prospective study of patients with resectable tumors of the gastroesophageal junction (stage I, II and III). Before surgery, 4 mL of ICG double diluted in sterile water (1.25 mg/mL = 5 mg) were injected via endoscopy into the esophageal submucosa in the four quadrants (1 mL per quadrant) around the tumor. Results: A total of 6 patients were included. Lymphatic drainage from the tumor to the first lymph node station was identified in all patients: in 6/6 (100%), fluorescent lymphatic drainage was detected in nodal stations number 3 and 7 (lesser curvature and left gastric artery) Fluorescence was not identified in the mediastinal lymph nodes in any patient. Conclusion: Visualization of lymphatic drainage of gastroesophageal junction tumors to the lesser curvature nodes using fluorescence imaging is feasible.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagectomy , Argentina , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Esophagogastric Junction , Fluorescence , Gastric Artery , Indocyanine Green , Lymph Node Excision
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 461-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935622


Objective: To examine the clinical value of routine contrast esophagram (RCE) for the diagnosis of anastomotic leakage (AL) after three-incision esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis. Methods: Clinical data of 1 022 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent McKeown three-incision esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis from January 2015 to December 2019 at Department of Minimally Invasive Esophageal Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and Institute were analyzed retrospectively. There were 876 males and 146 females, aging(M(IQR)) 48(16) years (range: 36 to 84 years). There were 253 patients (24.8%) with neoadjuvant therapy, and 817 patients (79.9%) with minimally invasive esophagectomy. According to the diagnosis and treatment habits of the attending surgeons, 333 patients were included in the RCE group, and RCE was performed on the 7th day postoperative, while 689 patients were included in the non-RCE group, and RCE was performed when the patients had suspicious symptoms. Taking clinical symptoms, RCE, CT, endoscopy and other methods as reference to the diagnosis of AL, the sensitivity and specificity were used to analyze and evaluate the efficacy of RCE for the diagnosis of AL. The data were compared by U test or χ² test between groups. Results: The incidence rate of AL after three-incision esophagectomy was 7.34% (75/1 022), including 30 cases in the RCE group and 45 cases in the non-RCE group (9.0%(30/333) vs. 6.5%(45/689), χ²=2.027, P=0.155). The diagnostic time of AL was 9(5) days postoperative (range: 4 to 30 days). Among them, 23 cases showed cervical leakages, 50 cases showed intro-thoracic leakages, and 2 cases both cervical and intro-thoracic leakages. The diagnostic time of patients with intro-thoracic leakages was longer than that of cervical leakages (10(4) days vs. 6(3) days, Z=-2.517, P=0.012). Among the 333 patients in the RCE group, 16 cases of RCE indicated leakages including 11 cases of true positive and 5 cases determined to be false positive, while 317 cases indicated no abnormalities including 19 cases developed leakages. The sensitivity and specificity of RCE to detect AL were 36.7%(11/30) and 98.3%(298/333), respectively. The Youden-index was 0.35, and the diagnostic accuracy was 92.8%(309/333). The positive and negative predictive value were 11/16 and 94.0%(298/317), respectively. Conclusions: Routine contrast esophagram after three-incision esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis has low sensitivity and high specificity in the diagnosis of AL. The diagnostic time of AL is the 9th day after surgery. It is necessary to prolong the observation time clinically, and combine RCE with CT, endoscopy and other inspection methods for diagnosis.

Female , Humans , Male , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Wound/surgery
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 122-127, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935589


The oligometastatic and oligoprogressive state has been a hot issue in cancer research. Its indolent tumor behavior, representing a novel therapeutic opportunity, has been identified as a clinical subtype in several malignancies. However, the clinical implications of the oligometastatic and oligoprogressive state in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been thoroughly elucidated. There are still controversies regarding the existence of the oligometastatic state in ESCC, if the solitary regional lymph node metastasis should be viewed as oligoprogressive disease after esophagectomy, and the role of surgery and radiotherapy in ESCC oligometastatic disease. Despite many exciting contributions to the literature on these, further exploration is warranted. Thus, fostering the advance of research and scientific knowledge on the biological and prognostic characteristics scrupulously would facilitate personalizing treatment strategy for better outcomes.

Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Esophagectomy , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 794-804, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941007


OBJECTIVE@#To develop a nomogram to predict the long-term survival of patients with esophageal cancer following esophagectomy.@*METHODS@#We collected the data of 7215 patients with esophageal carcinoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database during the period from 2004 and 2016. Of these patients, 5052 were allocated to the training cohort and the remaining 2163 patients to the internal validation cohort using bootstrap resampling, with another 435 patients treated in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery of Jinling Hospital between 2014 and 2016 serving as the external validation cohort.@*RESULTS@#In the overall cohort, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific mortality rates were 14.6%, 35.7% and 41.6%, respectively. Age (≥80 years vs < 50 years, P < 0.001), gender (male vs female, P < 0.001), tumor site (lower vs middle segment, P=0.013), histology (EAC vs ESCC, P=0.012), tumor grade (poorly vs well differentiated, P < 0.001), TNM stage (Ⅳ vs Ⅰ, P < 0.001), tumor size (> 50 mm vs 0-20 mm, P < 0.001), chemotherapy (yes vs no, P < 0.001), and LNR (> 0.25 vs 0, P < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors affecting long-term survival of the patients. The nomograms established based on the model for predicting the survival probability of the patients at 1, 3 and 5 years after operation showed a C-index of 0.726 (95% CI: 0.714-0.738) for predicting the overall survival (OS) and of 0.735 (95% CI: 0.727-0.743) for cancer-specific survival (CSS) in the training cohort. In the internal validation cohort, the C-index of the nomograms was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.738-0.76) for OS and 0.804 (95% CI: 0.790-0.817) for CSS, as compared with 0.749 (95% CI: 0.736-0.767) and 0.788 (95%CI: 0.751-0.808), respectively, in the external validation cohort. The nomograms also showed a higher sensitivity than the TNM staging system for predicting long-term prognosis.@*CONCLUSION@#This prognostic model has a high prediction efficiency and can help to identify the high-risk patients with esophageal carcinoma after surgery and serve as a supplement for the current TNM staging system.

Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagectomy , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SEER Program
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 712-716, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940930


Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract, lymph node metastasis is a frequently encountered metastasis in the esophageal cancer patients. The number of lymph node metastasis is reported as an important prognostic factor, and it also affects the choice of postoperative treatments in the esophageal cancer. It was reported that the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph nodes are the most common sites of nodal metastasis and need to be completely dissected during the esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancers. Dissection of the lymph nodes along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves not only improves the accuracy of staging, but also improves postoperative survival of esophageal cancer patients due to reducing the local recurrence. However, it also brings problems such as injury of laryngeal recurrent nerves, and increases postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications and malnutrition due to aspiration and coughing. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the structure and function of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves during esophagectomy through careful manipulations, and minimize the impact of complications in prognosis and quality of life from injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology