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1.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 117-120, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288181

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La resección gástrica atípica ha demostrado ser beneficiosa para tumores submucosos. La técnica pre senta mayor riesgo cuando estos se desarrollan próximos a la unión esófago-gástrica (UEG). Para esta limitación se propuso la resección intragástrica mediante una técnica mixta combinando laparoscopia y endoscopia. En nuestro medio no existen publicaciones al respecto. Se trata de una mujer de 42 años, con lesión subepitelial-subcardial de 2 cm, evaluada mediante videoendoscopia alta (VEDA), compa tible con tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST) evaluado mediante ecoendoscopia. La lesión fue resecada mediante abordaje combinado laparoendoscópico. Bajo visión laparoscópica se introdujeron en cavidad abdominal trocares con balón, y bajo visión endoscópica intragástrica se introdujeron estos en el estómago y se fijó la pared gástrica a la pared abdominal insuflando dichos balones. Posterior mente se realizó la resección de la lesión con sutura mecánica. El abordaje combinado es seguro y eficaz, simple en manos entrenadas, pero constituye una opción reproducible en casos seleccionados.


ABSTRACT Atypical gastric resection has proved to be beneficial to treat submucosal tumors. The technique is more difficult when these tumors develop next to the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Intragastric resection combining endoscopic and laparoscopic approach was proposed to solve this limitation. There are no publications about this technique in our environment. A 42-year-old female patients with a 2-mm subepithelial tumor below the cardia evaluated by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) videoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound suggestive of a gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) underwent resection using the combined laparo-endoscopic approach. Under laparoscopic guidance, balloon-tipped trocars were introduced in the abdominal cavity and then into the stomach using endoscopic view. The balloons were inflated to fix the gastirc wall to the abdominal wall. The lesion was resected using mechanical stapler. The combined approach is safe and efficient, and simple to perform for trained professionals, constituting a reproducible option in selected cases.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction , Neoplasms , Patients , Stomach , Surgical Instruments , Vision, Ocular , Women , Wounds and Injuries , Cardia , Endosonography , Mechanics , Abdominal Cavity , Endoscopy , Environment , Hand , Methods
2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1633, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360020

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: Disfunção do esfíncter esofágico inferior (EEI), doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite erosiva em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal são ocorrências comumente reconhecidas, mas até agora as causas permanecem obscuras. OBJETIVO: A hipótese deste estudo é que a gastrectomia subtotal provoque alterações na pressão de repouso do EEI e na sua competência, devido ao dano anatômico desta, visto que as fibras oblíquas "Sling", um dos componentes musculares do EEI, são seccionadas durante este procedimento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Sete cães adultos sem raça definida (18-30 kg) foram anestesiados e submetidos à transecção do estômago proximal. Em seguida, o remanescente gástrico proximal foi fechado por sutura. No intraoperatório, manometria lenta foi realizada em cada cão, em condições basais (com estômago intacto) e no remanescente gástrico proximal fechado. A média dessas medidas é apresentada, com cada cão servindo como seu próprio controle. RESULTADOS: A pressão média do EEI medida no remanescente gástrico proximal, em comparação com a pressão do EEI no estômago intacto, foi diminuída em cinco cães, aumentada em um cão e sem alterações no outro cão. CONCLUSÃO: A secção transversa superior do estômago e o fechamento do remanescente do estômago por sutura provocam alterações na pressão do EEI. Sugerimos que essas mudanças na pressão do EEI são secundárias à secção das fibras oblíquas "Sling" do esfíncter, um de seus componentes musculares. A sutura e o fechamento do remanescente gástrico proximal, reancora essas fibras com mais, menos ou a mesma tensão, modificando ou não a pressão do EEI.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and erosive esophagitis in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy are commonly recognized occurrences, but until now the causes remain unclear. AIM: The hypothesis of this study is that subtotal gastrectomy provokes changes on the LES resting pressure and its competence, due to the anatomical damage of it, given that the oblique "Sling" fibers, one of the muscular components of the LES, are transected during this surgical procedure. METHODS: Seven adult mongrel dogs (18-30 kg) were anesthetized and admitted for transection of the proximal stomach. Later, the proximal gastric remnant was closed by a suture. Intraoperatively, slow pull-through LES manometries were performed on each dog, under basal conditions (with the intact stomach), and in the closed proximal gastric remnant. The mean of these measurements is presented, with each dog serving as its control. RESULTS: The mean LES pressure (LESP) measured in the proximal gastric remnant, compared with the LESP in the intact stomach, was decreased in five dogs, increased in one dog, and remained unchanged in other dogs. CONCLUSION: The upper transverse transection of the stomach and closing the stomach remnant by suture provoke changes in the LESP. We suggested that these changes in the LESP are secondary to transecting the oblique "Sling" fibers of the LES, one of its muscular components. The suture and closing of the proximal gastric remnant reanchor these fibers with more, less, or the same tension, whether or not modifying the LESP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Manometry
3.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1631, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360010

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: Os afastadores clássicos de cirurgia laparoscópica são geralmente rígidos, necessitando de uma incisão adicional para sua instalação ou de um auxiliar para manuseio durante o ato cirúrgico e ainda, podem envolvem risco de injúria hepática. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e validar uma técnica de exposição da junção esofagogástrica obtida pelo afastador flexível de fígado em cirurgia bariátrica comparando sua eficácia com a de afastador classicamente utilizado para este fim. MÉTODOS: Tratou-se de um estudo prospectivo, aberto, controlado e comparativo em pacientes com indicação de cirurgia, distribuídos de forma randomizada em dois grupos: clássico (controle) e afastador flexível (teste). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 100 pacientes (n=50 grupo controle, n=50 grupo teste), sem diferença estatística na distribuição por idade e por morbidades, havendo diferença estatística somente no gênero (grupo controle obteve proporção maior de homens, p=0,020). Em relação ao tempo médio de realização das operações, não foi constatada diferença estatística. No quesito visibilidade, verificou-se que 100% dos pacientes do grupo afastador flexível obteve nível de visibilidade ótima, porém sem significância estatística com relação ao grupo clássico (94%). Invariavelmente, foi necessário um portal a mais de trocarte quando do uso do afastador clássico. CONCLUSÃO: O afastador flexível de fígado demonstrou-se seguro, eficaz, ergonômico, de baixo custo, de perfil estético satisfatório, não requerendo instrumental específico para uso ou nova curva de adaptação e aprendizado para manuseio.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: In the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass technique, classic laparoscopic surgical retractors are usually rigid, require an additional incision for its installation, or must be handled by an assistant during the surgical procedure, involving a risk of liver injury. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate a technique of the esophagogastric junction exposure obtained by the flexible liver retractor in bariatric surgery, comparing its efficacy with the retractor classically used for this purpose. Methods: This study was performed as a randomized, open, prospective, controlled, and comparative design in patients with medical indications of bariatric surgery. The subjects were distributed in the classic (control) and flexible (test) retractor groups. Results: A total of 100 patients (n=50 control group, n=50 test group) were included. No statistically significant difference was observed in the mean duration of surgery. Regarding visibility, 100% of the patients in the flexible retractor group demonstrated an optimal visibility level, although without statistical significance concerning the classic retractor group (94%). Invariably, carrying a trocar was necessary when using the classic retractor. Conclusions: The flexible liver retractor is safe, effective, ergonomic, and inexpensive. Furthermore, it presented a satisfactory aesthetic profile, and the use of specific instruments, new adaptation curve, and training for its handling were not required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity, Morbid , Gastric Bypass , Bariatric Surgery , Prospective Studies , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery
4.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1616, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355520

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma are responsible for approximately 13.5% of cancer-related deaths. Given the fact that these tumors are not typically detected until they are already in the advanced stages, neoadjuvancy plays a fundamental role in improving long-term survival. Identification of those with complete pathological response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a major challenge, with effects on organ preservation, extent of resection, and additional surgery. There is little or no information in the literature about which endoscopic signs should be evaluated after NAC, or even when such re-evaluation should occur. Aim: To describe the endoscopic aspects of patients with gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas who underwent NAC and achieved pCR, and to determine the accuracy of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in predicting the pCR. Methods: A survey was conducted of the medical records of patients with these tumors who were submitted to gastrectomy after NAC, with anatomopathological result of pCR. Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified who achieved pCR after NAC within the study period. Endoscopic responses were used to classify patients into two groups: G1-endoscopic findings consistent with pCR and G2-endoscopic findings not consistent with pCR. Endoscopic evaluation in G1 was present in an equal percentage (47.4%; p=0.28) in Borrmann classification II and III. In this group, the predominance was in the gastric body (57.9%; p=0.14), intestinal subtype with 42.1% (p=0.75), undifferentiated degree, 62.5% (p=0.78), Herb+ in 73.3% (p=0.68). The most significant finding, however, was that the time interval between NAC and EGD was longer for G1 than G2 (24.4 vs. 10.2 days, p=0.008). Conclusion: EGD after NAC seems to be a useful tool for predicting pCR, and it may be possible to use it to create a reliable response classification. In addition, the time interval between NAC and EGD appears to significantly influence the predictive power of endoscopy for pCR.


RESUMO Racional: O adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica é responsável por aproximadamente 13,5% das mortes relacionadas ao câncer. Dado que esses tumores não são normalmente detectados até que já estejam em estágios avançados, a neoadjuvância desempenha um papel fundamental na melhoria da sobrevida em longo prazo. A identificação daqueles com resposta patológica completa (pCR) após a quimioterapia neoadjuvante (NAC) é um grande desafio, com efeitos na preservação do órgão, extensão da ressecção e cirurgia adicional. Há pouca ou nenhuma informação na literatura sobre quais sinais endoscópicos devem ser avaliados após a NAC, ou mesmo quando essa reavaliação deve ocorrer. Objetivo: Descrever os aspectos endoscópicos de pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica que foram submetidos à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e alcançaram pCR, e determinar a acurácia da esofagogastroduodenoscopia (EGD) em predizer a pCR. Métodos: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal e total após NAC, com resultado anatomopatológico de pCR. Resultados: Vinte e nove pacientes que alcançaram pCR após NAC foram identificados no período estudado. As respostas endoscópicas foram usadas para classificar os pacientes em dois grupos: G1- achados endoscópicos consistentes com pCR, G2 - achados endoscópicos não consistentes com pCR. A avaliação endoscópica no G1 esteve presente em igual percentual (47,4%; p=0,28) na classificação de Borrmann II e III. Nesse grupo, a predominância foi no corpo gástrico (57,9%; p=0,14), subtipo intestinal com 42,1% (p=0,75), grau indiferenciado, 62,5% (p=0,78), Herb+ em 73,3% (p=0,68). O achado mais significativo, no entanto, foi que o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD foi maior para G1 do que G2 (24,4 vs. 10,2 dias, p=0,008). Conclusão: A EGD após NAC, nessa pesquisa, sugeriu ser método útil para prever pCR, mediante uma classificação de resposta confiável. Além disso, o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD parece influenciar significativamente a sua capacidade preditiva de diagnosticar a pCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Endoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 407-413, dic. 2020. graf, il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288149

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La unión del tubo esofágico con el estómago en lo que denominamos el cardias, su tránsito y relacio nes con el hiato diafragmático, las estructuras fibromembranosas que la fijan y envuelven, la existencia de un esfínter gastroesofágico anatómico y su real morfología, así como la interacción de todos estos elementos, han sido materia de controversia por décadas y aún hoy. Este artículo actualiza la descrip ción de tales estructuras.


ABSTRACT The point where the esophagus connects to the stomach, known as the cardia, its transition and re lationship with the diaphragmatic hiatus, its fibromembranous attachments, the existence of an ana tomic gastroesophageal sphincter and its real morphology, and the interaction between all these ele ments, have been subject of debate for decades that still persist. The aim of this article is to describe the updated information of such structures.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm/physiology , Muscle Development , Esophagogastric Junction/physiology , Diaphragm/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/embryology
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(4): e1473, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054587

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gastrectomy is the main treatment for gastric and Siewert type II-III esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer. This surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Total morbidity rates vary across different studies and few have evaluated postoperative morbidity according to complication severity. Aim: To identify the predictors of severe postoperative morbidity. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study from a prospective database. We included patients treated with gastrectomy for gastric or EGJ cancers between January 2012 and December 2016 at a single center. Severe morbidity was defined as Clavien-Dindo score ≥3. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of severe morbidity. Results: Two hundred and eighty-nine gastrectomies were performed (67% males, median age: 65 years). Tumor location was EGJ in 14%, upper third of the stomach in 30%, middle third in 26%, and lower third in 28%. In 196 (67%), a total gastrectomy was performed with a D2 lymph node dissection in 85%. Two hundred and eleven patients (79%) underwent an open gastrectomy. T status was T1 in 23% and T3/T4 in 68%. Postoperative mortality was 2.4% and morbidity rate was 41%. Severe morbidity was 11% and was mainly represented by esophagojejunostomy leak (2.4%), duodenal stump leak (2.1%), and respiratory complications (2%). On multivariate analysis, EGJ location and T3/T4 tumors were associated with a higher rate of severe postoperative morbidity. Conclusion: Severe postoperative morbidity after gastrectomy was 11%. Esophagogastric junction tumor location and T3/T4 status are risk factors for severe postoperative morbidity.


RESUMO Raciona l: A gastrectomia é o tratamento principal para o câncer de junção esofagogástrica (EGJ) e Siewert tipo II-III. Ela está associada à morbidade significativa. As taxas de morbidade total variam entre os diferentes estudos e poucos avaliaram a morbidade pós-operatória de acordo com a gravidade da complicação. Objetivo: Identificar os preditores de morbidade pós-operatória grave. Métodos: Este foi um estudo de coorte retrospectivo de um banco de dados prospectivo. Foram incluídos pacientes tratados com gastrectomia para câncer gástrico ou EGJ em um único centro. A morbidade severa foi definida como escore de Clavien-Dindo ≥3. Análise multivariada foi realizada para identificar preditores de morbidade grave. Resultados: Duzentos e oitenta e nove gastrectomias foram realizadas (67% homens, mediana de idade: 65 anos). A localização do tumor foi EGJ em 14%, o terço superior do estômago em 30%, o terço médio em 26% e o terço inferior em 28%. Em 196 (67%), foi realizada gastrectomia total com dissecção de linfonodos D2 em 85%. Duzentos e onze pacientes (79%) foram submetidos à gastrectomia aberta. O estado T foi T1 em 23% e T3/T4 em 68%. A mortalidade pós-operatória foi de 2,4% e a taxa de morbidade foi de 41%. A morbidade severa foi de 11% e foi representada principalmente por fístula esofagojejunal (2,4%), fístula duodenal (2,1%) e complicações respiratórias (2%). Na análise multivariada, a localização do EGJ e os tumores T3/T4 foram associados com maior morbidade pós-operatória grave. Conclusão: Morbidade pós-operatória severa após gastrectomia foi de 11%. A localização do tumor na junção esofagogástrica e o estado T3/T4 são fatores de risco para a morbidade pós-operatória grave.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765975

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disease, and the prevalence in the general population has recently increased. GERD is a chronic relapsing disease associated with motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Several factors are implicated in GERD, including hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, frequent transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, esophageal hypersensitivity, reduced resistance of the esophageal mucosa against the refluxed contents, ineffective esophageal motility, abnormal bolus transport, deficits initiating secondary peristalsis, abnormal response to multiple rapid swallowing, and hiatal hernia. One or more of these mechanisms result in the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus, delayed clearance of the refluxate, and the development of symptoms and/or complications. New techniques, such as 24-hour pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring, multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry, high-resolution manometry, 3-dimensional high-resolution manometry, enoscopic functional luminal imaging probe, and 24-hour dynamic esophageal manometry, provide more information on esophageal motility and have clarified the pathophysiology of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors remain the preferred pharmaceutical option to treat GERD. The ideal target of GERD treatment is to restore esophageal motility and reconstruct the anti-reflux mechanism. This review focuses on current advances in esophageal motor dysfunction in patients with GERD and the influence of these developments on GERD treatment.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Electric Impedance , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Contents , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypersensitivity , Manometry , Mucous Membrane , Peristalsis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenobarbital , Prevalence , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Relaxation , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Timed barium esophagram (TBE) is used the classification of esophageal motility disorders and assessing esophageal function. Currently, there are no published studies examining the relationship between high-resolution manometry and TBE in patients with esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO). This study seeks to evaluate this relationship and identify manometric variables that may indicate further evaluation using TBE. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records identified patients with a diagnosis of EGJOO per the Chicago classification version 3.0. TBE was performed using standard protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on complete emptying or persistence of standing barium column at 5 minutes. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified with EGJOO who underwent both high-resolution manometry and TBE within 3 months. Five patients had no standing barium column at 5 minutes, while 6 patients had a persistent barium column. Mean age of each group was 54.0 years and 57.8 years, respectively. Patients with abnormal TBE were found to have significantly elevated intrabolus pressure (IBP) compared with patients who had a normal TBE. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found significant differences in IBP between these patient groups. These findings suggest that patients with EGJOO and elevated IBP may prompt further clinical evaluation with TBE in order to clarify clinical diagnosis and guide therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Barium , Classification , Diagnosis , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrointestinal Transit , Humans , Manometry , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The influence of external factors such as opioids and alcohol has been extensively investigated for various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the association between their use and the development of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction disorders (EGJOODs) is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze prevalence and clinical relevance of opioids and alcohol intake in patients with EGJOODs. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we reviewed clinical and pharmacological data of 375 consecutive patients who had undergone high resolution impedance manometry for EGJOODs. EGJOODs were classified according to the Chicago classification version 3.0 and to recently published normal values for test meals. Demographics, manometric data, and symptoms were compared between different groups using Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and multivariate analysis. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: EGJOOD was found in 30.7% (115/375) of all analyzed patients. The prevalence of opioids (14.8% vs 4.2%, P = 0.026) was significantly higher in patients with EGJOODs compared to patients without EGJOODs. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption (12.2% vs 3.5%, P = 0.011) was associated with EGJOODs. Excessive alcohol consumption was especially frequent in the non-achalasia esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction subgroup (16.2%) and opioid use in the achalasia type III subgroup (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant association between EGJOODs and opioid as well as excessive alcohol consumption. This underlines the importance of detailed history taking regarding medication and ethanol consumption in patients with dysphagia. Further prospective studies on mechanisms undelaying esophagogastric junction dysfunction due to opioids or alcohol are warranted.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Analgesics, Opioid , Classification , Deglutition Disorders , Demography , Electric Impedance , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagogastric Junction , Ethanol , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Manometry , Meals , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies
13.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 139-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764493

ABSTRACT

The incidence of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer has been significantly increasing in Western countries. Appropriate planning for surgical therapy requires a reliable classification of EGJ cancers with respect to their exact location. Clinically, the most accepted classification of EGJ cancers is “adenocarcinoma of the EGJ” (AEG or “Siewert”), which divides tumor center localization into AEG type I (distal esophagus), AEG type II (“true junction”), and AEG type III (subcardial stomach). Treatment strategies in western countries routinely employ perioperative chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiation for cases of locally advanced cancers. The standard surgical treatment strategies are esophagectomy for AEG type I and gastrectomy for AEG type III cancers. For “true junctional cancers,” i.e., AEG type II, whether the extension of resection in the oral or aboral direction represents the most effective surgical therapy remains debatable. This article reviews the history of surgical EGJ cancer treatment and current surgical strategies from a Western perspective.


Subject(s)
Classification , Drug Therapy , Esophagectomy , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy , Incidence
14.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 148-156, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764492

ABSTRACT

Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer is a solid tumor entity with rapidly increasing incidence in the Western countries. Given the high proportion of advanced cancers in the West, treatment strategies routinely employed include surgery and chemotherapy perioperatively, and chemoradiation in neoadjuvant settings. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy are mostly performed in esophageal cancer that extends to the EGJ and gastric as well as EGJ cancers, respectively. Recent trials have tried to combine both strategies in a perioperative context, which might have beneficial outcomes, especially in patients with EGJ cancer. However, it is difficult to recruit patients for trials, exclusively for EGJ cancers; therefore, the results have to be carefully reviewed before establishing a standard protocol. Trastuzumab was the first drug for targeted therapy that was positively evaluated for this tumor entity, and there are several ongoing trials investigating more targeted drugs in order to customize effective therapies based on tissue characteristics. The current study reviews the multimodal treatment concept for EGJ cancers in the West and summarizes the latest reports.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagogastric Junction , Humans , Incidence , Trastuzumab
15.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 375-392, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785963

ABSTRACT

Preoperative chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies followed by surgery are currently a standard approach for treating locally advanced gastric and esophagogastric junction cancer in Western countries. However, in a large number of cases, the tumor is extremely resistant to these treatments and the patients are exposed to unnecessary toxicity and delayed surgical therapy. The current clinical trials evaluating the combination of preoperative systemic therapies with modern targeted and immunotherapeutic agents represent a unique opportunity for identifying predictive biomarkers of response to select patients that would benefit the most from these treatments. However, it is of utmost importance that these potential biomarkers are corroborated by extensive preclinical and translational research. The aim of this review article is to present the most promising biomarkers of response to classic chemotherapeutic, anti-HER2, antiangiogenic, and immunotherapeutic agents that can be potentially useful for personalized preoperative systemic therapies in gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Esophagogastric Junction , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 , Stomach Neoplasms , Translational Medical Research
16.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 473-483, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785955

ABSTRACT

Surgical therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction II requires distal esophagectomy, in which a transhiatal management of the lower esophagus is critical. The ‘dorsal track control’ (DTC) maneuver presented here facilitates the atraumatic handling of the distal esophagus, in preparation for a circular-stapled esophagojejunostomy. It is based on a ventral semicircular incision in the distal esophagus, with an intact dorsal wall for traction control of the esophagus. The maneuver facilitates the proper placement of the purse-string suture, up to its tying (around the anvil), thus minimizing the manipulation of the remaining esophagus. Furthermore, the dorsally-exposed inner wall surface of the ventrally-opened esophagus serves as a guiding chute that eases anvil insertion into the esophageal lumen. We performed this novel technique in 21 cases, enabling a safe anastomosis up to 10 cm proximal to the Z-line. No anastomotic insufficiency was observed. The DTC technique improves high transhiatal esophagojejunostomy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Anastomosis, Surgical , Esophagectomy , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Stomach Neoplasms , Sutures , Traction
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774419

ABSTRACT

The surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) involves thoracic and abdominal cavities. With no general consensus on the surgical treatment modality for AEG in China, the understanding and surgical practice of AEG are controversial between thoracic and gastrointestinal surgeons. Chinese expert consensus on the surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (2018 edition) was released in September 2018 by the Chinese expert panel including 19 thoracic surgeons and 20 gastrointestinal surgeons. The formulation and publication of this consensus has increased homogeneity of the understanding of the disease in different disciplines to a certain extent, and has facilitated standardized surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction. The consensus was based on the best available clinical evidence and the latest national and international guidelines and consensus. Several rounds of discussion and voting were conducted. Finally, 27 statements on surgery-related recommendations and 9 issues requiring further investigation were reached in the consensus, which basically cover the fields and research hotspots of surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric juncton. This review will explain in details the Chinese expert consensus on the surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , General Surgery , China , Consensus , Esophageal Neoplasms , General Surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , General Surgery , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , General Surgery
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774418

ABSTRACT

The incidence of adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) has been increasing. The surgical strategy for AEG remains controversial. The Siewert definition of AEG facilitates decision of surgical approach, while TNM stage for AEG contributes to prognosis evaluation and clinical decision making. Generally, transthoracic procedure is suitable for Siewert I and transhiatal is suitable for Siewert III. The lymph node drainage of AEG is characterized by simultaneous drainage to the mediastinal and abdominal lymphatic pathways. The optimal lymphadenectomy depends on the distribution of lymph node metastasis. Reconstruction of the digestive tract requires safety as a precondition, taking into account of postoperative complications and quality of life. For AEG patients undergoing total gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y anastomosis is more common. For those undergoing proximal gastrectomy, esophageal residual stomach (tubular stomach) anastomosis is more common, but the proportion of postoperative reflux esophagitis is higher. Some documents have revealed advantages of minimally invasive laparoscopic operation for AEG, but higher level evidences is needed.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Pathology , General Surgery , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774417

ABSTRACT

The incidence of adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) has been increasing in recent years and has become a major health problem worldwide. The completed phase III clinical trials have revealed that perioperative chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy can significantly improve prognosis and reduce local recurrence in patients with locally advanced AEG. The sudden emergence of targeted therapy and immunotherapy based on chemotherapy has showed a broad prospect. The location and gross type of tumors can provide valuable information for clinical decision making. Siewert classification is widely used in the world, which is helpful to the choice of the best surgical method. Partial gastrectomy and subtotal esophagectomy with thorough mediastinal lymph node dissection via right thorax approach and total gastrectomy with abdominal lymph node dissection are suitable for Siewert types I and III respectively. There is no consensus on the scope of lymph node dissection in Siewert type II procedure and further research is needed. In addition, regarding the rule of abdominal aortic lymph node metastasis and whether it is necessary to clean the para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with AEG, further research is still required.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Pathology , Therapeutics , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pathology , Therapeutics , Esophagectomy , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Pathology , Therapeutics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774416

ABSTRACT

The accurate judgement of the upper and lower borders of the adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) by radiology can facilitate the decisions on surgical approach and staging criteria. X-ray double contrast radiography, CT and MRI are the common modalities. The accuracy of X-ray double contrast radiography in determining the invasion length of esophagus and the central point of gastric infiltration can be improved by standardized pretreatment, combination of multiple contrast methods such as double contrast and flow-coating procedure, and combination of multi-angle observations such as conventional frontal, left /right anterior oblique and supine right posterior oblique position. Abdominal enhanced CT is the imaging method recommended by clinical guidelines for the radiological examination of AEG. The relative position of the central point of the tumor from 2 cm line can be determined through the combination of measurement and formula calculation on multi-planar reconstructed CT images. The "three-layer four-type" classification can provide reference for the selection of abdominothoracic incision. The direct demonstration of the tumor extension can be achieved through the CT curved planar reconstruction by drawing lines along esophagus to stomach. The combination of multiple sequences of MRI is helpful to determine the extension of the lesions. In the future, more radiological studies are needed to establish criteria with high accuracy, repeatability and convenient operation,and to assist clinical evaluation of AEG invasion.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Classification , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , General Surgery , Contrast Media , Esophageal Neoplasms , Classification , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , General Surgery , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Stomach Neoplasms , Classification , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , General Surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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