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2.
Femina ; 50(2): 72-90, 20220228. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366123

ABSTRACT

As diferenças ou distúrbios do desenvolvimento sexual (DDS) compreendem um grupo heterogêneo de condições congênitas que resultam na discordância entre os cromossomos sexuais, as gônadas e/ou o sexo anatômico de um indivíduo. A classificação desses distúrbios é baseada no cariótipo conforme o Consenso de Chicago de 2006 e substitui os termos pseudo-hermafroditismo, hermafroditismo e intersexo. O objetivo desta revisão é fornecer ao ginecologista conhecimentos básicos sobre a etiologia, fisiopatologia e orientações das principais anormalidades de DDS para uma avaliação diagnóstica e terapêutica no atendimento de mulheres na infância, adolescência e em idade adulta com cariótipo 46,XY. O diagnóstico deve ser realizado pela interação entre o exame clínico as dosagens hormonais, os exames de imagem e a análise genética, desde o cariótipo até o estudo de alterações dos genes por técnicas de biologia molecular. O tratamento é realizado de acordo com a etiologia e inclui intervenções cirúrgicas como a gonadectomia e plásticas sobre a genitália externa, terapia de reposição hormonal e apoio psicológico. São necessárias a individualização dos casos e uma equipe interdisciplinar, para um atendimento adequado às mulheres com cariótipo 46,XY.(AU)


Differences or disorders of sexual development (DSDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions that result in the disagreement between an individual's sex chromosomes, gonads and/or anatomic sex. The classification of these disorders is based on the karyotype according to the 2006 Chicago Consensus and replaces the terms pseudohermaphroditism, hermaphroditism and intersex. The aim of this review is to provide the gynecologist with basic knowledge about the etiology, pathophysiology and guidelines of the main abnormalities of DDS for a diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation in the care of women in childhood, adolescence and adulthood with a karyotype 46,XY. The diagnosis must be made by the interaction between clinical examination hormonal measurements, imaging and genetic analysis from the karyotype to the study of gene alterations by molecular biology techniques. Treatment is carried out according to the etiology and includes surgical interventions such as gonadectomy and plastic surgery on the external genitalia, hormone replacement therapy and psychological support. Individualization of cases and an interdisciplinary team are required to provide adequate care for women 46,XY karyotype.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/surgery , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/diagnosis , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/etiology , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/physiopathology , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/drug therapy , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/diagnostic imaging , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase/deficiency , Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development
3.
Revagog (Impresa) ; 3(2): 60-61, Abr-Jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344618

ABSTRACT

Más de nueve millones de sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama en todo el mundo sufren un deterioro en la calidad de vida atribuible a los síntomas de la menopausia relacionados con el déficit de los estrógenos y con los efectos secundarios de la terapia contra el cáncer. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) es muy eficaz para controlar estos síntomas en la población general y en las sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, la preocupación de la recurrencia del cáncer de mama como resultado del uso de TRH impide que muchos oncólogos utilicen este enfoque en el tratamiento de los síntomas menopáusicos. La evidencia de ensayos aleatorizados, estudios observacionales y meta-nálisis sobre el impacto del uso de TRH en la recurrencia y supervivencia del cáncer de mama sigue siendo controvertida.


More than nine million breast cancer survivors in everyone suffers a deterioration in the quality of life attributable to the symptoms of menopause related to the deficiency of the estrogens and with the side effects of anti-estrogen therapy Cancer. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is very effective in controlling these symptoms in the general population and in survivors of breast cancer. However, the concern of recurrence of breast cancer as a result of the use of HRT prevents many oncologists use this approach in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and meta-analysis on the impact of the use of HRT on recurrence and Breast cancer survival remains controversial


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Menopause/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Hormone Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Survivors , Estrogens/pharmacology , Life Style
4.
In. Castillo Pino, Edgardo A. Manual de ginecología y obstetricia para pregrados y médicos generales. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, 2 ed; 2021. p.247-253.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1372543
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31206, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291278

ABSTRACT

A menopausa é decorrente da queda gradativa de secreção hormonal ovariana e, nesse período, muitas mulheres apresentam sintomas que comprometem a qualidade de vida. A terapia hormonal (TH) surgiu como importante ferramenta para amenizar a sintomatologia climatérica. No entanto, foram levantadas suspeitas sobre a correlação entre o tratamento e o aumento do risco do câncer de mama (CM). O presente trabalho objetiva avaliar a relação entre CM e TH, abrangendo as implicações da terapia nos sintomas da menopausa, na incidência da neoplasia e na mortalidade. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa de literatura, em que foram buscados artigos publicados entre julho de 2010 e julho de 2020, nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE e SciELO. Os principais tipos de TH são o estrogênio isolado e o combinado com progesterona. Nos estudos analisados, a terapia combinada foi relacionada à maior incidência de CM quando comparada ao regime estrogênico. De acordo com a literatura, modificações na densidade mamográfica, induzidas pela TH, podem elevar o risco para carcinoma mamário. Os artigos relataram que fatores além da terapia hormonal, como o estilo de vida, podem interferir na incidência de CM e devem ser analisados individualmente. A mortalidade por CM influenciada pela TH não demonstrou aumento significativo. No geral, a TH foi considerada o tratamento mais eficaz para aliviar sintomas climatéricos. Entretanto, estudos a longo prazo que analisem os riscos e a confiabilidade da terapia devem ser estimulados, a fim de indicar a terapêutica mais segura e evitar intervenções indevidas.


Menopause is due to the gradual drop in ovarian hormonal secretion, and, during this period, many women have symptoms that compromise quality of life. Hormone therapy (HT) has emerged as an important tool to alleviate climacteric symptoms. However, suspicions were raised about the correlation between treatment and the increased risk of breast cancer (BC). The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between BC and HT, covering the implications of therapy for menopausal symptoms, the incidence of neoplasia and mortality. This is a narrative review of the literature, in which articles published between July 2010 and July 2020 were searched for in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases. The main types of HT are estrogen alone and combined formula with progesterone. In the studies analyzed, combined therapy was related to a higher incidence of BC when compared to the estrogenic regimen. According to the literature, changes in mammographic density, induced by HT, can increase the risk for breast carcinoma. The articles reported that factors other than hormone therapy, such as lifestyle, can interfere with the incidence of BC and should be analyzed individually. Mortality from BC influenced by HT did not show a significant increase. Overall, HT was considered to be the most effective treatment for relieving climacteric symptoms. Although, long-term studies that analyze the risks and reliability of therapy should be encouraged in order to indicate the safest therapeutics and to avoid unnecessary interventions.


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Climacteric , Menopause , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Hormones
8.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 311-318, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1051220

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a sintomatologia climatérica em mulheres com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos: Participaram quarenta (40) mulheres, clientes do Ambulatório de Cardiologia do Hospital da Universidade Federal do Maranhão. Utilizou-se a Escala de Avaliação da Menopausa. Pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade São Paulo sob o número 293.900. Resultados: Os sintomas mais frequentes relatados foram ansiedade, mal estar no coração, irritabilidade, problemas musculares e nas articulações. Os sintomas mais intensos foram os problemas musculares e nas articulações, ansiedade, mal estar no coração, esgotamento físico e mental. A média de escore dos sintomas psicológicos foi 23,8; nos sintomas somáticos foi 23,6 e nos sintomas urogenitais foi 9,2. Conclusão: Os sintomas climatéricos parecem ser confundidos com problemas inerentes à idade e percebidos com mais intensidade na presença de doenças, inclusive a doença arterial coronariana


Objective: to Analyze the climate symptoms in women with coronary artery disease. Methods: participated in 40 (40) women, Cardiology outpatient clinic of the Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. It was menopause assessment scale. Research approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the school of nursing of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo under number 293.900. Results: The most frequent symptoms reported were anxiety, malaise in the heart, irritability, muscle and joint problems. The most intense symptoms were the muscle problems and joint pain, anxiety, malaise in the heart, physical and mental exhaustion. The average score of the psychological symptoms was 23.8; somatic symptoms was 23.6 and urogenital symptoms was 9.2. Conclusion: climate symptoms seem to be confused with inherent problems of age and perceived with more intensity in the presence of diseases, including coronary artery disease


Objetivo: analizar los síntomas de clima en mujeres con enfermedad arterial coronaria. Métodos: participaron en 40 (40) mujeres, clínica de consulta externa de Cardiología del Hospital de la Universidad Federal de Maranhão. Fue la escala de evaluación de la menopausia. Investigación aprobado por el Comité de ética de investigación de la escuela de enfermería de Ribeirão Preto, Universidad de São Paulo bajo número 293.900. Resultados: informaron de los síntomas más frecuentes fueron ansiedad, malestar en el corazón, irritabilidad, problemas musculares y la articulaciones. Los síntomas más intensos fueron los problemas musculares y dolor en las articulaciones, ansiedad, malestar en el corazón, agotamiento físico y mental. La puntuación media de los síntomas psicológicos fue 23,8; síntomas somáticos fue 23.6 y síntomas urogenitales 9.2. Conclusion: clima síntomas parecen ser confundidos con problemas inherentes de la edad y percibe con más intensidad en la presencia de enfermedades, incluyendo enfermedad arterial coronaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease , Climacteric , Coronary Disease , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Risk Factors , Women's Health , Symbolic Interactionism
9.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(6): 514-524, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092766

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes La terapia hormonal de la menopausia (THM) corresponde a la administración de hormonas exógenas para el tratamiento de síntomas asociados a climaterio y menopausia. Objetivo Analizar los estudios que dicen relación a THM y riesgo cardiovascular (CV) para entender el concepto de ventana de oportunidad cardiovascular, además analizar la fisiología de los estrógenos en el aparato CV es fundamental para una adecuada comprensión de su rol protector. Método revisión de la literatura disponible en PubMed durante octubre de 2018, utilizando los términos "menopausal hormone therapy'' y ''cardiovascular disease'.Además se revisó base de datos Scielo con los términos "terapia hormonal'', ''menopausia'' y ''cardiovascular''; se escogieron artículos entre 2000 y 2018 con los términos utilizados en el título o resumen. También se realizó búsqueda dirigida de estudios relevantes, guías clínicas, un metanálisis, una revisión sistemática relacionada y las últimas publicaciones de sociedades científicas dela especialidad. Resultados Desde los inicios de la THM se observó en distintos estudios observacionales un papel en la protección CV. Los últimos años se ha ido demostrando a través de diversos estudios aleatorizados, a raíz de las dudas que dejó el WHI de 2002, los beneficios de esta. Conclusión La THM mejora la calidad de vida de las mujeres en climaterio y menopausia. Los estrógenos tienen mejor beneficio sobre enfermedad CV al administrar terapia precozmente luego de la menopausia (ventana de oportunidad) y mantenerla durante un tiempo prolongado de acuerdo a estudios observacionales y aleatorizados. Dado el aumento de la esperanza de vida de la mujer y múltiples FR CV, es que el manejo clínico de la postmenopausia es un relevante problema de salud pública.


SUMMARY Background Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the exogenous administration for climacteric and menopausal treatment. Objective To analyze studies in relation to THM and cardiovascular (CV) risk, to understand the ''cardiovascular window of opportunity'' concept, also, to analyze the physiology of estrogens into cardiovascular system is fundamental for a suitable comprehension of its protective role. Method Review of literature available on PubMed during October 2018, using the terms "menopausal hormone therapy" and "cardiovascular disease." In addition, Scielo database with the terms ''hormone therapy'', ''menopause'' and '' cardiovascular'' was reviewed; Articles were chosen between 2000 and 2018 with the terms used in the title or summary. A directed search of relevant studies, clinical guides, one meta-analysis, one related systematic review and the latest publications of scientific societies of the specialty was also conducted. Results Since beginning of MHT, a role in CV protection has been observed in different observational studies. Recent years have been demonstrated through various randomized studies, following the doubts left by the WHI of 2002, the benefits of MHT. Conclusion MHT improves the quality of life of women in climacteric and menopausal. Estrogen have better benefit on CV disease, by administering early therapy after menopausal and maintaining it for a long time. Given the women increase in life expectancy and multiple CV risk factors, clinical management of postmenopausal is a relevant public health problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Menopause/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Women's Health , Climacteric , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Disease Risk Factors
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(7): 449-453, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020606

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the effects of estrogen alone or in combination with progestogens and tibolone (TIB) on the expression of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), of perlecan, and of heparanase (HPSE) of the vascular walls of the carotid arteries. Methods A total of 30 250-day-old ovariectomized Wistar rats were orally treated for 5 weeks with: a) 1 mg/kg of estradiol benzoate (EB); b) EB + 0.2 mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA); c) EB + 0.2mg/kg of norethisterone acetate (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg of dydrogesterone (DI); e) 1 mg/kg of TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Following treatment, the expression of mRNA for MMP-2, MMP-9, and HPSE was analyzed by realtime polymerase chain-reaction (PCR), and the expression of MMP-2, of MMP-9, of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and of perlecan was quantified by immunohistochemistry in the carotid arteries. Results The groups showed significant differences on mRNA HPSE expression (p = 0.048), which was higher in the EB, EB + MPA, and TIB groups. There was no statistically significant difference in mRNA MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2, of TIMP-2, of MMP-9, of HPSE, and of perlecan showed no differences between groups. Conclusion Estradiol alone or associated with MPA and TIB treatment can increase mRNA HSPE expression of the walls of the carotid arteries in ovariectomized rats.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do estrogênio isolado ou em combinação com progestogênios e tibolona (TIB) na expressão das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 da matriz extracelular (MMP-2 e MMP-9), da perlecan e da heparanase (HPSE) das paredes vasculares das artérias carótidas. Métodos Trinta ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas com 250 dias de idade foram tratadas oralmente por 5 semanas com: a) 1 mg/kg de benzoato de estradiol (EB); b) EB + 0,2 mg/kg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA); c) EB + 0,2mg/kg de acetato de noretisterona (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg de didrogesterona (DI); e) 1 mg/kg de TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Após o tratamento, a expressão de mRNA para MMP-2, MMP- 9, e HPSE foi analisada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) em tempo real, e a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, inibidor tecidual de metaloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), e de perlecan foi quantificado por imunohistoquímica em artérias carótidas. Resultados Os grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas na expressão do mRNA HPSE (p = 0,048), sendo maiores nos grupos EB, EB + MPA e TIB. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas expressões de mRNA MMP-2 ou MMP-9. A expressão imunohistoquímica de MMP-2, TIMP-2, MMP-9, HPSE e perlecan não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão O estradiol isolado ou associado ao tratamento com MPA e TIB pode aumentar a expressão de mRNA HSPE nas paredes das artérias carótidas em ratas ovariectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Progestins/pharmacology , Carotid Arteries/enzymology , Heparin Lyase/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Norpregnenes/pharmacology , Progestins/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy , Carotid Arteries/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Heparin Lyase/genetics , Heparin Lyase/metabolism , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/genetics , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Models, Animal , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Norpregnenes/administration & dosage
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 26-28, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-982035

ABSTRACT

La definición de sangrado ginecológico anormal durante terapia hormonal de la menopausia es aquel sangrado no programado durante el uso de la terapia. Este artículo es un pauteo que describe: 1) cuándo diagnosticar unsangrado anormal, ya que difiere según el tipo de esquema hormonal utilizado; 2) eldiagnóstico diferencial del origen del sangrado anormal; 3) los métodos de evaluación para diagnosticar el origen del sangrado. Se destacan los aspectos principales para el diagnóstico diferencial entre patología orgánica versus disrupción endometrial debida al tratamiento hormonal. Además, se describen los ajustes posibles para resolver el sangrado cuando éste se debe a disrupción del endometrio.


Abnormal bleeding related to menopausal hormone therapy is defined as unscheduled bleeding during the use of the therapy. This article outlines when to diagnose an abnormal bleeding -as this differs according to the type of hormonal scheme used-, the differential diagnosis of the origin of abnormal bleeding, and the methods of evaluation to assess the origin of the bleeding. The main aspects are highlighted on the differentiation of organic pathology versus disruption of the endometrium due to treatment. Also, treatment adjustments to resolve bleeding when it is due to disruption of the endometrium are outlined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Menopause , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/adverse effects , Norpregnenes/adverse effects , Polyps/complications , Polyps/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Endometrial Hyperplasia/complications , Endometrial Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging , Metrorrhagia/etiology , Norpregnenes/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(4): 148-155, dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968639

ABSTRACT

Turner syndrome (TS) is a common disorder (1/2.000 women) that affects multiple organs at different stages of life and needs a multidisciplinary approach. It can be present in women of all ethnicities and is caused by a monosomy of the X chromosome that causes a haploinsufficiency of certain genes. Its main features consist of specific but variables physical characteristics, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, middle and inner ear diseases, skeletal alterations, and from the endocrinological point of view, short stature and ovarian insufficiency. Given the comorbidities associated with TS, it has been estimated that they have an increased risk of mortality (up to 3 times more) and a reduction in life expectancy of approximately 13 years. Depending on the genotype, the abnormalities can become very subtle, in these cases the diagnosis is late, when the adolescent consults, for example, for primary amenorrhea or an adult woman for infertility. Once the diagnosis is confirmed by a karyotype, these patients must remain in pediatric control in a continuous way to investigate associated pathologies in a timely manner, with periodic evaluations by specialists, such as otolaryngologists, cardiologists, neurologists and endocrinologists, among others. Numerous advances in the care of these patients gave rise to new guidelines published in 2017. In this article we will comment on the main conditions associated with TS and its specific etiology, we will mention what is relevant regarding the genotype-phenotype relationship in this syndrome and we will discuss the fundamental aspects of the control of the TS patient, with emphasis on the treatment of short stature and ovarian insufficiency, as well as the cardiovascular aspects and those related to fertility.


El Síndrome de Turner (ST) es una patología frecuente (1/2.000 mujeres) que afecta múltiples órganos en distintas etapas de la vida y necesita un enfoque multidisciplinario. Se produce por una monosomía del cromosoma X que provoca una haploinsuficiencia de determinados genes. Sus características principales consisten en un fenotipo característico pero variable, con presencia de cardiopatías congénitas, anomalías renales, enfermedades del oído medio e interno, alteraciones esqueléticas, y del punto de vista endocrinológico, talla baja e insuficiencia ovárica. Dadas las comorbilidades asociadas al ST, principalmente cardiovasculares (CV), presentan mayor mortalidad con respecto a la población general (hasta 3 veces más). Dependiendo del genotipo, las anomalías pueden llegar a ser muy sutiles, realizándose en estos casos el diagnóstico en forma tardía, cuando la adolescente consulte, por ejemplo, por amenorrea primaria o una mujer adulta por infertilidad. Una vez confirmado el diagnóstico mediante un cariotipo, estas pacientes deben permanecer en control endocrinológico pediátrico en forma continua hasta la transición hacia adultos, con el fin de pesquisar patologías asociadas en forma oportuna. Por ello requieren evaluaciones periódicas por especialistas, tales como otorrinolaringólogos, cardiólogos, neuropsiquiatras, entre otros. Numerosos avances en el cuidado de estas pacientes, dieron origen a nuevas guías publicadas el 2017. En este artículo comentaremos sobre las principales condiciones asociadas al ST y su etiología específica, mencionaremos lo relevante respecto a la relación genotipo-fenotipo en este síndrome y discutiremos los aspectos fundamentales del control de la paciente con ST, haciendo énfasis en el tratamiento de la talla baja y la insuficiencia ovárica, así como los aspectos CV y los relacionados a fertilidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Turner Syndrome/drug therapy , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Gonadal Dysgenesis/etiology , Growth Disorders/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Infertility, Female
14.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(5): 527-550, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978127

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the last decade, the risk benefits ratio of MHT has been evaluated mainly in terms of cardiovascular risk. Present Consensus Statement is largely inspired by the Global Consensus on Menopausal Hormone Therapy in 2013 and 2016 by leading global menopause societies (The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, The Asia Pacific Menopause Federation, The Endocrine Society, The European Menopause and Andropause Society, The International Menopause Society, The International Osteoporosis Foundation and The North American Menopause Society). The aim of these Recommendations is to provide a simple and updated reference on postmenopausal MHT. The term MHT typically includes estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT). EPT can be sequential (Seq) when progestogen is added to ERT for 10-14 days a month, or continuous combined (CC) when progestogen is administered continuously every day along with a fixed amount of estrogen. MHT also includes Tibolone and the Tissue Selective Estrogen Complex (TSEC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Societies, Medical/trends , Menopause , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Estrogens/administration & dosage
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691389

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Heyan Kuntai Capsule (, HYKT) and hormone therapy (HT) on perimenopausal syndromes (PMSs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From 2005 to 2008, 390 women with PMSs were recruited from 4 clinic centers. The inclusion criteria included ages 40 to 60 years, estradiol (E2) below 30 ng/L, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) above 40 IU/L, etc. The patients were randomly assigned to HYKT group or HT group by random number table method, administrated HYKT or conjugated estrogen with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets for 12 months. During treatment, the patients were interviewed quarterly, Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI) scores, hot flush scores, insomnia scores, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) scores and adverse effects were used for evaluating drug efficacy and safety respectively. The last interview was made at the end of 12-month treatment RESULTS: After treatment, KMI scores of HYKT group and HT group were both significantly decreased compared with baseline (P <0.01) and there was no significant difference between groups (P >0.05), except that KMI of HYKT group was higher after 3-month treatment (P <0.05). After treatment, hot flush and insomnia scores were both improved significantly in two groups (P <0.01); and HT had a better performance than HYKT in improving hot flush (P <0.05). MENQOL were significantly improved in both groups after treatment (P <0.01); but there was no significant difference between two groups (P >0.05). The incidence of adverse event in the HYKT group was much lower than that in the HT group (P <0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HYKT could effectively relieve PMSs and improve patients quality of life without severe adverse reactions. Although HYKT exerted curative effects more slowly than hormone, it possessed better safety profile than hormone.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Female , Hot Flashes , Drug Therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Perimenopause , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765743

ABSTRACT

Kidney function is highly susceptible to age-related changes, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) serving as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. The prevalence of CKD in Korea is higher among the elderly, relative to the general population, with the most significant increases seen following the onset of menopause. Under normal conditions, estrogen attenuates renal superoxide production and protects the kidney from oxidative damage. As estrogen levels are known to decrease by as much as 80% during menopause, this represents a significant risk for older women. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) modulates the renin-angiotensin system, thereby reducing the progressive deterioration of renal function. Use of estrogen-based HRT has been shown to ameliorate renal function in postmenopausal women, and delay CKD progression. Renal expression of klotho, an important suppressor of aging, is markedly decreased in CKD patients, making it a promising candidate for use as a prognostic biomarker in CKD. Here, we review the key links between renal function, sex, age, and estrogen levels during menopause, and discuss the use of postmenopausal HRT in CKD attenuation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens , Female , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Kidney , Korea , Menopause , Mortality , Postmenopause , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renin-Angiotensin System , Superoxides
17.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 148 p. ilus, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909416

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a síndrome do climatério é definida pelo conjunto de sintomas decorrentes da interação entre fatores endócrinos, socioculturais e psicológicos que ocorrem na mulher que envelhece. A procura por ajuda especializada e a utilização de algum método terapêutico neste período podem estar diretamente relacionadas ao nível de conhecimento apresentado pela mulher. Objetivos: avaliar a opinião sobre o significado da palavra menopausa, o conhecimento sobre o tema, os fatores associados ao nível de conhecimento e saber quais são as fontes de informação para mulheres de meia-idade residentes na Região Metropolitana de Campinas (RMC). Métodos: estudo transversal de base populacional com 749 mulheres brasileiras com idade entre 45 e 60 anos, residentes nos municípios que compõem a RMC. As respostas fornecidas à questão aberta "o que é a menopausa?" foram digitadas e codificadas, criando-se categorias que emergiram da fala das entrevistadas. Também foram analisadas as respostas à pergunta: "Onde ou de quem a senhora obteve informações sobre a menopausa?". Os conhecimentos sobre menopausa e Terapia Hormonal (TH) foram avaliados através de um escore calculado com base nas respostas fornecidas para três perguntas sobre o tema. As variáveis independentes foram as características sociodemográficas, hábitos de saúde e antecedentes ginecológicos. A análise estatística foi realizada através dos testes de Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis e Modelo Linear Generalizado. Resultados: a média etária das entrevistadas foi de 52,5 (+4,4) anos. Dessas, 16% estavam na pré-menopausa, 16% na perimenopausa e 68% estavam na pós-menopausa. Cento e quarenta e seis mulheres (19,5%) tinham antecedente de uso atual ou prévio de TH. De acordo com 67,5% das entrevistadas, o conceito de menopausa englobava alterações no ciclo menstrual e nos hormônios. Para 48% das entrevistadas, menopausa significava a ocorrência de alterações físicas, como "calores e ressecamento vaginal", e "envelhecimento". Para 22,7%, menopausa representava alterações psicológicas. O conceito de menopausa esteve associado a alguma alteração da sexualidade para 7,6% das entrevistadas. Aproximadamente 18% não tinham ideia do que significava menopausa. Quanto às fontes de informação, amigos, parentes e conhecidos foram os mais citados (44,5%). Médicos ou serviços de saúde vieram em seguida, mencionados por 44,3% das mulheres. Televisão ou rádio foram citados por 22,0%, revistas, jornais ou livros foram citados por 14,0% e a internet foi citada como fonte de informação sobre a menopausa por 6,8% das mulheres. O escore final de conhecimento variou entre +1 e +11, com uma média de 4,59 (+1,86) e uma mediana de 4. Mulheres com maior escolaridade (ß = 0,64; p 3 partos normais (ß= -0,61; p < 0,001) e com maior Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) (ß = -0,02; p= 0,046) apresentaram menor conhecimento. Conclusões: a maioria das mulheres de meia-idade residentes na RMC relacionava o termo "menopausa" a eventos fisiológicos, porém uma parcela significativa delas os vivenciava de maneira negativa. O conhecimento sobre menopausa e TH demonstrado pelas entrevistadas foi baixo. Fatores pessoais relacionados a uma maior exposição à informação qualificada parecem se associar a um maior conhecimento sobre menopausa e TH. Aparentemente, há uma demanda reprimida por informação sobre os diversos aspectos da transição menopausal entre mulheres brasileiras de meia-idade.(AU)


Abstract: Introduction: The climacteric syndrome is defined as a set of symptoms resulting from the interaction between endocrine, sociocultural, and psychological factors that occur in the aging woman. The search for specialized help and the use of some therapeutic method may be directly related to the level of knowledge that an individual acquires about a certain topic. Objectives: to evaluate the opinion about the meaning of the word menopause, the knowledge about the theme, the factors associated with the level of knowledge and to know the sources of information for middle-aged women living in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC). Methods: a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 749 women aged 45-60 years, residing in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas ¿ Brazil. The answers to the question "What is menopause?" were typed and coded, and categories that emerged from the interviewees¿ own speech were created. The answers to the question: "Where or from whom did you get information about menopause?" were also analyzed. Knowledge about menopause and hormone therapy (HT) was evaluated using a numerical score based on the answers given to 3 questions that had several response options. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, personal habits, and gynecological background. Statistical analysis was carried out by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and a generalized linear model. Results: the mean age was 52.5 (±4.4) years. Of them, 16% were premenopausal, 16% were perimenopausal and 68% were postmenopausal. One hundred and forty-six women (19.5%) had a history of current or previous use of HT. According to 67.5% of the interviewees, the concept of menopause encompassed changes in the menstrual cycle and hormones. For 48% of the interviewees, menopause meant physical changes such as "hot flushes and vaginal dryness" (42.5%), and "aging and getting old" (5.5%). For 22.7%, menopause represented psychological changes. The concept of menopause was associated with some change in sexuality for 7.6% of the interviewees. Approximately 18% could not explain and had no idea about what menopause meant. Regarding the sources of information, 44.5% of the women attributed this knowledge to friends and relatives. Doctors or health services were mentioned by 44.3% of women. Television or radio was cited by 22.0%; magazines, newspapers, or books was cited by 14.0%; and the internet was cited by 6.8% of women. The final score for knowledge about menopause ranged from +1 to +11, with a mean of 4.59 (±1.86) and a median of 4. Women with higher levels of schooling (?=0.64, p<0.001); with higher socioeconomic status (?=0.47, p<0.002); with vaginal dryness (?=0.47, p=0.003); who consumed alcohol (?=0.61, p=0.006); who use or had ever used any type of treatment to counteract menopausal symptoms (?=0.41, p=0.008); with anxiety (?=0.35, p=0.037); and with depression (?=0.31, p=0.043) possessed greater knowledge about menopause and HT. Women with a higher number (?3) of vaginal deliveries (?=-0.61, p<0.001) and a higher BMI (?=-0.02, p=0.046) possessed less knowledge about menopause and HT. Conclusions: most middle-aged women living in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas relate the term "menopause" to physiological events, but a significant portion of them experience them in a negative way. The knowledge about menopause and HT demonstrated by the interviewees was low. Personal factors related to a greater exposure to qualified information seem to be associated with greater knowledge about menopause and HT. There appears to be a suppressed demand for information on the various aspects of the menopausal transition among middle-aged Brazilian women(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Climacteric , Menopause , Women , Brazil , Epidemiology , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Information Services , Knowledge , Middle Aged
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719219

ABSTRACT

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare genetic disease caused by various abnormalities in the androgen receptor (AR). The AR is an essential steroid hormone receptor that plays a critical role in male sexual differentiation and development and preservation of the male phenotype. Mutations in the AR gene on the X chromosome cause malfunction of the AR so that a 46,XY karyotype male has some physical characteristics of a woman or a full female phenotype. Depending on the phenotype, AIS can be classified as complete, partial or mild. Here, we report 2 cases of complete AIS in young children who showed complete sex reversal from male to female as a result of AR mutations. They had palpable inguinal masses and normal female external genitalia, a blind-end vagina and absent Müllerian duct derivatives. They were both 46,XY karyotype and AR gene analysis demonstrated pathologic mutations in both. Because AIS is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, we performed genetic analysis of the female family members of each patient and found the same mutation in the mothers of both patients and in the female sibling of case 2. Gonadectomy was performed in both patients to avoid the risk of malignancy in the undescended testicles, and estrogen replacement therapy is planned for their adolescence. Individuals with complete AIS are usually raised as females and need appropriate care.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome , Child , Disorders of Sex Development , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Female , Genitalia , Humans , Karyotype , Male , Mothers , Phenotype , Receptors, Androgen , Sex Differentiation , Siblings , Testis , Vagina , X Chromosome
19.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 9(1): 167-174, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-836322

ABSTRACT

Objective: to identify the cervical-uterine abnormalities in cervical screening and associated factors. Methods: A retrospective study conducted by analysis of cervical screening recorded in the Cancer Information System, in the South of the country, in 2014. The final sample included 1.157 reports. For data analysis the SSPP software was used. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee on human subjects at the Federal University of Southern Frontier under CAAE nº 46421815.0.0000.5564. Results: Predominated in the samples lactobacilli as microbiological agents and Gardnerella vaginalis as infectious agent. Changed cervix, presence of metaplastic cells associated with the diagnosis of metaplasia was prevalent in women 25-34 years. Inflammation (18.9%), followed by cytological findings (11.8%), were the most frequent changes. Conclusion: The age of 25 to 64 years old, use of the contraceptive pill, Hormonal Replacement Therapy and metaplastic epithelium were associated with the risk of cellular changes occurring.


Objetivo: identificar as alterações cérvico-uterinas nos exames citopatológicos e seus fatores associados. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo realizado pela análises dos exames citopatológicos registrados no Sistema de Informação do Câncer no sul do país em 2014. A amostra final resultou em 1.157 laudos. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizado o software SSPP. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa com seres humanos da Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul sob CAAE nº 46421815.0.0000.5564. Resultados: Predominou nas amostras o slactobacilos como agentes microbiológicos e a Gardnerella vaginalis como agente infeccioso. O colo uterino alterado, a presença de células metaplásicas associado ao diagnóstico de metaplasia foi prevalente nas mulheres de 25 a 34 anos. As inflamações (18,9%), seguido dos achados citológicos (11,8%), foram as alterações mais frequentes. Conclusão: Associaram-se ao risco de ocorrência das alterações celulares idade entre 25 a 64 anos, uso da pílula anticoncepcional, Terapia de Reposição Hormonal e epitélio metaplásico.


Objetivo: identificar las anomalías cérvico-uterinos en el cribado cervicaly factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo realizado mediante el análisis de cribado cervical registrado en el Sistema de Información sobre el Cáncer en el Sur en 2014. La muestra final incluyó 1.157 informes. Para el software de análisis de datos se utilizó SSPP. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité Ético de Investigación en seres humanos de la Universidad Federal del Sur de la Frontera bajo CAAE nº 46421815.0.0000.5564. Resultados: Predominaron en las muestras de lactobacilos como agentes microbiológicos y Gardnerella vaginalis como agente infeccioso. El cuello del útero cambiado, la presencia de células de metaplasia asociados con el diagnóstico de metaplasia era frecuente en las mujeres de 25-34 años. Inflamación (18,9%), seguido por los hallazgos citológicos (11,8%) fueron los cambios más frecuentes. Conclusión: Se asocian con el riesgo de que se produzcan cambios en las células entre 25 años a 64 años, el uso de píldoras anticonceptivas, la terapia de reemplazo hormonal y el epitelio metaplásico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Contraceptive Agents/adverse effects , Mass Screening , Reproductive Health , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Papanicolaou Test , Brazil
20.
Biol. Res ; 50: 11, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cimicifuga racemosa is one of the herbs used for the treatment of climacteric syndrome, and it has been cited as an alternative therapy to estrogen. Apart from hectic fevers, dyspareunia and so on, dry mouth also increase significantly after menopause. It has not yet been reported whether C. racemosa has any impact on the sublingual gland, which may relate to dry mouth. In an attempt to determine this, we have compared the effects of estrogen and C. racemosa on the sublingual gland of ovariectomized rats. RESULTS: HE staining showed that the acinar cell area had contracted and that the intercellular spaces were broadened in the OVX (ovariectomized rats) group, while treatment with estradiol (E2) and iCR (isopropanolic extract of C. racemosa) improved these lesions. Transmission electron microscopy showed that rough endoplasmic reticulum expansion in mucous and serous acinar epithelial cells and apoptotic cells was more commonly seen in the OVX group than in the SHAM (sham-operated rats) group. Mitochondria and plasma membrane infolding lesions in the striated ducts were also observed. These lesions were alleviated by both treatments. It is of note that, in the OVX + iCR group, the volume of mitochondria in the striated duct was larger than in other groups. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells was significantly increased in the acinar cells of the OVX group compared with the SHAM group (p < 0.05); and the MA (mean absorbance) of caspase-3 in the striated ducts also increased (p < 0.05). Estradiol decreased the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells and the MA of caspase-3 in striated ducts significantly (p < 0.05). ICR also reduced the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells and the MA in the striated ducts (p < 0.05), but the reduction of the MA in striated ducts was inferior to that of the OVX + E2 group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both estradiol and iCR can inhibit subcellular structural damage, and down-regulate the expression of caspase-3 caused by ovariectomy, but their effects were not identical, suggesting that both drugs confer a protective effect on the sublingual gland of ovariectomized rats, but that the specific location and mechanism of action producing these effects were different.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Sublingual Gland/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ovariectomy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Xerostomia/prevention & control , Climacteric/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Down-Regulation , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Caspase 3/analysis , Caspase 3/drug effects , Acinar Cells/drug effects
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