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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 67-74, mar. 2022. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362702

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior (HTDS) es el sangrado originado por encima del ángulo de Treitz. A pesar del aumento en las estrategias de prevención, del incremento en los tratamientos con Inhibidor de bomba de protones (IBP) y de la intervención endoscópica temprana, esta patología sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta a urgencias, con una morbimortalidad no despreciable y alta carga para el sistema de salud. Esta revisión se enfoca en la HTDS de causa diferente a las varices. La principal causante de esta entidad es la enfermedad ácido-péptica, que es consecuencia del gran consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) y de la infección por Helicobacter Pylori. Otras causas son el síndrome de Mallory Weiss, la esofagitis erosiva, las malformaciones arteriovenosas y la malignidad.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to any bleeding originating above the angle of Treitz. Despite an increase in prevention strategies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and early endoscopic intervention, this pathology continues to be an important cause of admission to the emergency department for gastrointestinal causes, having a pretty high morbidity and mortality in addition to a high burden on the health system. This review focuses on non-variceal UGIB. The main cause of this entity being peptic acid disease, due to great consumption of NSAIDs and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Other causes are Mallory Weiss syndrome, erosive esophagitis, arteriovenous malformations, and malignancy.


A hemorragia do trato digestivo superior (HTDS) é o sangrado originado acima do ângulo de Treitz. Apesar do aumento nas estratégias de prevenção, do incremento nos tratamentos com Inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) e da intervenção endoscópica precoce, esta patologia segue sendo uma causa frequente de consulta a urgências, com uma morbimortalidade não depreciável e alta carga para o sistema de saúde. Esta revisão se enfoca na HTDS de causa diferente às varizes. A principal causante desta entidade é a doença ácido-péptica, que é consequência do grande consumo de anti-inflamatórios não esteróideos (AINES) e da infecção por HelicobacterPylori. Outras causas são a síndrome de Mallory Weiss, a esofagites erosiva, as malformações arteriovenosas e a malignidade. Palavras-chave: hemorragia gastrointestinal; úlcera péptica; endoscopia gastrointestinal; inibidores da bomba de prótons; medicina geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter pylori , Gastrointestinal Tract , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome , Neoplasms
2.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(1): [1-11], 15/07/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282324

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se caracterizar as EDA realizadas na Comunidade de Saúde de Mossoró, RN, no período de 2008 a 2013, definindo a taxa de exames normais e a prevalência dos principais achados sugestivos de patologias digestivas. Trata-se de um estudo transversal e retrospectivo, no qual se analisou 10311 laudos de EDA. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas pelo SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 20.0), com nível de confiança95% e um p < 0,05, utilizando-se testes Qui-quadrado. Pelos dados levantados, constatamos que a EDA é um exame prático e seguro, com raríssimas complicações, sendo a agitação e a presença de alimento no estômago as limitações mais comuns. Na análise descritiva geral observou-se que a maioria dos exames foi realizada no gênero feminino, formando mais de 70% da amostra total. A faixa etária predominante, independente do gênero, foi 41 a 60 anos. As patologias frequentes no segmento esofágico foram as Esofagites. No segmento gástrico, a maior frequência de achados foram as Gastrites, que são mais frequentes com o avançar da idade. Na Transição Gastroduodenal, as úlceras de Canal Pilórico são os achados mais descritos, mas observamos também modestos achados de duodenites. No duodeno, os principais achados foram úlceras duodenais, seguidas pelas duodenites e sinais de atrofia. Portanto, as EDA são mais realizadas no gênero feminino, mas apresentam maior percentual de exames normais, sendo a maior frequência de achados encontrada no gênero masculino. Assim, após analisar as 10.311 EDA, é possível prever os achados mais comuns encontrados a EDA.


This study aimed to characterize the EDA held in Mossoro Health Community, RN, from 2008 to 2013, setting the rate of normal examinations and the prevalence of the main findings suggestive of digestive pathologies. It is a cross-sectional retrospective study, which analyzed 10,311 reports of EDA. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0), with a confidence level 95% and p <0.05, using chi-square tests. Raised by the data, we found that EDA is a practical and safe exam, with very few complications, agitation and presence of food in the stomach the most common limitations. In general descriptive analysis it was observed that most of the exams was held in females, forming more than 70% of the total sample. The predominant age group, regardless of gender, was 41-60 years. The frequent pathologies in esophageal segment were Esophagitis. Gastric segment, the highest frequency of findings were Gastritis, which are more common with advancing age. Gastroduodenal in Transition, the Channel Pyloric ulcers are the most described findings, but also observed modest findings of duodenitis. In the duodenum, the main findings were duodenal ulcers, followed by duodenitis and signs of atrophy. Therefore, the EDA are more performed in females, but have a higher percentage of normal results, with the highest frequency of findings found in males. So after analyzing 10,311 EDA, it is possible to predict the most common findings EDA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diagnosis , Duodenitis , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Gastritis
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 168-174, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences the appropriate function of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal dysbiosis may be associated with a higher risk of esophageal lesions, mainly due to changes in gastroesophageal motility patterns, elevation of intra-abdominal pressure, and increased frequency of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal microbiota in individuals with erosive esophagitis and in healthy individuals using metagenomics. METHODS: A total of 22 fecal samples from adults aged between 18 and 60 years were included. Eleven individuals had esophagitis (eight men and three women) and 11 were healthy controls (10 men and one woman). The individuals were instructed to collect and store fecal material into a tube containing guanidine solution. The DNA of the microbiota was extracted from each fecal samples and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform and the data were analyzed using the QIIME™ software version 1.8. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test and the ANOSIM non-parametric method based on distance matrix. RESULTS: The alpha-diversity and beta-diversity indices were similar between the two groups, without statistically significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference in the phylum level. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the abundance of the family Clostridiaceae (0.3% vs 2.0%, P=0.032) and in the genus Faecaliumbacterium (10.5% vs 4.5%, P=0.045) between healthy controls and esophagitis patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that reduced abundance of the genus Faecaliumbacterium and greater abundance of the family Clostridiaceae may be risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis. Intervention in the composition of the intestinal microbiota should be considered as an adjunct to current therapeutic strategies for this clinical condition.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das enfermidades mais comuns na prática clínica e possui fisiopatologia multifatorial. Disbiose da microbiota intestinal pode ter influência em mecanismos envolvidos nesta doença, como mudanças nos padrões motores gastrointestinais, elevação da pressão intra-abdominal e aumento da frequência de relaxamentos transitórios do esfíncter esofágico inferior. Contudo, a avaliação da microbiota intestinal, neste contexto, ainda é pouco documentada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a microbiota bacteriana intestinal, em indivíduos com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico erosivo e em indivíduos saudáveis, utilizando técnicas de metagenômica. MÉTODOS: Estudo incluiu amostras fecais de 22 adultos, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos: 11 com esofagite erosiva (oito homens e três mulheres) e 11 controles saudáveis (dez homens e uma mulher). Os pacientes foram orientados a coletar e armazenar o material fecal em tubo contendo solução de guanidina. O DNA da microbiota foi extraído das amostras de fezes e amplificação por PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores para a região V4 do gene 16S rRNA. Os amplicons foram seqüenciados usando a plataforma Ion PGM Torrent e os dados foram analisados usando o software QIIME™ versão 1.8 (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology). Análise de estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney e o teste ANOSIM, método não paramétrico baseado em matriz de distância. RESULTADOS: Os índices de alfa-diversidade e beta-diversidade foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos, sem diferença estatisticamente significante. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante no nível de filo, classe e ordem. Entretanto, observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na abundância da família Clostridiaceae (0,3% vs 2,0%, P=0,032) e no gênero Faecaliumbacterium (10,5% vs 4,5%, P=0,045) entre controles saudáveis e pacientes com DRGE erosiva, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que menor abundância do gênero Faecaliumbacterium e maior abundância da família Clostridiaceae, nos pacientes com DRGE, podem influenciar na fisiopatologia desta doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Esophagitis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Dysbiosis , Middle Aged
4.
Medisan ; 25(2): 265-277, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250337

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores de esófago constituyen lesiones benignas o malignas, que afectan las diferentes capas del órgano. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con lesiones premalignas de esófago halladas en endoscopia bucal, según variables seleccionadas. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 2015. El universo estuvo constituido por 57 pacientes de 20 años y más, con diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de lesión premaligna de esófago. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, lesiones premalignas de esófago, grado de esofagitis y diagnóstico histológico. Resultados: La endoscopia mostró un predominio de la esofagitis por reflujo en los pacientes de 62 años y más (61,7 %), así como del grado A de la clasificación de los Ángeles en ambos sexos (39,7 y 30,1 % de mujeres y hombres, respectivamente). Según el diagnóstico histológico primaron la esofagitis crónica (48,4 %) y la esofagitis crónica con displasia (17,1 %). Conclusiones: La identificación de pacientes con lesiones premalignas de esófago constituye el punto de partida para futuras acciones preventivas e intervencionistas, con vistas a disminuir la incidencia del cáncer de esófago.


Introduction: The esophagus malignancies constitute benign or malignant lesions that affect the different layers of the organ. Objective: To characterize patients with esophagus premalignant lesions found in oral endoscopy, according to selected variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during 2015. The universe was constituted by 57 patients aged 20 and over, with endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of esophagus premalignant lesion. The analyzed variables were: age, sex, esophagus premalignant lesions, degree of esophagitis and histologic diagnosis. Results: The endoscopy showed a prevalence of the esophagitis by reflux in patients aged 62 and over (61.7 %), as well as of the grade A of Los Angeles classification in both sexes (39.7 and 30.1% of women and men, respectively). According to the histologic diagnosis there was a prevalence of chronic esophagitis (48.4 %) and chronic esophagitis with dysplasia (17.1 %). Conclusions: The identification of patients with esophagus premalignant lesions constitutes the starting point for future preventive and interventionists actions, aimed at diminishing the incidence of esophagus cancer.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases/diagnosis , Esophagitis/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 130-137, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251534

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: en el estudio de la baja talla de origen digestivo en niños no hay un patrón de paraclínicos preestablecido; sin embargo, la endoscopia de vías digestivas puede ser una herramienta útil para tal fin. Objetivo: reportar una serie de casos de niños con diagnóstico de baja talla a quienes se les indicó una endoscopia de vías digestivas altas como parte de su estudio. Reporte de casos: se incluyeron 15 niños entre los 2 y 16 años de edad, 53,3% niñas, 26,7% desnutridos según el índice de masa corporal y la talla para la edad, 66,7% con baja talla grave y 33,3% con baja talla moderada. El 53,3% presentó dolor abdominal, el 46,7% no tuvo ganancia de peso, el 26,7% tuvo inapetencia y el 13,3% tuvo vómito, entre otros. Entre el 40,0% y el 93,4% presentaron macro- o microscópicamente esofagitis, gastritis y duodenitis. Los hallazgos microscópicos más importantes fueron duodenitis crónica con giardiasis, úlceras duodenales, hiperplasia nodular linfoide duodenal, Helicobacter pylori y duodenitis crónica eosinofílica. Conclusiones: a pesar de que la endoscopia de vías digestivas es un método poco utilizado y no bien descrito en el estudio de niños con baja talla, este reporte de casos describe organicidad en un 80,0% de los niños analizados.


Abstract Introduction: The study of short stature of digestive origin in children shows no pre-established laboratory patterns. However, endoscopy of the digestive tract may be a useful tool for this purpose. Objective: To report a series of cases of children with a diagnosis of short stature who underwent upper digestive tract endoscopy as part of their study. Case report: 15 children between the ages of 2 and 16 years were included; 53.3% were girls. 26.7% presented with malnutrition according to their body mass index and height-for-age, 66.7% had short stature, and 33.3% moderate short stature. Abdominal pain was reported in 53.3% of the cases, and no weight gain in 46.7%. Other symptoms were lack of appetite in 26.7%, vomiting in 13.3%, among others. Between 40% and 93.4% of the children presented macro and/or microscopic esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenitis. The most important microscopic findings were chronic duodenitis with giardiasis, duodenal ulcers, duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, Helicobacter pylori, and chronic eosinophilic duodenitis. Conclusions: Although endoscopy of the digestive tract is a method barely used and not well described in the study of children with short stature, this case report describes organicity in 80% of the children analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Baja , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Endoscopy , Body Mass Index , Duodenitis , Esophagitis , Gastritis
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 922-932, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155029

ABSTRACT

Caseous lesions in the esophagus of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the coast of Brazil have been described as obstructive lesions and can lead to the death of these animals. However, their etiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the esophagus of green turtles (C. mydas) from the Brazilian coast and to verify its possible participation in the etiology of caseous lesions. For this, 42 animals were used, 33 alive and healthy and 9 naturally dead that had esophageal lesions confirmed by necropsy, from Anchieta and Piúma beaches, Espírito Santo. Microbiological tests and morphological evaluation of the esophagus were performed. We isolated 14 different bacterial agents from healthy animal samples, with the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa being (36.36%), Staphylococcus aureus (33.33%), Aeromonas hydrophila (27.27%), and Vibrio alginolyticus (24.24%). In dead animals, only three distinct agents were isolated: S. aureus (50.00%), A. hydrophila (25.00%), and V. alginolyticus (25.00%). Morphological evaluation revealed a predominance of the lesions at the gastroesophageal junction, with multifocal-to-coalescent distribution, discrete intensity, and absence of obstruction. Ulcerations and caseous exudates, inflammatory infiltrates, parasitic eggs, and giant foreign body cells were also observed as well as bacterial lumps and glandular alterations, such as necrosis, adenitis, and fragments of adult parasites. There was a positive correlation between bacterial lumps and microbiological culture and a negative correlation between bacterial lumps and microbiological culture with parasites. Thus, it was noted that the esophageal aerobic microbiota of C. mydas was predominantly composed of Gram-negative bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, A. hydrophila, and V. alginolyticus, in addition to several enterobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, such as S. aureus. These agents are opportunists and may be involved in the etiology of caseous esophagitis in association with other pathogens as co-factors working in association or, even in a secondary way.(AU)


A ocorrência de lesão caseosa no esôfago de tartarugas-verdes (Chelonia mydas) da costa do Brasil tem sido descrita como de caráter obstrutivo e pode causar a morte dos animais. No entanto, sua etiologia permanece pouco esclarecida. Objetivou-se isolar e caracterizar a microbiota aeróbica esofágica das tartarugas-verdes (C. mydas) da costa brasileira e verificar sua possível participação na etiologia das lesões caseosas. Foram utilizados 42 animais, 33 vivos e hígidos e nove mortos naturalmente que apresentavam lesão esofágica confirmada pela necropsia, provenientes de Anchieta e Piúma, Espírito Santo, nos quais foram feitos testes microbiológicos e avaliação morfológica do esôfago. Foram isolados 14 agentes bacterianos diferentes nas amostras de animais saudáveis, com prevalência de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36,36%), Staphylococcus aureus (33,33%), Aeromonas hydrophila (27,27%) e Vibrio alginolyticus (24,24%). Nos animais mortos, foram isolados apenas três agentes distintos: S. aureus (50,00%), A. hydrophila (25,00%) e V. alginolyticus (25,00%). A avaliação morfológica revelou predominância da lesão em junção gastroesofágica, com distribuição multifocal a coalescente, intensidade discreta e ausência de obstrução. Observou-se ainda ulceração e exsudato caseoso, infiltrado inflamatório, ovos de parasitos e células gigantes do tipo corpo estranho, além de grumos bacterianos e de alterações glandulares, como necrose, adenite e fragmentos de parasitos adultos. Houve correlação positiva dos grumos bacterianos com cultivo microbiológico e negativa dos grumos bacterianos e cultivo microbiológico com parasitos. Assim, nota-se que a microbiota esofágica aeróbica de C. mydas é constituída predominantemente por bactérias Gram-negativas como P. aeruginosa, A. hydrophila e V. alginolyticus, além de diversas enterobatérias e por Gram-positivas, como S. aureus. Esses agentes são oportunistas e podem estar envolvidos na etiologia da esofagite caseosa em associação a outros patógenos como co-fatores agindo em associação, ou mesmo, por via de infecção secundária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Turtles/microbiology , Esophagitis/etiology , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Esophagus/microbiology
7.
Más Vita ; 2(2): 68-75, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290734

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia digestiva alta aguda (HDAA) es la emergencia gastrointestinal más frecuente. En los ancianos se asocia con tasas de internación, morbilidad y mortalidad más elevadas que en las personas jóvenes, probablemente por la prevalencia más elevada de múltiples comorbilidades, como las enfermedades pulmonares y cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir los fundamentos teóricos de los factores de riesgos asociados a hemorragia digestivas altas. Metodología: Documental, descriptiva. Resultados: diversos estudios demuestran que los factores de riesgos asociados a las hemorragias digestivas altas son: la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal y várices esofágicas, complicaciones graves con alto riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes de edades avanzadas, por lo que se debe actuar con rapidez, eficacia y efectividad. Conclusión: la bibliografía consultada revela: que a pesar de los avances de la tecnología y de la farmacología, la tasa de mortalidad global por hemorragia digestiva alta no ha mejorado. Esta realidad se explica por el aumento significativo en la edad de los pacientes que hoy ingresan a los servicios de urgencias con esta complicación. En la HDAA es fundamental intentar identificar y tratar la fuente del sangrado, para lo cual resulta esencial la endoscopia temprana(AU)


Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (HDAA) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency. In the elderly, it is associated with higher hospitalization, morbidity and mortality rates than in young people, probably due to the higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe the theoretical foundations of the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methodology: Documentary, descriptive. Results: various studies show that the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding are, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and esophageal varices, serious complications with a high risk of mortality in elderly patients, therefore, it is necessary to act quickly, efficiently and effectiveness. Conclusion: the bibliography consulted reveals: that despite advances in technology and pharmacology, the overall mortality rate from upper gastrointestinal bleeding has not improved. This reality is explained by the significant increase in the age of patients who today enter the emergency services with this complication. In HDAA it is essential to try to identify and treat the source of the bleeding, for which early endoscopy is essential(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Angiodysplasia , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/mortality , Aged , Risk Factors , Endoscopy , Esophagitis
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 289-299, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098904

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La ingestión de cáusticos representa un grave problema médico-social por las consecuencias devastadoras e irreversibles que puede producir en el tracto digestivo superior. En Iberoamérica no se han publicado datos fidedignos sobre la incidencia o la prevalencia de lesiones inducidas por cáusticos. La información disponible sobre la presentación clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico se basa en series retrospectivas de casos y, de hecho, su manejo clínico se sustenta en muchos casos fundamentalmente en la opinión de expertos. Recientemente como una iniciativa de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica (SLAGHNP) y con la co laboración de colegas de la Sociedad Española de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediá trica (SEGHNP), hemos diseñado una Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) la cual incluye una serie de enunciados y recomendaciones dirigidos a optimizar la atención a los pacientes y que se basan en la revisión sistemática de la evidencia. En dos (2) manuscritos sucesivos nos hemos enfocado primero, en los aspectos fisiopatológicos y de diagnóstico clínico-endoscópico de la esofagitis cáustica en niños (1a. Parte) y en segundo lugar, en los aspectos más relevantes del tratamiento (2a. Parte). Esperamos esta guía se convierta en una herramienta útil para el clínico en el difícil proceso de toma de decisio nes a la hora de evaluar un paciente posterior a la ingesta de una sustancia cáustica.


Abstract: Caustic ingestion represents a serious social-medical problem due to the devastating and irreversible consequences it can produce in the upper digestive tract. In Ibero-America, there are no published reliable data on the incidence or prevalence of caustic-induced injuries, and most of the available information on clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is based on retrospective clinical series and, indeed, its clinical management is often based primarily on expert opinion. Re cently as an initiative of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (LASPGHAN) and with the cooperation of the Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroente rology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SEGHNP), we have designed a Clinical Practice Guideline that include a series of statements and recommendations aimed at optimizing patient medical care which is based on the systematic review of evidence. Two (2) separate papers focused on the evaluation of physiopathological and clinical-endoscopic diagnostic features of caustic esophagitis in children (1st. Paper) and, on the other hand, the most relevant therapeutic considerations (2nd. Paper). We expect this guideline to become a useful tool for the physician in the difficult decision-making process when assessing patients after caustic ingestion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burns, Chemical/etiology , Caustics/toxicity , Esophagitis/chemically induced , Esophagus/injuries , Spain , Burns, Chemical/diagnosis , Burns, Chemical/physiopathology , Burns, Chemical/therapy , Esophagitis/diagnosis , Esophagitis/physiopathology , Esophagitis/therapy , Esophagus/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Latin America
9.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(1): 55-57, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125782

ABSTRACT

Si bien no se encuentra entre las principales causas de disfagia u odinofagia, la lesión de la mucosa del esófago a causa de la medicación administrada como píldoras debe ser tenida en cuenta, en particular en algún grupo etario con patologías crónicas. Presentamos el caso de una mujer con dolor retroesternal de confuso diagnóstico y buena evolución con tratamiento conservador. El mecanismo preciso por el cual se producen las lesiones no está bien claro. La videoendoscopia digestiva alta es la herramienta clave para observar las lesiones producidas y realizar diagnóstico diferencial; además puede resolver algunas complicaciones. En la mayoría de los casos, el tratamiento es médico. Esta situación debe tenerse presente para realizar un correcto interrogatorio y examen endoscópico.


Dysphagia and odynophagia should be considered as symptoms of pill-induced esophageal injury, particularly in age groups with chronic diseases. We report a case of a female patient with retrosternal chest pain of unclear diagnosis and favorable outcome with conservative treatment. The precise mechanism of esophageal injury remains uncertain. Upper gastrointestinal videoendoscopy is the essential tool to examine the lesions, make differential diagnosis and treat some complications. Medical treatment is useful in most cases. This condition should be kept in mind for proper interrogation and endoscopic examination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophagitis/diagnosis , Valsartan/adverse effects , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/pathology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/drug therapy , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 149-157, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092801

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La ingestión de cáusticos representa un grave problema médico-social por las consecuencias devastadoras e irreversibles que puede producir en el tracto digestivo superior. En Iberoamérica no se han publicado datos fidedignos sobre la incidencia o la prevalencia de lesiones inducidas por cáusticos. La información disponible sobre la presentación clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico se basa en series retrospectivas de casos y, de hecho, su manejo clínico se sustenta en muchos casos fundamentalmente en la opinión de expertos. Recientemente como una iniciativa de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica (SLAGHNP) y con la co laboración de colegas de la Sociedad Española de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediá trica (SEGHNP), hemos diseñado una Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) la cual incluye una serie de enunciados y recomendaciones dirigidos a optimizar la atención a los pacientes y que se basan en la revisión sistemática de la evidencia. En dos (2) manuscritos sucesivos nos hemos enfocado primero, en los aspectos fisiopatológicos y de diagnóstico clínico-endoscópico de la esofagitis cáustica en niños (1a. Parte) y en segundo lugar, en los aspectos más relevantes del tratamiento (2a. Parte). Esperamos esta guía se convierta en una herramienta útil para el clínico en el difícil proceso de toma de decisio nes a la hora de evaluar un paciente posterior a la ingesta de una sustancia cáustica.


Abstract: Caustic ingestion represents a serious social-medical problem due to the devastating and irreversible consequences it can produce in the upper digestive tract. In Ibero-America, there are no published reliable data on the incidence or prevalence of caustic-induced injuries, and most of the available information on clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is based on retrospective clinical series and, indeed, its clinical management is often based primarily on expert opinion. Re cently as an initiative of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (LASPGHAN) and with the cooperation of the Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroente rology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SEGHNP), we have designed a Clinical Practice Guideline that include a series of statements and recommendations aimed at optimizing patient medical care which is based on the systematic review of evidence. Two (2) successive papers focused on the evaluation of physiopathological and clinical-endoscopic diagnostic features of caustic esophagitis in children (1st. Paper) and, on the other hand, the most relevant therapeutic considerations (2nd. Paper). We expect this guideline to become a useful tool for the physician in the difficult decision-making process when assessing patients after caustic ingestion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burns, Chemical/diagnosis , Burns, Chemical/etiology , Burns, Chemical/physiopathology , Burns, Chemical/therapy , Caustics/toxicity , Esophagitis/diagnosis , Esophagitis/etiology , Esophagitis/physiopathology , Esophagitis/therapy , Pediatrics
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1081-1084, May-June 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038592

ABSTRACT

Uma avestruz-do-pescoço-vermelho, com dois anos de idade, apresentava um nódulo no terço médio do esôfago e foi submetida a procedimento cirúrgico. Histologicamente, observou-se uma área focalmente extensa de necrose estendendo-se da túnica mucosa à muscular, e, em algumas secções, à túnica adventícia. Circundando a área de necrose, observou-se uma reação inflamatória composta principalmente por granulócitos e macrófagos, associada à fibroplasia e neovascularização. Em meio às áreas de necrose e inflamação, verificavam-se numerosas imagens negativas de hifas em seções longitudinais e transversais, melhor apreciadas pela coloração de metenamina nitrato de prata de Grocott. O diagnóstico definitivo de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. A avestruz recebia água para consumo de um lago localizado em uma área de pastagem, no qual alguns cavalos haviam desenvolvido pitiose cutânea anteriormente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases , Deglutition Disorders/veterinary , Struthioniformes , Esophagitis/veterinary , Pythiosis/diagnosis
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2018070, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-994653

ABSTRACT

Esophageal infection by Candida spp. is a common opportunistic entity in immunocompromised hosts; however, systemic fungal dissemination due to perforation or transmural necrosis, also known as necrotizing Candida esophagitis (NCE), is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis, severe arteriosclerosis, and vasculitis under immunosuppressive therapy who presented NCE with fungal and bacterial septicemia diagnosed at autopsy. Necrotizing esophagitis is a rare manifestation of Candida infection, which may be a final complication in severely ill patients. Unfortunately, it may be underdiagnosed, and we call attention to this devastating complication in patients with leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis and ankylosing spondylitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Esophagitis/pathology , Candidiasis, Invasive/pathology , Mycoses/pathology , Necrosis , Autopsy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Fatal Outcome , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/complications , Sepsis/complications
14.
São Paulo; HSPM; 2019.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SMS-SP, HSPM-Producao, SMS-SP | ID: biblio-1280976

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: A hemorragia digestiva alta é definida pelo sangramento do trato gastrointestinal decorrente de lesões em localização proximal ao ângulo de Treitz (ou flexura duodenojejunal), incluindo esôfago, estômago e duodeno. É uma condição médica de grande morbidade, mortalidade e custos médicos. A endoscopia digestiva alta é o método diagnóstico de escolha. Uma vez identificada a origem do sangramento, a terapia endoscópica pode realizar hemostasia e prevenir sua recorrência. Sabe-se que as etiologias de hemorragia digestiva alta são diversas e suas frequências vem mudando ao longo do tempo. Objetivos: Estudar um grupo de pacientes com hemorragia digestiva alta encaminhados para endoscopia digestiva alta no Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, nos meses de janeiro, fevereiro e março de 2019 e avaliar a etiologia do sangramento retrospectiva dos laudos dos exames endoscópicos. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, onde foram analisados laudos endoscópicos dos pacientes que realizaram endoscopia digestiva alta no serviço de endoscopia do Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo devido a hemorragia digestiva alta no período de janeiro, fevereiro e março de 2019. Resultados: Foram solicitadas 32 endoscopias diagnósticas para hemorragia digestiva alta no período estudado. A média de idade foi de 65 anos e o sexo feminino foi ligeiramente predominante. A maior causa de sangramento neste estudo foi a doença ulcerosa péptica, com 31% dos casos. Esofagite foi causa da hemorragia em 15% dos pacientes. Apenas 1 paciente apresentou varize como causa do sangramento. Tratamento endoscópico foi realizado em apenas 3 casos. Conclusão: A doença ulcerosa péptica foi a etiologia mais prevalente de hemorragia digestiva alta no HSPM. Por outro lado, a prevalência de varizes como causa da hemorragia foi consideravelmente menor do que o encontrado na literatura atual. Sendo assim, é importante conhecer o perfil etiológico pois o mesmo varia com o passar do tempo e seu conhecimento é essencial para maiores investimentos em terapia endoscópica otimizada. Palavras-Chave: Hemorragia gastrointestinal, Endoscopia, Úlcera péptica, Esofagite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of dietary micronutrients on non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and reflux esophagitis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the gender-specific effect of micronutrient on erosive esophagitis and NERD. METHODS: A total of 11 690 participants underwent endoscopy and completed 3-day recordings for dietary intake and questionnaires for reflux symptoms from 2004 to 2008. To evaluate the effect of dietary micronutrients on NERD or erosive esophagitis, adjusted regression analysis with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was used. In addition, we performed gender-specific analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of NERD and erosive esophagitis was 6.8% and 11.2% in men and 9.1% and 2.4% in women. In adjusted analysis, high intake of vitamin A (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96), retinol (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59–0.90), vitamin B2 (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54–0.87), vitamin B6 (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58–0.96), folic acid (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.96), calcium (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53–0.82), and iron (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53–0.87) had an inverse association with NERD. However, erosive esophagitis has no relationship with micronutrients except vitamin C (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62–0.98). High dietary intake of calcium reduced the risk of NERD in men and high dietary intake of many micronutrients reduced NERD in women. CONCLUSIONS: While many dietary micronutrients reduced NERD, they had no effect on erosive esophagitis. The effect of micronutrient on NERD was more prominent in women than men.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Calcium , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Esophagitis, Peptic , Female , Folic Acid , Gender Identity , Humans , Iron , Male , Micronutrients , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Riboflavin , Vitamin A , Vitamin B 6
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ) has been developed and validated as a tool for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the GerdQ and the cutoff value for determining GERD has not been validated in Korea. METHODS: Patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD were consecutively recruited. The Korean version of GerdQ was developed through a forward-backward translation process according to the cross-cultural adaptation method. Endoscopically documented esophagitis, abnormal results on 24-hour ambulatory pH recording with symptom association monitoring, or response to proton pump inhibitor treatment were used as diagnostic references for GERD. The reproducibility and test characteristics of the Korean version of GerdQ were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients with a median age of 55 years were analyzed. The intra-class correlation coefficient of 2 subsequently measured GerdQ scores was 0.651 (95% CI, 0.518–0.748). The cutoff value of 8 was found to have the highest sensitivity (64.9%; 95% CI, 56.2–73.7) and specificity (71.4%; 95% CI, 56.5–86.4) for the diagnosis of GERD. The questionnaire had a high positive predictive value (88.1%; 95% CI, 81.2–95.0), but a low negative predictive value (38.5%; 95% CI, 26.2–50.3) for GERD. Any symptom improvement on proton pump inhibitor treatment showed a sensitivity of 93.0% (95% CI, 88.3–97.7) and a specificity of 48.6% (95% CI, 32.0–65.1) for GERD. CONCLUSION: The Korean version of GerdQ is a useful complementary tool in the diagnosis of GERD.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Esophagitis , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Korea , Methods , Proton Pumps , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763119

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to report clinical outcomes of salvage concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in treating patients with loco-regional recurrence (LRR) following initial complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and December 2016, 127 patients underwent salvage CCRT for LRR. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose was 66 Gy and clinical target volume was to cover recurrent lesion with margin without elective inclusion of regional lymphatics. Majority of patients (94.5%) received weekly platinum-based doublet chemotherapy during RT course. RESULTS: The median follow-up time from the start of CCRT was 25 months. The median survival duration was 49 months, and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 and 5 years were 72.9% and 43.9%. The 2- and 5-year rates of in-field failure-free survival, distant metastasis free survival, and progression free survival were 82.4% and 73.8%, 50.4% and 39.9%, and 34.6% and 22.3%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 radiation-related esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in 14 (11.0%) and six patients (4.7%), respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, higher biologically equivalent dose (BED₁₀) (≥ 79.2 Gy₁₀ vs. 80 cm³; HR, 0.403), and longer disease-free interval (> 1 year vs. ≤ 1 year; HR, 0.489) were significantly favorable factors for OS. CONCLUSION: The current study has demonstrated that high dose salvage CCRT focused to the involved lesion only was highly effective and safe. In particular, higher BED₁₀, smaller CTV, and longer disease-free interval were favorable factors for improved survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia , Recurrence
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761851

ABSTRACT

Phlegmonous esophagitis must be treated aggressively; therefore, appropriate antibiotic therapy and drainage are critical. Although a conventional surgical approach has been used previously, internal drainage could be another treatment option in light of advances in endoscopic techniques. We report 2 cases in which patients suffering from phlegmonous esophagitis were successfully treated with endoscopic intraluminal drainage and antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cellulitis , Drainage , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Humans
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, esophageal mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) and post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index have been proposed, which can increase the diagnostic role of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording (MII/pH) for differentiating patients with heartburn. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the role of esophageal proximal MNBI, distal MNBI, and PSPW index in differentiating Chinese patients with heartburn. METHODS: Patients with heartburn from the Beijing Anzhen Hospital, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 24-hour MII/pH, were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: In all, 24 erosive esophagitis (EE), 46 non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), 52 reflux hypersensitivity (RH), and 78 functional heartburn (FH) patients were recruited. The respective median values for the EE, NERD, RH, and FH groups were as follows: proximal MNBI 1858.0, 2147.5, 2374.3, and 2329.0 Ω (P = 0.053); distal MNBI 1243.4, 1506.5, 2451.2, and 2477.3 Ω (P < 0.001); and PSPWI 15.0%, 25.0%, 25.0%, and 45.0% (P < 0.001). Spearman correlation analysis showed that distal MNBI and PSPW index were significantly negatively correlated with acid and bolus exposure time and acid reflux events. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that distal MNBI and PSPW index significantly discriminated FH from EE, NERD, and RH (P < 0.001), with cut-off values of 1890.6 Ω and 27.5% and areas under the curve of 0.721 and 0.779, respectively. CONCLUSION: Esophageal distal MNBI and PSPW index could increase the diagnostic role of MII/pH, especially for differentiating Chinese patients with heartburn.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Beijing , Electric Impedance , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophagitis , Esophagitis, Peptic , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypersensitivity , ROC Curve
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761517

ABSTRACT

With the advances in technology and medical knowledge, new diseases are being identified and investigated. Esophageal motility disorders have been re-defined using high-resolution manometry and their pathogenesis are being better understood. The use of opioid analgesics is increasing worldwide, particularly in the United States, but their chronic use can cause opioid-induced esophageal dysfunction, which mimics spastic motor disorders, including achalasia type 3 or 2 and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Eosinophilic esophagitis is identified by eosinophilic infiltration confirmed on a pathological examination. The condition is often associated with esophageal motility abnormalities. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested that muscle-predominant eosinophilic infiltration, eosinophilic esophageal myositis, might manifest as spastic motor disorders, including achalasia or jackhammer esophagus. Lymphocytic esophagitis is an unusual esophageal condition, which is confirmed by the increased number of lymphocytes in the esophageal epithelium. Although several reports have supported the existence of lymphocytic esophagitis, it is still unclear whether lymphocytic esophagitis is a distinct disease entity or another spectrum of other esophageal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or eosinophilic esophagitis. This review presents evidence and reports on the emerging issues in esophageal motility disorders, including opioid-induced esophageal dysfunction, eosinophilic esophagitis with eosinophilic esophageal myositis, and lymphocytic esophagitis.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Eosinophils , Epithelium , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Diseases , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagitis , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hand , Lymphocytes , Manometry , Motor Disorders , Muscle Spasticity , Myositis , United States
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