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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 38-49, jul. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE), a unitary R configuration aromatic oxyphenoxypropionic acid ester (AOPP) herbicide, was widely used and had led to detrimental environmental effects. For finding the QPEdegrading bacteria and promoting the biodegradation of QPE, a series of studies were carried out. RESULTS: A QPE-degrading bacterial strain YC-XJ1 was isolated from desert soil and identified as Methylobacterium populi, which could degrade QPE with methanol by cometabolism. Ninety-seven percent of QPE (50 mg/L) could be degraded within 72 h under optimum biodegradation condition of 35°C and pH 8.0. The maximum degradation rate of QPE was 1.4 mg/L/h, and the strain YC-XJ1 exhibited some certain salinity tolerance. Two novel metabolites, 2-hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline and quinoxaline, were found by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. The metabolic pathway of QPE was predicted. The catalytic efficiency of strain YC-XJ1 toward different AOPPs herbicides in descending order was as follows: haloxyfop-pmethyl ≈ diclofop-methyl ≈ fluazifop-p-butyl N clodinafop-propargyl N cyhalofop-butyl N quizalofop-p-ethyl N fenoxaprop-p-ethyl N propaquizafop N quizalofop-p-tefuryl. The genome of strain YC-XJ1 was sequenced using a combination of PacBio RS II and Illumina platforms. According to the annotation result, one α/ß hydrolase gene was selected and named qpeh1, for which QPE-degrading function has obtained validation. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment with other QPE-degrading esterases reported previously, the QPEH1 was clustered with esterase family V. CONCLUSION: M. populi YC-XJ1 could degrade QPE with a novel pathway, and the qpeh1 gene was identified as one of QPE-degrading esterase gene.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Quinoxalines/metabolism , Methylobacterium/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Methylobacterium/enzymology , Methylobacterium/genetics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/metabolism , Herbicides , Hydrolases/analysis , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrolysis
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 10-16, Jan. 2018. graf, tab, ilust
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022030

ABSTRACT

Background: Biodegradation is a reliable approach for efficiently eliminating persistent pollutants such as chlorpyrifos. Despite many bacteria or fungi isolated from contaminated environment and capable of degrading chlorpyrifos, limited enzymes responsible for its degradation have been identified, let alone the catalytic mechanism of the enzymes. Results: In present study, the gene cpd encoding a chlorpyrifos hydrolase was cloned by analysis of genomic sequence of Paracoccus sp. TRP. Phylogenetic analysis and BLAST indicated that CPD was a novel member of organophosphate hydrolases. The purified CPD enzyme, with conserved catalytic triad (Ser155-Asp251-His281) and motif Gly-Asp-Ser-Ala-Gly, was significantly inhibited by PMSF, a serine modifier. Molecular docking between CPD and chlorpyrifos showed that Ser155 was adjacent to chlorpyrifos, which indicated that Ser155 may be the active amino acid involved in chlorpyrifos degradation. This speculation was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of Ser155Ala accounting for the decreased activity of CPD towards chlorpyrifos. According to the key role of Ser155 in chlorpyrifos degradation and molecular docking conformation, the nucleophilic catalytic mechanism for chlorpyrifos degradation by CPD was proposed. Conclusion: The novel enzyme CPD was capable of hydrolyze chlorpyrifos and Ser155 played key role during degradation of chlorpyrifos.


Subject(s)
Paracoccus/enzymology , Chlorpyrifos/metabolism , Esterases/metabolism , Organophosphates/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Catalysis , Mutagenesis , Cloning, Molecular , Sequence Analysis , Esterases/isolation & purification , Esterases/genetics , Hydrolysis , Metals/metabolism
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 846-852, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828191

ABSTRACT

Abstract Copper mine drainages are restricted environments that have been overlooked as sources of new biocatalysts for bioremediation and organic syntheses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the enzymatic activities (esterase, epoxide hydrolase and monooxygenase) of 56 heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a neutral copper mine drainage (Sossego Mine, Canaã dos Carajás, Brazil). Hydrolase and monooxygenase activities were detected in 75% and 20% of the evaluated bacteria, respectively. Bacterial strains with good oxidative performance were also evaluated for biotransformation of organic sulfides. Fourteen strains with good enzymatic activity were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing the presence of three genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. The bacterial strains B. megaterium (SO5-4 and SO6-2) and Pseudomonas sp. (SO5-9) efficiently oxidized three different organic sulfides to their corresponding sulfoxides. In conclusion, this study revealed that neutral copper mine drainages are a promising source of biocatalysts for ester hydrolysis and sulfide oxidation/bioremediation. Furthermore, this is a novel biotechnological overview of the heterotrophic bacteria from a copper mine drainage, and this report may support further microbiological monitoring of this type of mine environment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/enzymology , Copper , Environmental Microbiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Phylogeny , Sulfides/metabolism , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Enzymes , Esterases/genetics , Esterases/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/genetics , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Mining
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 327-336, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780820

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13) and adults (n = 12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Oxazines/metabolism , Bacteria/enzymology , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Esterases/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Insecticides/metabolism , Moths/microbiology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Carboxylesterase/genetics , Esterases/genetics , India
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 670-680
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149370

ABSTRACT

Alternaria sesami causes leaf spot disease in Sesamum orientale. Conidium germination, inoculation, penetration and colonization of the pathogen on the plant surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis revealed multiple germ tubes from conidium that spread in all direction across the leaf surfaces. Penetration in the plant surface occured, directly through the epidermis or via stomata with or without the appressoria formation. Hyphal penetration continued through the substomata cavity and some of hyphal branches grew in the intercellular space of mesophyll tissue. Hyphal toxin, caused cell and cell wall damages. Changes in different biochemical parameters in the diseased sesame plants (both in wild and cultivar) were compared to control. Transmission electron microscopy showed structural changes in the chloroplast of diseased plants. Isozyme pattern and assays of different enzymes, namely catalase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase expressed varied level of activities. Meanwhile, esterase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in diseased plants showed remarkable levels compared to control. Due to the infection, chlorophyll content, carbohydrates and total soluble protein decreased whereas free amino acid, proline, phenols and disease-related proteins increased in the host plants. Differential SDS-PAGE band profiling of total soluble proteins were also observed in plants due to the infection.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Catechol Oxidase/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chloroplasts/microbiology , Chloroplasts/ultrastructure , Esterases/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidases/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Sesamum/microbiology , Sesamum/ultrastructure , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 178-184, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR) greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50) was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Insecticides , Temefos , Electrophoresis , Insecticide Resistance
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 458-465, June 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626437

ABSTRACT

Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold) and deltamethrin (162-fold) and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold) were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azinphosmethyl , Esterases/metabolism , Insecticides , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Simuliidae/drug effects , Argentina , Biological Assay , Insecticide Resistance , Simuliidae/enzymology
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(1): 18-26, Feb. 2009. graf, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507201

ABSTRACT

In order to establish the insecticide susceptibility status for Anopheles darlingi in Colombia, and as part of the National Network on Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, five populations of insects from three Colombian states were evaluated. Standardised WHO and CDC bottle bioassays, in addition to microplate biochemical assays, were conducted. Populations with mortality rates below 80 percent in the bioassays were considered resistant. All field populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, permethrin, malathion and fenitrothion. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was detected in the Amé-Beté population using both bioassay methods with mortality rates of 65-75 percent. Enzyme levels related to insecticide resistance, including mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE), glutathione S-transferases and modified acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in all populations and compared with a susceptible natural strain. Only mosquitoes from Amé-Beté presented significantly increased levels of both MFO and NSE, consistent with the low mortalities found in this population. The continued use of lambda-cyhalothrin for An. darlingi control in this locality has resulted in a natural resistance to this insecticide. In addition, DDT resistance is still present in this population, although this insecticide has not been used in Colombia since 1992. Increased metabolism through MFO and NSE may be involved in cross-resistance between lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, although kdr-type nerve insensitivity cannot be discarded as a possible hypothesis. Additional research, including development of a kdr specific assay for An. darlingi should be conducted in future studies. Our data demonstrates the urgent need to develop local insecticide resistance management and surveillance programs throughout Colombia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Colombia , DDT , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
9.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Nov; 29(6): 911-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113939

ABSTRACT

The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arisaema/chemistry , Esterases/metabolism , Larva/drug effects , Lectins/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Tephritidae/drug effects
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75251

ABSTRACT

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is a well-characterized malignancy with typical clinico-hematological and molecular features. However, Indian data on this malignancy are limited. This study was conducted to determine the clinico-hematological profile of APML in India. Thirty-five patients with APML presenting to Hematology Department, AIIMS, New Delhi, between July 2003 and June 2005 were evaluated for presenting clinical features, hemogram, peripheral smear, bone marrow morphology and cytochemistry. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for PML-RARalpha was done in all cases. Male-to-female ratio was 0.9:1 (males--17 and females--18) with median age 25 years (range 11-57 years). Presenting features included anemia, bleeding, fever, gum hypertrophy and scrotal ulceration. All cases showed hypergranular abnormal promyelocytes. Median hemoglobin was 6.3 g/dL (range - 3.0-9.0 g/dL), total leukocyte count (TLC) was 33.88 x 10(9) /L (range - 1-170 x 10(9) /L). Platelet count was 28 x 10(9) /L (range - 4-170 x 10(9) /L). All cases were positive for myeloperoxidase and sudan black (SB), whereas 60% cases also showed non specific esterase (NSE) positivity with 40% cases being fluoride sensitive. RT-PCR showed PML-RARalpha in 33/35 cases with the bcr3 isoform being present in 24/33 positive cases (72.7%). The two cases negative for PML-RARalpha showed typical morphology and responded to ATRA. On statistical analysis, no correlation was found between bcr isoform and TLC, platelet count, age sex and early death. Unusual features included gum hypertrophy and scrotal ulceration at presentation and high median presenting TLC (33.8 x 10(9) /L). There was, however, no microgranular variant. Another interesting feature was a high incidence of NSE positivity (60%), which was fluoride sensitive in 40%. Moreover, the bcr3 isoform was significantly overexpressed (72.7%) in comparison to other studies. APML in India has certain unusual features, which may reflect a different biology.


Subject(s)
Adult , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Blood Cells/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Child , Esterases/metabolism , Female , Humans , India , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Peroxidase/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Oct; 45(10): 911-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56662

ABSTRACT

High frequency plant regeneration in A. longifolia (L.) was achieved from leaf explant implanted on MS basal medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 mg/l) + BA (2.0 mg/l) through intervening callus phase. Well-developed shoots (>3cm) were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l). Protein and total soluble sugar contents were maximum during organogenesis and multiple shoot induction phase compared with non-organogenic callus and root induction phase. Esterase and catalase activities were maximum during organogenic differentiation, while activities were minimum at non-differentiated callus stages. Peroxidase activities were higher during rhizogenesis. Contradiction to peroxidase activity, acid phosphatase activities were high during organogenesis and declined during rhizogenesis. SDS-PAGE analysis of total soluble proteins revealed expression of non-organogenic callus (97.9 kDa), organogenic callus (77.2, 74.1, 21.9 kDa), multiple shoot induction phase (106.6, 26.9, 11.6 kDa) and root induction phase (15.9 kDa) specific polypeptides. Esterase zymogram revealed one band (Rm 0.204) appeared in both organogenic callus and multiple shoot induction phase. Peroxidase zymogram detected two stage specific bands, one band (Rm 0.42) was specific to root induction phase, while another (Rm 0.761) was specific to multiple shoot induction. Catalase and acid phosphatase zymogram resolved one band (Rm 0.752 and 0.435, respectively) in differentiated stages including both multiple shoot induction phase and root induction phase, but absent in undifferentiated phases.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/enzymology , Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Esterases/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Peroxidases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/enzymology
12.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(3): 634-642, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498907

ABSTRACT

The heterokaryotic and vegetative diploid phases of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum are described using nutritional and biochemical markers. Nitrate non-utilizing mutants (nit), derived from R2047, R89, R73, R65, and R23 isolates, were paired in all possible combinations to obtain heterokaryons. Although pairings R2047/R89, R2047/R73, R65/R73, and R73/R23 showed complete vegetative incompatibility, prototrophic heterokaryons were obtained from pairings R2047/R65, R2047/R23, R65/R89, R65/R23, R73/R89, R89/R23, R2047/R2047, R65/R65, R89/R89, R73/R73, and R23/R23. Heterokaryons gave rise to spontaneous mitotic segregants which carried markers corresponding to one or the other of the parental strains. Heterokaryons spontaneously produced prototrophic fast-growing sectors too, characterized as diploid segregants. Diploids would be expected to yield auxotrophic segregants following haploidization in basal medium or in the presence of benomyl. Parental haploid segregants were in fact recovered from diploid colonies growing in basal medium and basal medium containing the haploidizing agent. Although barriers to the formation of heterokaryons in some crosses were detected, the results demonstrate the occurrence of parasexuality among vegetative compatible mutants of C. lindemuthianum.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Segregation , Colletotrichum/cytology , Diploidy , Nitrates/metabolism , Phaseolus/microbiology , Colletotrichum/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Haploidy , Hyphae/cytology , Mutation/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Phenotype
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Sep; 44(9): 719-25
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58922

ABSTRACT

A single dose of 6 Gy irradiation significantly reduced the total WBC count while in herbal formulation (AC II) treated groups it was found to be significantly increased. Similarly bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells, which were lowered by radiation, were partly restored in AC II treated groups. The data indicate that AC II can overcome the immunosuppression produced by irradiation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Esterases/metabolism , Gamma Rays , Hemolytic Plaque Technique , Immune Tolerance/drug effects , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/drug therapy , Spleen/cytology
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Feb; 42(2): 214-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56585

ABSTRACT

Esterase activity of resistant and susceptible H. armigera were compared in gels with different substrate such as naphthyl acetate, naphthyl phosphate, paraoxon and monocrotophos. Whole body extract of resistant H. armigera hydrolyzed paraoxon, monocrotophos and naphthyl phosphate in gels. Resistant H. armigera showed high esterase, phosphatase and paraoxon hydrolase activity compared to susceptible ones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Esterases/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/metabolism , Larva/drug effects , Lepidoptera/metabolism , Monocrotophos/metabolism , Naphthalenes/metabolism , Naphthols/metabolism , Organophosphorus Compounds/metabolism , Paraoxon/metabolism , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/metabolism
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Aug; 41(8): 895-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60125

ABSTRACT

Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Esterases/metabolism , Food Preferences , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Larva/enzymology , Nitrogen/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Spodoptera/enzymology
16.
J Biosci ; 2003 Jun; 28(4): 479-87
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110779

ABSTRACT

Palmarosa inflorescence with partially opened spikelets is biogenetically active to incorporate [U-14C]sucrose into essential oil. The percent distribution of 14C-radioactivity incorporated into geranyl acetate was relatively higher as compared to that in geraniol, the major essential oil constituent of palmarosa. At the partially opened spikelet stage, more of the geraniol synthesized was acetylated to form geranyl acetate, suggesting that majority of the newly synthesized geraniol undergoes acetylation, thus producing more geranyl acetate. In vitro development of palmarosa inflorescence, fed with [U-14C]sucrose, resulted in a substantial reduction in percent label from geranyl acetate with a corresponding increase in free geraniol, thereby suggesting the role of an esterase in the production of geraniol from geranyl acetate. At time course measurement of 14CO2 incorporation into geraniol and geranyl acetate substantiated this observation. Soluble acid invertase was the major enzyme involved in the sucrose breakdown throughout the inflorescence development. The activities of cell wall bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase and sucrose synthase were relatively lower as compared to the soluble acid invertase. Sucrose to reducing sugars ratio decreased till fully opened spikelets stage, concomitant with increased acid invertase activity and higher metabolic activity. The phenomenon of essential oil biosynthesis has been discussed in relation to changes in these physiological parameters.


Subject(s)
Biochemical Phenomena , Biochemistry , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Cymbopogon/metabolism , Esterases/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Sucrose/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism , Time Factors
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anopheles stephensi and A. culicifacies are the two major vectors of malaria in Karnataka. These mosquito populations are continuously being exposed directly or indirectly to different insecticides including the most effective pyrethroids. Therefore, there is a threat of insecticide resistance development. We subjected these vectors to larval bioassay using two popular pyrethroids viz deltamethrin and permethrin. An attempt was also made to correlate the activities of certain detoxifying enzymes such as A- esterase, B-esterase, glutathione-S transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with the tolerance levels of the two vectors. METHODS: Larval bioassay was carried out following the standard WHO procedure on field-collected larvae. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated following Probit analysis. Biochemical estimations were done with a U V spectrophotometer and the isozyme studies employing native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). RESULTS: The results of the larval bioassay revealed that A. stephensi has more tolerance to deltamethrin than A. culicifacies and vice versa for permethrin. Biochemical estimations revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of A-esterase and GST activity in A. stephensi whereas A. culicifacies showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of B-esterase and G6PD activity. The total larval protein assayed was found to be more (P < 0.05) in A. stephensi. The isozyme profiles also revealed difference in mobility, intensity and the number of bands. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: As these malaria vectors are exposed to different kinds of insecticides, they develop increased enzyme activities to overcome the insecticide pressure. This has enhanced the tolerance level against the pyrethroids tested. Thus, A. stephensi was found to be tolerant to deltamethrin depicting a higher activity of A-esterase and GST enzymes, whereas the higher activity of B-esterase and G6PD has resulted in the development of tolerance to permethrin in A. culicifacies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Drug Tolerance , Esterases/metabolism , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Nitriles , Permethrin/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Jan; 41(1): 91-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61890

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation. About 95% head squashes were positive for dengue virus antigen on the 15th post infection day (PID). Esterase activity was determined in the homogenates prepared from the salivary glands and midguts on different PIDs of dengue virus inoculated and control mosquitoes showed that it was consistently higher in the virus-infected batches.


Subject(s)
Aedes/enzymology , Animals , Esterases/metabolism , Female , Intestines/enzymology , Salivary Glands/enzymology
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Sep; 40(9): 1056-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58899

ABSTRACT

Esterase variation was studied in plants regenerated from callus cultures of four rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, viz. pokkali, which is a moderately salt tolerant variety and three salt sensitive varieties MI 48, annapoorna and jyothi. Variation was studied at tillering stage of plants regenerated from callus culture and germinated from seeds. Somaclonal variants for salt tolerance could be detected using variation in esterase banding pattern and activity.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Esterases/metabolism , Germination , Oryza/physiology , Regeneration , Seeds/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Aug; 40(8): 910-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57533

ABSTRACT

A non-toxic dose of abrin, (1.25 microg/kg body wt) consecutively for five days in normal mice stimulated specific humoral responses. A noticeable increase was observed in total leucocyte count, lymphocytosis, weights of spleen and thymus, circulating antibody titre, antibody forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive bone marrow cells. The results suggest that abrin can potentiate the humoral immune response of the host.


Subject(s)
Abrin/pharmacology , Abrus/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Esterases/metabolism , Female , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytosis/chemically induced , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organ Size/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Spleen/metabolism , Stem Cells/drug effects , Thymus Gland/metabolism
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