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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 253-261, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285318

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Caustic ingestion and development of esophageal strictures are recognized major public health problems in childhood. Different therapeutic methods have been proposed in the management of such strictures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and risk of endoscopic topical application of mitomycin C in the treatment of caustic esophageal strictures. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Central Cochrane, and LILACS databases. The outcomes evaluated were dysphagia resolution rate, number of dilations performed in resolved cases, and the number of dilations performed in all patients. RESULTS: Three randomized clinical trials were included for final analysis with a total of 190 patients. Topical mitomycin C application group showed a significant increase in dysphagia resolution rate, corresponding to a 42% higher dysphagia resolution as compared to endoscopic dilation alone, with statistical significance between the two groups (RD: 0.42 - [CI: 0.29-0.56]; P-value <0.00001). The mean number of dilations performed in resolved cases were significantly less in the topical mitomycin C application group, compared to endoscopic dilations alone, with statistical significance between the two groups (MD: 2.84 [CI: 1.98-3.69]; P-value <0.00001). When comparing the number of dilations in all patients, there was no statistical difference between the two groups (MD: 1.46 [CI: -1.53-4.44]; P-value =0.34). CONCLUSION: Application of topical mitomycin C with endoscopic dilations in caustic esophageal strictures was more effective in dysphagia resolution than endoscopic therapy alone in the pediatric population. Moreover, topical mitomycin C application also reduced the number of dilation sessions needed to alleviate dysphagia without rising morbidity.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A ingestão de soda cáustica e o desenvolvimento de estenoses esofágicas são reconhecidos como importantes problemas de saúde pública na infância. Diferentes métodos terapêuticos têm sido propostos no manejo dessas estenoses. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e o risco da aplicação endoscópica tópica de mitomicina C no tratamento de estenoses esofágicas cáusticas. MÉTODOS: Buscamos as bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, Central Cochrane e LILACS. Os desfechos avaliados foram taxa de resolução da disfagia, número de dilatações realizadas nos casos resolvidos e número de dilatações realizadas em todos os pacientes. RESULTADOS: Três ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos para análise final com um total de 190 pacientes. O grupo de aplicação de mitomicina C tópica apresentou aumento significativo na taxa de resolução da disfagia, correspondendo a uma resolução da disfagia 42% maior em comparação à dilatação endoscópica isolada, com significância estatística entre os dois grupos (RD: 0,42 - [IC: 0,29-0,56]; P-valor <0,00001). O número médio de dilatações realizadas em casos resolvidos foi significativamente menor no grupo de aplicação tópica de mitomicina C, em comparação com as dilatações endoscópicas isoladas, com significância estatística entre os dois grupos (MD: 2,84 [IC: 1,98-3,69]; P-valor <0,00001). Ao comparar o número de dilatações em todos os pacientes, não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos (MD: 1,46 [IC: -1,53-4,44]; valor de P=0,34). CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação de mitomicina C tópica com dilatações endoscópicas em estenoses esofágicas cáusticas foi mais eficaz na resolução da disfagia do que a terapia endoscópica isolada na população pediátrica. Além disso, a aplicação tópica de mitomicina C também reduziu o número de sessões de dilatação necessárias para aliviar a disfagia sem aumentar a morbidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Caustics/toxicity , Esophageal Stenosis/chemically induced , Esophageal Stenosis/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Administration, Topical , Esophagoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Mitomycin/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 289-295, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131669

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition that raises controversy among general practitioners and specialists, especially regarding its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up protocols. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to present the particularities and to clarify controversies related to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of BE. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane, and SciELO based on articles published in the last 10 years. PRISMA guidelines were followed and the search was made using MeSH and non-MeSH terms "Barrett" and "diagnosis or treatment or therapy or surveillance". We searched for complete randomized controlled clinical trials or Phase IV studies, carried out with individuals over 18 years old. RESULTS: A total of 42 randomized controlled trials were selected after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. A growing trend of alternative and safer techniques to traditional upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were identified, which could improve the detection of BE and patient acceptance. The use of chromoendoscopy-guided biopsy protocols significantly reduced the number of biopsies required to maintain similar BE detection rates. Furthermore, the value of BE chemoprophylaxis with esomeprazole and acetylsalicylic acid was relevant, as well as the establishment of protocols for the follow-up and endoscopic surveillance of patients with BE based predominantly on the presence and degree of dysplasia, as well as on the length of the follow-up affected by BE. CONCLUSION: Although further studies regarding the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of BE are warranted, in light of the best evidence presented in the last decade, there is a trend towards electronic chromoendoscopy-guided biopsies for the diagnosis of BE, while treatment should encompass endoscopic techniques such as radiofrequency ablation. Risks of ablative endoscopic methods should be weighted against those of resective surgery. It is also important to consider lifetime endoscopic follow-up for both short and long term BE patients, with consideration to limitations imposed by a range of comorbidities. Unfortunately, there are no randomized controlled trials that have evaluated which is the best recommendation for BE follow-up and endoscopic surveillance (>1 cm) protocols, however, based on current International Guidelines, it is recommended esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) every 5 years in BE without dysplasia with 1 up to 3 cm of extension; every 3 years in BE without dysplasia with >3 up to 10 cm of extension, every 6 to 12 months in BE with low grade dysplasia and, finally, EGD every 3 months after ablative endoscopic therapy in cases of BE with high grade dysplasia.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O esôfago de Barrett (EB) é uma condição que aumenta o risco de ocorrência de displasias e câncer no esôfago, a qual apresenta inúmeras controvérsias entre médicos generalistas e até especialistas, em especial no que tange o seu diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento. OBJETIVO: Tentar esclarecer as controvérsias relacionadas ao estabelecimento do diagnóstico, tratamento, seguimento e vigilância do EB. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado revisão sistemática da literatura fundamentada apenas em ensaios clínicos randomizados e controlados (completos ou em fase IV), em indivíduos maiores que 18 anos, publicados nos últimos 10 anos, por meio de busca, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Cochrane e SciELO (utilizando os termos MeSH e não-MeSH: "Barrett" no título AND diagnosis or treatment or therapy or surveillance" em todos os campos). RESULTADOS: Um total de 42 ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados foram identificados e selecionados após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Evidenciou-se, principalmente, o surgimento de técnicas seguras, alternativas à endoscopia digestiva alta (EDA) tradicional para aprimorar a detecção do esôfago de Barrett, associadas a boa aceitação por parte dos pacientes, quando realizadas por meio de acesso nasal. Ainda, o uso de protocolo de biópsias guiadas por cromoendoscopia eletrônica favoreceu reduzir significativamente o número de biópsias necessárias para alcançar as melhores taxas de identificação histológica do EB. Ademais, foi evidenciado que o uso de esomeprazol 40 mg 2x/dia associado ao ácido acetil salicílico 300 mg/dia pode ter efeito protetivo em relação ao desenvolvimento de câncer no EB, além de ser identificado protocolos de seguimento e vigilância endoscópica dos pacientes com EB >1 cm fundamentados, especialmente, no grau de displasia e comprimento do EB (EB sem displasia com 1 a 3 cm = EDA a cada 5 anos; EB sem displasia com >3 a 10 cm = EDA a cada 3 anos; EB com displasia de baixo grau = EDA a cada 6 a 12 meses; EB com displasia de alto grau = realização de terapia endoscópica ablativa e EDA a cada 3 meses). CONCLUSÃO: Foi verificado a necessidade do desenvolvimento de mais ensaios clínicos randomizados e controlados relacionados ao tema, especialmente no que tange o estabelecimento do seguimento e vigilância do EB, entretanto, na luz das melhores evidências apresentadas na última década, o diagnóstico de EB deve seguir, idealmente, protocolos de biópsias guiadas por cromoendoscopia eletrônica. Ademais, o tratamento deve ser fundamentado primeiramente em técnicas endoscópicas, especialmente aquelas terapias com radiofrequência, e quando associado a displasia de alto grau, deverá ser ponderado quanto aos riscos de se insistir em métodos endoscópicos ablativos ou considerar um tratamento cirúrgico ressectivo. Por fim, reforça-se a necessidade de todo paciente com EB >1 cm permanecer em seguimento endoscópico por toda a sua vida, conforme protocolos pré-estabelecidos, exceto se apresentar comorbidades limitantes que impediriam a realização de alguma conduta mais intervencionista. Infelizmente, não há ensaios clínicos randomizados que avaliaram qual é a melhor recomendação de protocolo para o seguimento endoscópico de EB (>1cm), porém, baseado nas atuais Guidelines Internacionais, é recomendado esofagogastroduodenoscopia (EGD) a cada 5 anos em EB sem displasia com 1 a 3 cm de extensão; a cada 3 anos em EB com displasia com 3 a 10 cm de extensão, a cada 6 a 12 meses em EB com displasia de baixo grau e, finalmente, EGD a cada 3 meses após terapia ablativa endoscópica nos casos de EB com displasia de alto grau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Barrett Esophagus/diagnosis , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagoscopy
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 79-86, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098063

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Achalasia is a neurodegenerative motility esophageal disorder characterized by failure of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The conventional treatment option for achalasia has been laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). However, in 2010, Inoue et al. described peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), a minimally invasive procedure, as an alternative therapy. To date, some studies with small sample sizes have aimed to compare outcomes of LHM vs POEM. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of these two techniques. METHODS: Individualized search strategies were developed from inception through April 2019 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Variables analyzed included operative time, overall adverse events rate, post-procedure gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hospitalization length, post-procedure pain score, and Eckardt Score reduction. RESULTS: Twelve cohort trials were selected, consisting of 893 patients (359 in POEM group and 534 in LHM.) No randomized clinical trials were available. There was no difference in operative time (MD= -10,26, 95% CI (-5,6 to 8,2), P<0.001) or Post-Operative Gastroesophageal Reflux (RD: -0.00, 95%CI: (-0.09, 0.09), I2: 0%). There was decreased length of hospital stay for POEM (MD: -0.6, 95% CI (-1.11, -0.09), P=0.02), and an increased mean reduction in Eckardt score in POEM patients (MD = -0.257, 95% CI: (-0.512 to -0.002), P=0.048), with similar rates of adverse events. CONCLUSION: POEM demonstrated similar results compared to laparoscopic Heller myotomy with regards to improvement of dysphagia, post-procedure reflux, and surgical time, with the benefit of shorter length of hospital stay. Therefore, POEM can be considered an option for patients with achalasia.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A acalasia é um distúrbio esofágico da motilidade neurodegenerativa caracterizado por falha no relaxamento do esfíncter esofágico inferior (EEI). A opção de tratamento convencional para acalasia tem sido a miotomia laparoscópica de Heller (LHM). No entanto, em 2010, Inoue et al. descreveram a miotomia endoscópica peroral (POEM), um procedimento minimamente invasivo, como uma terapia alternativa. Até o momento, poucos estudos com amostras pequenas tiveram como objetivo comparar os resultados do LHM versus POEM. OBJETIVO: Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é realizar uma revisão sistemática e metanálise para melhor avaliar a eficácia e segurança dessas duas técnicas. MÉTODOS: Estratégias de busca individualizadas foram desenvolvidas desde o início até abril de 2019, de acordo com as diretrizes do PRISMA. As variáveis analisadas incluíram tempo operatório, taxa global de eventos adversos, doença de refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) pós-procedimento, tempo de internação, escore de dor pós-procedimento e redução do escore de Eckardt. RESULTADOS: Doze estudos de coorte foram selecionados, consistindo em 893 pacientes (359 no grupo POEM e 524 no LHM). Nenhum ensaio clínico randomizado estava disponível. Não houve diferença no tempo operatório (MD = -10,26, IC 95% (-5,6 a 8,2), P<0,001) ou refluxo gastroesofágico pós-operatório (RD: -0,00, 95% IC: (-0,09, 0,09), I2: 0%). Houve diminuição do tempo de permanência hospitalar para POEM (MD: -0,6, 95% CI (-1,11, -0,09), P=0,02) e um aumento da redução média no escore de Eckardt em pacientes POEM (MD= -0,257, IC95%: (-0,512 a -0,002), P=0,048), com taxas similares de eventos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: O POEM demonstrou resultados semelhantes aos da miotomia a Heller por videolaparoscopia, com melhora da disfagia, do refluxo pós-procedimento e tempo cirúrgico, com o benefício de menor tempo de internação hospitalar. Portanto, o POEM pode ser considerado uma opção para pacientes com acalasia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Esophagoscopy/methods , Myotomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Operative Time , Length of Stay
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 275-281, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to eosinophilic esophagitis and to increase the visibility of the disease among pediatricians. Sources: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and recent consensus statements and guidelines were performed. Summary of the findings: The definition of eosinophilic esophagitis is based on symptoms and histology. It is important to rule out other diseases associated with esophageal eosinophil-predominant inflammation. It is not yet clear whether the increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence or a result of increased awareness of the disease. Various options for management have been used in pediatric patients, including proton pump inhibitors, dietary restriction therapies, swallowed topical steroids, and endoscopic dilations. More recently, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis have been contemplated on the same spectrum, and proton pump inhibitors should be considered the initial step in the treatment of these patients. Conclusions: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a relatively new disease with a remarkable progression of its incidence and prevalence in the past two to three decades, and diagnostic criteria that are constantly evolving. It is important to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, the predisposing factors, the natural history, and the categorization of varying phenotypes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that meet the clinical needs of patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Fornecer uma visão geral do diagnóstico e do tratamento da esofagite eosinofílica na prática clínica e aumentar a visibilidade da doença entre os pediatras. Fontes dos dados: Foi feita uma busca na literatura relevante nos bancos de dados Medline, Embase, CINAHL e consensos e diretrizes recentes foram revisados. Síntese dos dados: A definição de esofagite eosinofílica é baseada nos sintomas e na histologia. É importante excluir outras doenças associadas com inflamação esofágica predominantemente eosinofílica. Ainda não está claro se o aumento na prevalência é devido a um real aumento da incidência ou se é o resultado da maior suspeição diagnóstica. Várias opções para tratamento, inclusive inibidores de bomba de prótons, restrições dietéticas, esteroides tópicos deglutidos e dilatações endoscópicas têm sido usadas em pacientes pediátricos. Mais recentemente a eosinofilia esofágica responsiva a inibidores de bomba de prótons e a esofagite eosinofílica têm sido contempladas no mesmo espectro e os inibidores de bomba de prótons devem ser considerados como opção inicial no tratamento desses pacientes. Conclusões: A esofagite eosinofílica é uma doença relativamente nova com uma notável progressão da incidência e prevalência nas últimas 2-3 décadas e critérios diagnósticos estão em evolução constante. É importante entender melhor a patogênese dessa doença, os fatores predisponentes, a história natural e a categorização dos diferentes fenótipos para desenvolver estratégias diagnósticas e terapêuticas que vão ao encontro das necessidades clínicas dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Dilatation , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 41-44, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer. The prognosis is bleak in patients with advanced stages. Patients with early disease have a better prognosis than those with advanced stage. There are several techniques for the screening of premalignant and superficial lesions including chromoendoscopy. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to determine the effectiveness of chromoendoscopy with toluidine blue combined with Lugol's solution for diagnosis of esophageal premalignant and superficial neoplastic lesions in high risk patients. METHODS: Routine white light upper endoscopy was performed. Toluidine blue was sprayed from the gastroesophageal junction to 20 cm of the dental arch. Then the uptake dye areas were characterized. Later Lugol's solution was sprayed. Areas with less-intense staining were characterized. Biopsy of the toluidine blue capturing areas and areas with less-intense staining of Lugol's solution were taken. In the cases where lesions were not evidenced after application of dyes, biopsies four quadrants of the esophageal mucosa were taken. The samples were evaluated by a digestive pathologist. RESULTS: Barrett's esophagus was the most common premalignant lesion and the early neoplastic lesion was adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value 30%, negative predictive value 100%, positive likelihood ratio 7 negative likelihood ratio 0. CONCLUSION: Chromoendoscopy with toluidine blue combined with Lugol's solution is a useful tool in the screening of esophageal premalignant lesions and superficial neoplasms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer de esôfago é o oitavo câncer mais comum. O prognóstico é sombrio em pacientes com estágios avançados. Pacientes com doença precoce têm um melhor prognóstico do que aqueles com estágio avançado. Existem várias técnicas para a triagem de lesões pré-malignas e superficiais, incluindo cromoendoscopia. OBJETIVO: Este artigo objetivou determinar a efetividade da cromoendoscopia com azul de toluidina combinada com a solução de Lugol para o diagnóstico de lesões neoplásicas pré-malignas e superficiais esofágicas em pacientes de alto risco. MÉTODOS - A endoscopia de luz branca de rotina foi realizada de forma rotineira. O azul do toluidina foi pulverizado desde a junção gastroesofágica até 20 cm da arcada dentária. As áreas impregnadas pela tintura da tomada foram então caracterizadas. Mais adiante a solução de Lugol foi pulverizada. Áreas com coloração menos intensa foram caracterizadas. Foram realizadas biópsias das áreas de captura de azul de toluidina e áreas com coloração menos intensa da solução de Lugol. Nos casos onde as lesões não foram evidenciadas após a aplicação das tinturas, foram feitas biópsias em quatro quadrantes da mucosa esofágica. As amostras foram avaliadas por um patologista especializado. RESULTADOS: O esôfago de Barrett foi a lesão pré-maligna mais frequente e a lesão neoplásica precoce foi adenocarcinoma com sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 85,7%, valor preditivo positivo de 30%, valor preditivo negativo 100%, razão de verossimilhança positiva 7 e razão de verossimilhança negativa 0. CONCLUSÃO: A cromoendoscopia com azul de toluidina combinada com a solução de Lugol é uma ferramenta útil na triagem de lesões pré-malignas esofágicas e neoplasias superficiais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophagoscopy/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Tolonium Chloride/administration & dosage , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Esophagitis, Peptic/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Esophageal Mucosa/pathology , Esophageal Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Iodides/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
6.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 7-11, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) is a widely used tool both in the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting complaints within the head and the neck. This is because this investigative adjunct examination provides the advantage of visualizing above the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle when compared to the more widely used esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Objectives We have assessed if the implementation of TNE within a district general hospital (DGH) was feasible, and investigated if the resources of our patients could be better directed away from other investigations such as barium swallow and EGD in favor of this novel technique. The TNE technique has been largely applied in central teaching hospitals within the United Kingdom, but there are still no published reports of a DGH investigating its applicability in this smaller-sized clinical environment. Method We have analyzed our theater database to find all the patients who had undergone TNE, and recorded their reason for presenting, the preceding investigations, and the procedural findings. Results Inmost cases, the TNEwas conducted without technical issues, and we were able to identify positive findings in 43% of the patients who underwent Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).Wewere able to treat patients successfully during the investigationwhen a cricopharyngeal stricture or narrowing was found. A normal EGD did not preclude further investigations with TNE. All but one of our patients were treated as day-case procedures. Conclusion Transnasal esophagoscopy can be successfully delivered within a DGH. A previous EGD does not mean that the TNE will not reveal positive findings due to its superior visualization of the pharynx and the upper esophagus. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophagoscopy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Data Collection , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Dilatation/methods , Hospitals, General
7.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 110-115, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002174

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Fish bone foreign body (FFB) impaction in the upper aerodigestive tract is a common cause for emergency department referral. Its management varies in both diagnosis and treatment paradigms. Fish bone foreign bodies are more commonly found in the oropharynx in cases of patients < 40 years old, and in the esophagus in cases of patients > 40 years old. Symptoms are typically non-indicative for the location of the FFB, with the exception of foreign body sensation at/superior to the cervical esophagus. A lack of findings during the physical examination is routinely followed by imaging, with computed tomography (CT) being the preferred modality. In practice, many patients undergo unnecessary imaging studies, including CT scans. Objectives To identify patients with suspected fish bone impaction who do not require CT imaging and can be safely discharged. Data Synthesis We have searched the PubMed database for the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: fish bone, fish foreign body AND oropharynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, flexible esophagoscopy, and rigid esophagoscopy. Our search in the English language yielded 32 papers. Case reports were included, since they highlighted rare and serious complications. Conclusion In patients > 40 years old suspected of fish bone impaction, noncontrast CT is recommended and should be urgently performed, even in the presence of ambiguous symptoms. However, in patients < 40 years old presenting within 24 hours from ingestion, imaging has little diagnostic value due to the low probability of esophageal fish bones. For this specific subgroup, in the absence of clinical findings, discharge without imaging studies may be considered safe. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Fishes , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prevalence , Esophagoscopy/methods , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/physiopathology , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Foreign Bodies/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180258, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990442

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus can be challenging in patients with Chagas disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the agreement between upper endoscopies and esophagographies for the diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus in Chagas disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 50 patients with Chagas disease with upper digestive symptoms was undertaken. Esophagography and upper endoscopy exams were performed to compare diagnoses. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of upper endoscopies, and measures of agreement: linearly weighted Kappa (κw) and Cohen`s classical Kappa (κ) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (46%) were diagnosed with megaesophagus by esophagography. The upper endoscopy sensitivity and specificity for megaesophagus diagnosis were 100% and 33.3%, respectively. Regarding megaesophagus classifications, there was a substantial agreement between the two exams (κw = 0.622; 95% CI: 0.498 to 0.746). Within megaesophagus groups, agreement for group I was slight (κ = 0.096; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.403); for group II, substantial (κ = 0.703; 95% CI: 0.456 to 0.950); and for groups III and IV, inconclusive (κ = 0.457; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.967; κ = 0.540; 95% CI: 0.035 to 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Upper endoscopy has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity to diagnose megaesophagus. Agreement between the two exams varies depending on the megaesophagus grade. Thus, upper endoscopy can be used in the diagnostic workup of a possible Chagas disease megaesophagus, but all identified cases should undergo esophagography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiography/methods , Esophageal Achalasia/etiology , Esophageal Achalasia/diagnostic imaging , Esophagoscopy/methods , Chagas Disease/complications , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Esophageal Achalasia/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 33(4): 448-453, oct.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985498

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los leiomiomas esofágicos son tumores benignos, que son resecados por enucleación esofágica cuando son mayores de 5 cm o en lesiones de cualquier tamaño que sean sintomáticos o sospechosos de malignidad. Tradicionalmente, se ha realizado la resección por técnica de enucleación abierta; sin embargo, la cirugía mínimamente invasiva ha surgido como una técnica con grandes ventajas y, en especial, la tecnología robótica parece ofrecer ventajas. Caso clínico: se reporta un caso de leiomioma esofágico del esófago medio con enucleación mediante el uso de una técnica toracoscópica asistida por robot. La esofagoscopia intraoperatoria y la transiluminación fueron complementos útiles para identificar el esófago y desarrollar un plano de disección extramucosa seguro, que junto con la asistencia robótica parecen minimizar los riesgos intraoperatorios, entre ellos, potencialmente la probabilidad de lesión mucosa, y mejoran el tiempo de recuperación postoperatoria.


Abstract Introduction: Esophageal leiomyomas are benign tumors which are resected by esophageal enucleation when they are symptomatic, suspected of malignancy, or larger than 5 cm. Traditional resection uses the open enucleation technique, but minimally invasive surgery has emerged as a technique that has great advantages, especially when combined with robotic technology. Case report: We report a case of leiomyoma of the middle esophagus with treated with enucleation using a robotic-assisted thoracoscopic technique. Intraoperative esophagoscopy and transillumination were useful for identifying the esophagus and developing a plan of safe extra mucosal dissection. Together with robotic assistance this seems to minimize intraoperative risks including that of mucosal injury while also improving postoperative recovery time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Robotics , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Esophagus , Leiomyoma , Technology , Transillumination , Risk , Esophagoscopy , Literature , Neoplasms
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 256-261, ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950040

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ingestión de un cuerpo extraño (CE) es un accidente frecuente en el hogar en la edad pediátrica; su manejo oportuno por especialistas puede evitar complicaciones a corto y largo plazo. Objetivo: Describir características y complicaciones de los CE en el tubo digestivo en población pediátrica. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo y prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de ingestión de un CE desde enero de 1971 a diciembre de 2016. Se recabaron características generales de los pacientes, tipo de objeto, métodos de extracción y complicaciones. Se realizó análisis descriptivo. Resultados: Durante 45 años, se extrajeron 2637 CE localizados en faringe (n= 118), esófago (n= 2410), estómago (n= 103) e intestino (n= 6). Predominaron en el sexo masculino (50,9%); 74% fueron en menores de 5 años. El 57% llegó en las primeras 24 horas; sialorrea, disfagia y vómito fueron los principales síntomas y un 16% estaba asintomático. La radiografía permitió localizar el CE en el 93%; el más ingerido fue la moneda (78%); la localización más común fue el tercio superior del esófago (79%); el 86% se extrajo con endoscopio rígido y las complicaciones se presentaron en el 7,8% de los casos. Conclusiones: La ingestión de un CE predomina en menores de 5 años, y los metales son los más frecuentes. La radiografía simple es el estudio de elección, que permite realizar el diagnóstico y la extracción es por vía endoscópica con endoscopio rígido o flexible según la experiencia del endoscopista.


Introduction: Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common home accident during childhood; a timely management by the specialists may help prevent complications in the short and long term. Objective: To describe the characteristics and complications of FB ingestion located in the gastrointestinal tract in the pediatric population. Material and methods: Two phases, retrospective, and prospective study. Patients diagnosed with FB ingestion between January 1971 and December 2016 were included. The general characteristics of patients, FB type, removal method, and complications were registered. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Over 45 years, 2637 FBs were removed from the pharynx (n= 118), the esophagus (n= 2410), the stomach (n= 103), and the intestines (n= 6). Male patients predominated (50.9%); 74% were younger than 5 years. Besides, 57% arrived within the first 24 hours; ptyalism, dysphagia, and vomiting were the main symptoms; 16% of patients had no symptoms. It was possible to locate the FB using an X-ray in 93% of cases; the most common FBs were coins (78%); the most frequent location was the upper third of the esophagus (79%); 86% of FBs were removed using a rigid endoscope, and complications were observed in 7.8% of patients. Conclusions: FB ingestion predominated among children younger than 5 years; metal objects were the most common ones. A plain X-ray is the test of choice for diagnosis; removal is usually done with a rigid or flexible endoscope, depending on the endoscopist's experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bronchoscopy , Esophagoscopy , Foreign Bodies/diagnosis , Turkey/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Foreign Bodies/epidemiology
11.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(2): 1-7, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978378

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de células granulosas afectan raramente al esófago. Presentamos el caso de tumores de células granulosas del esófago y revisar la literatura. Se presenta una paciente de 21 años de edad y piel negra con síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico. La endoscopia digestiva demostró un tumor de 2 cm que protruía hacia la luz del órgano, localizado en el tercio inferior, con mucosa sana. El esofagograma corroboró el hallazgo en la porción abdominal del órgano y la biopsia endoscópica informó que se trataba de tumores de células granulosas. El acceso videolaparoscópico fue convertido a cirugía convencional debido a la abertura mucosa y a que quedaba un pequeño fragmento del tumor. El periodo posoperatorio transcurrió sin complicaciones. Un año después de la operación no existía evidencia de recidiva. Los tumores de células granulosas son raros en el esófago. Los tumores pequeños (< 1 cm) pueden ser tratados conservadoramente, mientras que los de mayor volumen deben ser resecados mediante diferentes técnicas: endoscópicas y cirugía de mínimo acceso o convencional(AU)


Granulosa cell tumors rarely affect the esophagus. We present the case of granulosa cell tumors of the esophagus and literature review. A 21-year-old patient of black skin presents with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The digestive endoscopy showed a 2-cm tumor that protruded towards the organ lumen, located in the lower third, with healthy mucosa. The esophagogram corroborated the finding in the abdominal portion of the organ, and the endoscopic biopsy reported that there were granulosa cell tumors. Videolaparoscopic access was converted to conventional surgery due to the mucosal opening and because a small fragment of the tumor was remaining. The postoperative period had no complications. One year after the operation, there was no evidence of recurrence. Granulosa cell tumors are rare in the esophagus. Small tumors (smaller than 1 cm) can be treated conservatively, while larger tumors should be resected using different techniques: endoscopic and minimal access or conventional surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Esophagoscopy/methods , Granular Cell Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy/methods
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 98-104, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887454

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. Durante una esofagoscopía en niños, pueden ocurrir complicaciones durante la dilatación. Identificamos alteraciones cardiorrespiratorias durante la esofagoscopía con o sin dilatación con globo y las complicaciones posoperatorias, en niños con anestesia. Métodos. Estudio prospectivo, observacional de procedimientos endoscópicos en niños de 0-16 años. Se dividieron en dos grupos: con endoscopía-dilatación (Grupo ED) y dilatación con globo por estenosis esofágica, y con endoscopía sin dilatación (Grupo E): endoscopía diagnóstica, esofagoscopía de control o escleroterapia. Registramos parámetros hemodinámicos y ventilatorios y las complicaciones durante la endoscopía, la dilatación y el seguimiento de dos horas en la sala de recuperación. Resultados. Incluimos 102 procedimientos en 60 pacientes. La presión inspiratoria máxima (PIM) aumentó significativamente en ambos grupos (p < 0,001) y aumentó significativamente durante el procedimiento en el grupo ED (p < 0,001). La diferencia en la PIM antes y después de la endoscopía se correlacionó negativamente en ambos grupos. Al subdividir los grupos según el punto de corte de 2 años para comparar la diferencia en la PIM antes y después de la endoscopía, la PIM aumentó de manera estadísticamente significativa en ambos grupos en los menores de 2 años. En el grupo ED, la frecuencia cardíaca aumentó estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Durante la endoscopía, la PIM aumentó en niños con o sin dilatación con globo, especialmente en el grupo ED, y fue mayor en los niños más pequeños. Es necesario observar y tratar atentamente las complicaciones cardiorrespiratorias graves durante la dilatación con globo y con anestesia general.


Background. Complications can occur during esophagoscopy as a result of applied procedure in children, especially during dilation techic. Our aim was to identify cardio-respiratory alterations during esophagoscopy with or without baloon dilation under anesthesia in children, and to investigate the postoperative complications. Methods. Prospective, observational study of endoscopic procedures in patients 0-16 years. The patients were divided into two groups: the endoscopy-dilation group (Group ED: endoscopy and balloon dilation due to esophageal stricture) and endoscopy without dilation (Group E: endoscopy for diagnostic reasons, control esophagoscopy or sclerotherapy). Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters alterations and complications during endoscopy, dilation and two-hours follow-up time in the postoperative recovery room were recorded. Results. 102 procedures in 60 patients were included. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) values significantly increased after endoscopy in both groups (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in mean PIP values in the dilation group during the procedure (p<0,001). The difference in PIP values before and after the endoscopy was negatively correlated with age in both groups. When the groups were subdivided taking two years of age as a cut-off point in comparing PIP difference before-after endoscopy, PIP increase was statistically significant in both groups under two-years old. In the dilation group, statistically significant increase of HR was detected during the procedure (p<0,001). Conclusion. During endoscopy PIP increased in patients with or without baloon dilation especially in the dilation group. PIP increase was higher in younger children. Severe respiratory and cardiovascular complications during balloon dilation under general anesthesia should be carefully observed and managed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Esophagoscopy/adverse effects , Dilatation/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Esophagoscopy/instrumentation , Esophagoscopy/methods , Dilatation/instrumentation , Dilatation/methods , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(3): 214-216, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896451

ABSTRACT

Summary An 82-year-old man sought our service with dysphagia and was referred for upper endoscopy with biopsies, which evidenced multiple ulcers of the esophagus and oropharinx. Histopathology confirmed the unusual diagnosis of esophageal lichen planus. The correct clinical suspicion of this disease can facilitate the diagnosis and guide specific treatment, which can drastically change the natural course of the disease.


Resumo Paciente do sexo masculino, de 82 anos, com disfagia, foi encaminhado para realização de endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias, na qual foram evidenciadas múltiplas úlceras de esôfago e orofaringe. O estudo histopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico raro de líquen plano esofágico. A correta suspeita clínica dessa doença pode facilitar o diagnóstico e direcionar para um tratamento específico, o que pode drasticamente alterar o curso natural dessa comorbidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases/complications , Lichen Planus/complications , Biopsy , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Esophagoscopy , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Esophageal Diseases/pathology , Esophageal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lichen Planus/pathology , Lichen Planus/diagnostic imaging
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758513

ABSTRACT

The development of office-based, unsedated transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) has proven to be a major technological advance and with time and experience the application of this technology is becoming more widespread. TNE has allowed otolaryngologists to perform a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the office setting. Studies consistently demonstrate that the image quality and diagnostic capability of TNE is equivalent to conventional esophagoscopy. The modern TNE endoscopes offer high quality optics, air-insufflation, and irrigation capability through a 2-mm working channel, and the ability to perform biopsies and select procedures. In general, the role of TNE in the head and neck patient is three-fold : to screen for synchronous and metachronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ; to differentiate post-treatment changes/symptoms from malignancy ; and to perform certain office-based procedures. TNE offers many specific advantages to the head and neck patient that are not afforded by conventional esophagoscopy. Because of surgical and postirradiation changes, many HNSCC patients have trismus or neck stiffness preventing completion of conventional transoral esophagoscopy. Perhaps most importantly, TNE provides enhanced patient safety, increased tolerability, better practice efficiency, and cost savings. For these reasons, TNE has become a particularly useful tool in the otolaryngologist's armamentarium.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cost Savings , Endoscopes , Esophagoscopy , Head , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Neck , Patient Safety , Trismus
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715125

ABSTRACT

Perforation of the esophagus is an uncommon problem with significant morbidity and mortality. In children undergoing endoscopy, the risk of perforation is higher when interventional endoscopy is performed. The clinical features depend upon the site of esophageal perforation. Opinions vary regarding the optimal treatment protocol, and the role of conservative management in this context is not well established. Esophageal perforation that occurs as a consequence of endoscopy in children requires careful evaluation and management, as outlined in this article.


Subject(s)
Child , Clinical Protocols , Endoscopy , Esophageal Perforation , Esophagoscopy , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Mortality
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 305-307, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in most Western countries. Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state of Brazil has the highest rates of esophageal cancer with low prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus among patients underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the last 5 years. METHODS: The records of patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. Demographic data, GERD symptoms, endoscopic findings, extension and histological diagnosis of columnar epithelia of the esophagus were recorded. Significance among the variables was accessed by chi-square test and Fisher's exact test with 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 5996 patients underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the period were included. A total of 1769 (30%) patients with GERD symptoms or esophagitis and 107 (1.8%) with columnar lined esophagus were identified. Except for eight patients, the others with columnar lined esophagus had GERD symptoms or esophagitis. Barrett's esophagus defined by the presence of intestinal metaplasia occurred in 47 patients; 20 (43%) with segments over 3 cm and 27 (57%) with segments shorter than 3 cm. The global prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 0.7% and in GERD patients 2.7%. The odds ratio for the occurrence of columnar lined esophagus in patients with GERD was 30 (95%CI=15.37-63.34). The odds ratio for the presence of intestinal metaplasia in long segments was 8 (95%CI=2.83-23.21). CONCLUSION: GERD patients had a risk 30-folds greater to present columnar lined esophagus than patients without GERD symptoms. Long segments of columnar lined esophagus, had a risk eight-folds higher to have Barrett's esophagus than short segments. Barrett's esophagus overall prevalence was 0.7%. In GERD patients, the prevalence was 2.7%. Long Barrett's esophagus represented globally 0.3% and 1.1% in GERD patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Esôfago de Barrett, complicação da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE), é lesão precursora do adenocarcinoma esofágico. O adenocarcinoma esofágico apresenta incidência crescente principalmente no ocidente. O estado do Rio Grande do Sul apresenta as taxas mais altas de câncer esofágico no Brasil, porém com baixa prevalência de adenocarcinoma. OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de esôfago de Barrett em pacientes submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta nos últimos 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Revisão de prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta entre 2011 e 2015. Registrados dados demográficos, sintomas de DRGE, achados endoscópicos, extensão e diagnóstico histológico de epitelização colunar do esôfago. A significância entre as variáveis foi acessada pelos testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher com IC95%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 5996 pacientes. Identificamos 1769 (30%) com sintomas de DRGE ou esofagite e 107 (1,8%) com epitelização colunar. À exceção de oito pacientes com epitelização colunar, os demais apresentavam sintomas de DRGE ou esofagite. Esôfago de Barrett definido pela presença de metaplasia intestinal ocorreu em 47 pacientes; 20 (43%) com segmentos acima de 3 cm e em 27 (57%) com segmentos menores. A prevalência global de esôfago de Barrett foi 0,7% e em pacientes com DRGE foi 2,7%. A razão de chances para a ocorrência de epitelização colunar em pacientes com DRGE foi 30 (IC95%=15,37-63,34) e para a ocorrência de metaplasia intestinal em segmentos longos foi 8 (IC95%=2,83-23,21). CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com DRGE apresentaram risco 30 vezes maior que pacientes sem DRGE para a ocorrência de epitelização colunar. O risco de ocorrência de esôfago de Barrett em segmentos longos foi oito vezes maior. A prevalência global de esôfago de Barrett foi 0,7%. Em pacientes com DRGE a prevalência foi 2,7%. Segmentos longos de esôfago de Barrett representaram globalmente 0,3% e em pacientes com DRGE 1,1%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Barrett Esophagus/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/epidemiology , Barrett Esophagus/diagnosis , Barrett Esophagus/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Esophagoscopy , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(5): 429-434, oct. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899629

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La acalasia es el trastorno motor primario más frecuente del esófago. El estándar de tratamiento actual es la miotomía de Heller laparoscópica. En los últimos años, el desarrollo de técnicas endoscópicas avanzadas ha permitido el posicionamiento de la técnica POEM (del inglés: per-oral endoscopic myotomy) como una nueva alternativa terapéutica con resultados promisorios. Objetivo: Presentar nuestra experiencia clínica, con descripción de la técnica utilizada, resultados perioperatorios y seguimiento a corto plazo en el desarrollo de esta alternativa terapéutica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de datos obtenidos en forma prospectiva de 15 pacientes intervenidos mediante POEM en 3 hospitales docentes asociados. Se recopilaron variables demográficas preoperatorias, detalle del intraoperatorio y registro de morbimortalidad operatoria. Se realizó un seguimiento clínico dirigido registrando el puntaje de Eckardt y la presencia de síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico. Resultados: Entre agosto de 2015 y noviembre de 2016 se realizaron 15 POEM. Seis de estos pacientes eran mujeres, y la edad promedio fue de 49 años. El tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 110 min; no hubo morbimortalidad operatoria. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 2,8 días. El seguimiento fue de entre 1 y 15 meses. El puntaje de Eckardt promedio en el preoperatorio y en el postoperatorio fue de 10,5 y 0,4 puntos, respectivamente. Tres pacientes presentaban síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico al momento del seguimiento. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en nuestra serie apoyan la efectividad y seguridad del POEM a corto plazo. Se requiere de un seguimiento mayor para determinar el rol definitivo de esta técnica.


Abstract Introduction: Achalasia is the most common primary motor disorder of the esophagus. The current standard of treatment is laparoscopic Heller's myotomy. Recently the development of advanced endoscopic techniques has allowed the positioning of the POEM (per-oral endoscopic myotomy) technique as a new therapeutic alternative with promising results. Objective: To present our clinical experience in POEM, with description of the technique used, peri-operative results and short-term follow-up in the development of this therapeutic alternative. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained prospectively from 15 patients undergoing POEM in three clinical centers in our country. Preoperative demographic variables, intraoperative detail, and operative morbidity and mortality were collected. Clinical follow-up was performed with controls recording Eckardt score and presence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Results: Between August 2015 and November 2016, 15 POEM were performed, six of these patients were women, average age was 49 years. The average operative time was 110 min, we did not have any perioperative morbimortality. Hospital stay was 2.8 days. Follow-up was between 1 and 15 months, Eckardt's preoperative and postoperative score was on average 10.5 and 0.4 points, respectively. Three patients had gastroesophageal reflux symptoms at the time of follow-up. Conclusion: Our results support the effectiveness and security of POEM in short-term follow up. Further monitoring is required to determine the definitive role of this technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Esophagoscopy/methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Esophagus/surgery , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Operative Time , Length of Stay
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(3): 250-254, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The diagnosis of corrosion cancer should be suspected in patients with corrosive ingestion if after a latent period of negligible symptoms there is development of dysphagia, or poor response to dilatation, or if respiratory symptoms develop in an otherwise stable patient of esophageal stenosis. Narrow Band Imaging detects superficial squamous cell carcinoma more frequently than white-light imaging, and has significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy compared with white-light. OBJECTIVE To determinate the clinical applicability of Narrow Band Imaging versus Lugol´s solution chromendoscopy for detection of early esophageal cancer in patients with caustic/corrosive agent stenosis. METHODS Thirty-eight patients, aged between 28-84 were enrolled and examined by both Narrow Band Imaging and Lugol´s solution chromendoscopy. A 4.9mm diameter endoscope was used facilitating examination of a stenotic area without dilation. Narrow Band Imaging was performed and any lesion detected was marked for later biopsy. Then, Lugol´s solution chromoendoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken at suspicious areas. Patients who had abnormal findings at the routine, Narrow Band Imaging or Lugol´s solution chromoscopy exam had their stenotic ring biopsied. RESULTS We detected nine suspicious lesions with Narrow Band Imaging and 14 with Lugol´s solution chromendoscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of the Narrow Band Imaging was 100% and 80.6%, and with Lugol´s chromoscopy 100% and 66.67%, respectively. Five (13%) suspicious lesions were detected both with Narrow Band Imaging and Lugol's chromoscopy, two (40%) of these lesions were confirmed carcinoma on histopathological examination. CONCLUSION Narrow Band Imaging is an applicable option to detect and evaluate cancer in patients with caustic /corrosive stenosis compared to the Lugol´s solution chromoscopy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO A suspeita do câncer de esôfago na lesão cáustica ocorre quando os pacientes com estenoses previamente estáveis, após um período latente sem sintomas, apresentam disfagia, baixa resposta as dilatações ou sintomas respiratórios. A cromoscopia com luz de banda estreita detecta o câncer superficial de esôfago mais frequentemente que a luz branca, com alta sensibilidade e acurácia. OBJETIVO Determinar a aplicabilidade clínica da luz de banda estreita versus a cromoscopia vital com Lugol na detecção do câncer precoce de esôfago em pacientes com lesões cáusticas. MÉTODOS Um total de 38 pacientes, entre 28 e 84 anos, foram alocados seguidamente e submetidos à cromoscopia com luz de banda estreita e com Lugol. Um gastroscópio de 4,9 mm de diâmetro foi usado para facilitar o exame da área estenosada, sem necessidade de dilatação. A cromoscopia com luz de banda estreita era realizada primeiro e as áreas suspeitas anotadas. Depois, a cromoscopia com Lugol era realizada e as áreas suspeitas biopsiadas. RESULTADOS Detectamos nove lesões suspeitas com a luz de banda estreita e 14 com o Lugol. A sensibilidade e especificidade da cromoscopia com luz de banda estreita foi de 100% e 80,6%, e a do Lugol foi de 100% e 66,67% respectivamente. Cinco (13%) lesões suspeitas foram detectadas coincidentemente pelos dois métodos, sendo duas (40%) com diagnóstico anatomopatológico de câncer de esôfago. CONCLUSÃO A cromoscopia com luz de banda estreita é opção concreta para o diagnóstico de câncer em pacientes com estenoses esofágicas por corrosões cáusticas, comparado a cromoscopia com Lugol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/chemically induced , Caustics/adverse effects , Esophagoscopy/methods , Coloring Agents , Narrow Band Imaging/methods , Iodides , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cross-Over Studies , Constriction, Pathologic , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 415-417, July-aug. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897745

ABSTRACT

Abstract More and more endoscopically gastrointestinal procedures require anesthesiologists to perform general anesthesia, such as "peroral endoscopic myotomy". Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a novel invasive treatment for the primary motility disorder of esophagus, called esophageal achalasia. Despite of its minimally invasive feature, there are still complications during the procedure which develop to critical conditions and threat patients' lives. Herein we describe a case about tension pneumothorax subsequent to esophageal rupture during peroral endoscopic myotomy. The emergent management of the complication is stated in detail. The pivotal points of general anesthesia for patients undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy are emphasized and discussed. Also, intraoperative and post-operative complications mentioned by literature are integrated.


Resumo Cada vez mais os procedimentos gastrointestinais feitos por endoscopia, tais como a miotomia endoscópica por via oral (MEVO), exigem anestesiologistas para administrar anestesia geral. A MEVO é um novo tratamento invasivo para o distúrbio de motilidade primária do esôfago, denominado acalasia esofágica (AE). Apesar de sua característica minimamente invasiva, existem complicações durante o procedimento que evoluem para condições críticas e de risco à vida. Descrevemos aqui um caso de pneumotórax hipertensivo após a ruptura do esôfago durante uma MEVO. O tratamento de emergência da complicação é relatado em detalhes. Os pontos cruciais da anestesia geral para pacientes submetidos à MEVO são enfatizados e discutidos. Além disso, as complicações mencionadas pela literatura nos períodos intraoperatório e pós-operatório são integradas ao texto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumothorax/etiology , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Esophagoscopy , Myotomy/methods , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Middle Aged
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(1): 21-26, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with portal hypertension and there are few studies involving secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents with esophageal varices. METHODS This is a prospective analysis of 85 patients less than 18 years of age with or without cirrhosis, with portal hypertension. Participants underwent endoscopic secondary prophylaxis with sclerotherapy or band ligation. Eradication of varices, incidence of rebleeding, number of endoscopic sessions required for eradication, incidence of developing gastric fundus varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy were evaluated. RESULTS Band ligation was performed in 34 (40%) patients and sclerotherapy in 51 (60%) patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 81.2%, after a median of four endoscopic sessions. Varices relapsed in 38 (55.1%) patients. Thirty-six (42.3%) patients experienced rebleeding, and it was more prevalent in the group that received sclerotherapy. Gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy developed in 38.7% and 57.9% of patients, respectively. Patients undergoing band ligation showed lower rebleeding rates (26.5% vs 52.9%) and fewer sessions required for eradication of esophageal varices (3.5 vs 5). CONCLUSION Secondary prophylaxis was effective in eradicating esophageal varices and controlling new upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes due to the rupture of esophageal varices. Band ligation seems that resulted in lower rebleeding rates and fewer sessions required to eradicate varices than did sclerotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Os episódios de sangramento das varizes esofágicas são a principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos com hipertensão porta e poucos são os estudos envolvendo a profilaxia secundária em crianças e adolescentes. OBJETIVO Avaliar a eficácia da profilaxia endoscópica secundária na prevenção de hemorragia digestiva alta em crianças e adolescentes com varizes de esôfago. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo com 85 pacientes menores de 18 anos com hipertensão porta, cirróticos e não cirróticos. A profilaxia secundária endoscópica foi realizada através de ligadura elástica ou escleroterapia. Foram avaliadas erradicação de varizes, incidência de ressangramento, número de sessões endoscópicas necessárias para a erradicação, incidência de surgimento de varizes gástricas e da gastropatia da hipertensão porta. RESULTADOS Ligadura elástica foi realizada em 34 (40%) pacientes e escleroterapia em 51 (60%). As varizes de esôfago foram erradicadas em 81,2% após mediana de quatro sessões endoscópicas. Foi observada recidiva de varizes de esôfago em 38 (55,1%) pacientes. Ressangramento por ruptura de varizes de esôfago ocorreu em 36 (42,3%) pacientes e foi mais prevalente no grupo submetido à escleroterapia. O surgimento de varizes gástricas e gastropatia da hipertensão porta ocorreram em 38,7% e 57,9% respectivamente. Os pacientes submetidos à ligadura elástica apresentaram taxas menores de ressangramento (26,5% vs 52,9%) e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago (3,5 vs 5). CONCLUSÃO A profilaxia secundária endoscópica mostrou-se eficaz para erradicação de varizes de esôfago e evitar novos episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta secundária à ruptura de varizes de esôfago. A ligadura elástica endoscópica provavelmente apresenta menores taxas de ressangramento e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago, quando comparada à escleroterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Secondary Prevention , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Recurrence , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Sclerotherapy , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ligation
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