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1.
Revagog ; 3(3): 76-77, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343785

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: A nivel mundial, la tasa de letalidad es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Algunos estudios lo han sugerido. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la hormona estrogénica, puede disminuir la susceptibilidad al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias de género en los resultados del SARS CoV-2 y analizar si existen diferencias en los resultados en mujeres premenopáusicas en comparación con posmenopáusicas. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 720 pacientes que dieron positivo (+) para SARS CoV-2 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con transcripción inversa en tiempo real, mediante el ensayo Thermo Fischer Taqpath, aprobado por el Consejo Indio de Investigación Médica. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad en las mujeres fue del 12,6%, mientras que la mortalidad en los hombres fue del 19,4%. En el análisis entre grupos, el 8,6% (16/185) de las mujeres murieron en el grupo de edad premenopáusica frente al 12,8% (27/211) en el grupo posmenopáusico. La proporción de mujeres que fallecieron debido a COVID difiere significativamente según la edad y el estado posmenopáusico X2 (1, n = 293) = 7,2, el valor de p es 0,007. La diferencia es estadísticamente significativa a P<0,05. Las mujeres posmenopáusicas tenían más probabilidades de fallecer debido a la infección por COVID-19 en comparación con las mujeres premenopáusicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postmenopause , Estrogens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Perimenopause , COVID-19/complications
2.
Revagog ; 3(3): 78-79, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343840

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) relacionada con el SARS 2019-2020 ha traído desafíos sin precedentes a los sectores de la salud en todo el mundo. Hasta noviembre de 2020, ha habido más de 64 millones de casos confirmados y se acercan a 2 millones de muertes en todo el mundo. A pesar de la gran cantidad de casos positivos, existen muy pocos estándares establecidos de atención y opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Hasta la fecha, (Diciembre 2020) todavía no existe una vacuna aprobada por la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) para COVID-19, aunque existen varias ensayos clínicos en diferentes. etapas de desarrollo. En este documento, hemos realizado una revisión global que evalúa los roles de la edad y el sexo en las hospitalizaciones por COVID-19, las admisiones a la UCI, las muertes en hospitales y las muertes en hogares de ancianos. Hemos identificado una tendencia en la que las personas mayores y los pacientes masculinos se ven afectados significativamente por los resultados adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology , Hormone Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens , Gender Role , COVID-19/drug therapy
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 560-570, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278353

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on progesterone/estrogen (P4/E2) and eCG during unfavorable breeding season using cooled (CS) and frozen semen (FS). A total of 446 buffaloes (> 40 days postpartum) were randomly distributed into four blocks (years): B1-2014 (n = 143), B2-2015 (n = 34), B3-2016 (n = 90), and B4-2017 (n = 179). Each block was subdivided into two (AI with CS and FS using the same ejaculate of each bull). Thus, the block subdivision was as follows: B1 (CS = 71 and FS = 72); B2 (CS = 18 and FS = 16); B3 (CS = 47 and FS = 43); and B4 (CS = 90 and FS = 89). The ejaculates of eight Murrah bulls collected using an artificial vagina were divided into two aliquots: one aliquot was diluted in Botu-Bov® commercial extender and cooled (BB-CS), and the other was diluted in the same extender and frozen (BB-FS). BB-CS aliquots were cooled at 5 °C/24 h using a refrigerator. BB-FS group aliquots were also cooled, and after equilibrating at 5 °C for 4 h, were placed in a 21-L Styrofoam box, 5 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen. In the afternoon (A) on D0 (2:00 p.m.) the animals received EB 2.0 mg IM (Estrogin®) and an ear implant (CRESTAR® 3.0 mg P4). At D9 (A), the implant was removed, and the animals received eCG 400 IU IM (Folligon® 5000) + Cloprostenol PGF2α 0.530 mg IM (Sincrocio®). At D10 (A), the animals received EB 1.0 mg IM (Estrogin®), and at D12 (8:00 a.m.), AI was performed. At D42, pregnancy was diagnosed via ultrasonography. Total CRs were 48.2% CS and 34.6% FS for years 2014 to 2017, with a significant difference of 13.7% (P<0.05). In conclusion, cooled semen resulted in higher CR than frozen semen in dairy buffaloes under the P4/E2 and eCG FTAI during the unfavorable reproductive season.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência reprodutiva de búfalas leiteiras submetidas a protocolos de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) à base de progesterona/estrogênio (P4/E2) e eCG, durante a estação reprodutiva desfavorável, usando-se sêmen resfriado (SR) e congelado (SC) Um total de 446 búfalas (> 40 dias após o parto) foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro blocos (anos): B1-2014 (n = 143), B2-2015 (n = 34), B3-2016 (n = 90) e B4-2017 (n = 179). Cada bloco foi subdividido em dois (IA com SR e SC utilizando-se a mesma ejaculação de cada touro). Assim, a subdivisão do bloco foi a seguinte: B1 (SR = 71 e SC = 72); B2 (SR = 18 e SC = 16); B3 (SR = 47 e SC = 43); e B4 (SR = 90 e SC = 89). Os ejaculados de oito touros Murrah coletados com vagina artificial foram divididos em duas alíquotas: uma alíquota diluída em diluente comercial Botu-Bov® e resfriada (BB-SR), e a outra diluída no mesmo diluente e congelada (BB-SC). As alíquotas de BB-SR foram resfriados a 5°C/24h usando-se um refrigerador. As alíquotas do grupo BB-SC também foram resfriadas e, após equilíbrio a 5°C por 4h, foram colocadas em uma caixa de isopor de 21L, 5 cm acima da superfície do nitrogênio líquido. À tarde (A), no D0 (14h), os animais receberam BE 2,0 mg IM (Estrogin®) e um implante auricular (Crestar® 3,0 mg P4). No D9 (A), o implante foi retirado e os animais receberam eCG 400 UI IM (Folligon® 5000) + cloprostenol PGF2α 0,530 mg IM (Sincrocio®). No D10 (A), os animais receberam BE 1,0mg IM (Estrogin®), e, no D12 (8h da manhã), foram realizadas as IAs. No D42, a gestação foi diagnosticada por ultrassonografia. As taxas de concepção (TC) totais foram 48,2% SR e 34,6% SC para os anos de 2014 a 2017, com uma diferença significativa de 13,7% (P<0,05). Em conclusão, o sêmen resfriado resultou em maior TC do que o sêmen congelado em bubalinos leiteiros sob P4/E2 e eCG FTAI durante a estação reprodutiva desfavorável.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Buffaloes/physiology , Estrus Synchronization , Progesterone/administration & dosage , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Estrogens/administration & dosage
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 208-216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878249

ABSTRACT

The transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) plays a key role in unfolded protein reaction. This study was aimed to investigate the expression pattern and regulation of XBP1 in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy. The methods of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to test XBP1 expression in early pregnancy, artificial decidualization, oestrous cycle and hormone-regulated mouse models. The results showed that XBP1 was spatiotemporally expressed in mouse uterus during early pregnancy. The XBP1 protein was mainly detected in the luminal and glandular epithelia on days 1-4 of pregnancy, and was strongly detected in the decidual area on days 5-8 of pregnancy. Similarly, XBP1 expression was also mainly expressed in decidual cells following artificial decidualization. During the oestrous cycle, Xbp1, Xbp1u, and Xbp1s mRNA was predominantly present in proestrus. In the ovariectomized uterus, the expression of XBP1 in luminal and glandular epithelia was up-regulated after estrogen treatment. These results suggest that XBP1 is associated with embryo implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy in mice, and the expression of XBP1 in luminal and glandular epithelia may be regulated by estrogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Decidua , Embryo Implantation , Estrogens , Female , Mice , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Uterus
5.
Clinics ; 76: e2846, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278914

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm in women and is considered a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. One of the major risk factors is genetic alteration. Changes in CYP19A1 gene expression levels have been associated with increased risk and increased aggressiveness of breast cancer. Increased CYP19A1 gene expression and/or aromatase activity are among the major regulatory events for intratumoral production of estrogens in breast malignant tissues. This systematic review aimed to investigate the influence of CYP19A1 gene expression levels in women with breast cancer. The research was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Searches were conducted between February 2 and May 15, 2019. Inclusion criteria were studies published between 2009 and 2019, English language publications, and human studies addressing the gene expression of CYP19A1 in breast cancer. A total of 6.068 studies were identified through PubMed (n=773), Scopus (n=2,927), and the Web of Science (n=2,368). After selecting and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were included in this systematic review. This systematic review provides evidence that increased or decreased levels of CYP19A1 gene expression may be related to pathological clinical factors of disease, MFS, OS, DFS, WATi, markers of metabolic function, concentrations of E1, FSH, and in the use of multiple exons 1 of the CYP19A1 gene in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Aromatase/genetics , Gene Expression , Estrogens
6.
Rev. colomb. menopaus ; 27(1): 24-46, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1283533

ABSTRACT

En enero de 2021 la Asociación Colombiana de Menopausia realizó el simposio "Terapia hormonal de la menopausia" contando con la participación de respetados profesores de la especialidad y a cada uno se le asignó un tema para ser revisado y presentado de acuerdo a la evidencia actual. En noviembre del año 2020 el Instituto de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA) había lanzado una alerta sobre "Riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de mama en mujeres postmenopáusicas en manejo con terapia de reemplazo hormonal", apoyándose en una decisión del Reino Unido. Dentro de las afirmaciones de INVIMA se encontró que el uso prolongado por más de un año incrementa el riesgo de cáncer de mama sin que sea claro su soporte científico para tal afirmación. El pronunciamiento del Reino Unido se soportó en el estudio "Tipo y momento de la terapia hormonal de la menopausia y el riesgo de cáncer de mama: Meta-análisis de participantes individuales de la evidencia epidemiológica mundial, del Grupo de colaboración sobre factores hormonales en el cáncer de mama, publicado en la revista médica The Lancet el 29 de agosto de 2019. Varias asociaciones científicas se manifestaron en contra de lo enunciado y por ende la Asociación Colombiana de Menopausia consideró apropiado hacer una revisión exhaustiva del papel de la terapia hormonal en la actualidad. El resultado de dicho trabajo es presentado en esta revisión.


On January 2021 de Colombian Menopause Association did a symposium "Menopause hormonal therapy" with participation of respectable professors of the specialty, to each one previously a topic had been assigned for its review and presentation according to actual evidence. On November 2020 the Colombian Institute for Drugs and Foods Vigilance (INVIMA) had issued an alert about the "Risk of developing breast cancer in postmenopausal women under treatment with hormone replacement therapy", having support in a decision taken in the United Kingdom. One of the things affirmed by INVIMA was that prolonged use, greater than one year, increases the risk of breast cancer, without clear scientifically supporting this issue. In the United Kingdom the pronunciation was supported on the study, "Type and moment of menopausal hormone therapy and risk of breast cancer: Metanalisis of individual participants of worldwide epidemiological evidence, from the Collaborative group on hormonal factors in breast cancer published in The Lancet on August 29, 2019. Various scientific associations manifested against what was expressed and the Colombian Menopause Association considered appropriate to do an exhaustive review of the role of hormonal therapy today. The result of such work is presented in this paper.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Breast Neoplasms , Menopause , Estrogens , Heart Disease Risk Factors
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2683, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in the intestine could lead to severe endothelial injury, compromising intestinal motility. Reportedly, estradiol can control local and systemic inflammation induced by I/R injury. Thus, we investigated the effects of estradiol treatment on local repercussions in an intestinal I/R model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to ischemia via the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (45 min) followed by reperfusion (2h). Thirty minutes after ischemia induction (E30), 17β-estradiol (E2) was administered as a single dose (280 μg/kg, intravenous). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. RESULTS: I/R injury decreased intestinal motility and increased intestinal permeability, accompanied by reduced mesenteric endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin (ET) protein expression. Additionally, the levels of serum injury markers and inflammatory mediators were elevated. Estradiol treatment improved intestinal motility, reduced intestinal permeability, and increased eNOS and ET expression. Levels of injury markers and inflammatory mediators were also reduced following estradiol treatment. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings indicate that estradiol treatment can modulate the deleterious intestinal effects of I/R injury. Thus, estradiol mediates the improvement in gut barrier functions and prevents intestinal dysfunction, which may reduce the systemic inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Permeability , Reperfusion , Estrogens , Intestines , Ischemia
8.
Med. lab ; 25(1): 393-408, 2021. tab, graf, ilus, fotografia
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292643

ABSTRACT

La ginecomastia es el crecimiento mamario benigno en el varón. Etiológicamente se clasifica en fisiológica y patológica. La ginecomastia fisiológica se presenta frecuentemente en ciertos periodos de la vida, como la época neonatal, puberal y senil. La patológica se asocia a múltiples factores, incluyendo los hormonales, los de origen tumoral, y al uso de ciertos medicamentos, entre otros; sin embargo, en muchos pacientes no se consigue identificar nunca la causa. La historia clínica y el examen físico son los pilares fundamentales que permiten orientar hacia la etiología, con el apoyo de pruebas de laboratorio e imagenología que permitan descartar una enfermedad clínica subyacente. En los casos moderados o severos, la cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. El objetivo del presente manuscrito es discutir algunos puntos de interés acerca de los aspectos más importantes relacionados con la ginecomastia, incluyendo la fisiopatología, la clínica y el diagnóstico, además de presentar las principales causas asociadas a esta condición. Por último, se describen los tipos de tratamiento disponibles para estos pacientes


Gynecomastia is the benign breast enlargement in males. Etiologically it is classified as physiological and pathological. Physiological gynecomastia is more frequently observed in newborns, adolescents, and in older men. Pathological gynecomastia is associated with multiple factors, including hormonal and of tumor origin, and to the use of certain medications, among other factors; however, in many patients the underlying cause may never be identified. Anamnesis and physical examination are the fundamental pillars that will guide towards the etiology, with the support of laboratory and imaging tests to rule out an underlying disease. In moderate or severe cases, surgery is the treatment of choice. The aim of this article is to discuss some key points about the most important aspects related to gynecomastia, including pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis, in addition to presenting the main causes associated with this condition. Finally, the types of treatment available for these patients are described


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Testosterone , Estrogens , Hypogonadism , Androgens
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879087

ABSTRACT

With the process of urbanization and population aging in China, the burden of cardiovascular disease and the incidence of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women have greatly increased. Studies have found that the incidence of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women is closely related to the level of estrogen, but there are still difficulties of low efficiency and large side effects in current therapies. Kidney deficiency has a strong correlation with reproductive development and overall function. The clinical manifestations and characteristics of postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients conform to the pathogenesis of kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. The kidney-invigorating method has a good efficacy in treating postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients. This paper summarizes clinical and pharmacological evidences, expounds the relationship between kidney deficiency and the level of estrogen, and the pathological mechanism of the kidney-tonifying method in the treatment of coronary heart disease, and defines the clinical efficacy and advantages of the kidney-tonifying method. The method may become an effective method to prevent and treat postmenopausal coronary heart disease, and is expected to benefit patients with coronary heart disease better.


Subject(s)
China , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Kidney , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 640-649, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132358

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the socket healing of estrogen-deficient rats. Seventy-two rats were allocated into one of the following groups: Control, Ovariectomy and LiCl (150 mg/kg/2 every other day orally) + Ovariectomy. Animals received LiCl or water from the 14th day post-ovariectomy, until the completion of the experiment. On the 21st day after ovariectomy, the first molars were extracted. Rats were euthanized on the 10th, 20th and 30th days following extractions. Bone healing (BH), TRAP positive cells and immunohistochemical staining for OPG, RANKL, BSP, OPN and OCN were evaluated. The Ovariectomy group presented decreased BH compared to the LiCl group at 10 days, and the lowest BH at 20 days (p<0.05). At 30 days, the Ovariectomy and LiCl-groups presented lower BH than that of the Control (p<0.05). The number of TRAP-stained cells was the lowest in the LiCl group at 20 days and the highest in the Ovariectomy group at 30 days (p<0.05). At 10 days of healing, the LiCl group demonstrated stronger staining for all bone markers when compared to the other groups, while the Ovariectomy group presented higher RANKL expression than that of the Control (p<0.05). LiCl enhanced bone healing in rats with estrogen deficiency, particularly in the initial healing phases. However, as data on the effects of lithium chloride on bone tissue are still preliminary, more studies related to its toxicity and protocol of administration are necessary before its application in clinical practice.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do Cloreto de Lítio (ClLi) na cicatrização de alvéolos de ratas deficientes em estrogênio. Setenta e duas ratas foram alocadas em um dos seguintes grupos: Controle, Ovariectomia e Cloreto de Lítio (150mg/kg/ oralmente a cada 2 dias) + ovarectomia. Os animais receberam ClLi ou água a partir do 14º dia pós-ovariectomia, até a conclusão do experimento. No 21º dia após a ovariectomia, os primeiros molares foram extraídos. As ratas foram sacrificadas nos dias 10, 20 e 30 após extrações. Foram avaliadas a cicatrização óssea (BH), células positivas para TRAP e coloração imuno-histoquímica para OPG, RANKL, BSP, OPN e OCN. O grupo Ovariectomia apresentou BH diminuída em comparação ao grupo LiCl aos 10 dias e a menor BH aos 20 dias (p<0,05). Aos 30 dias, os grupos Ovariectomia e LiCl apresentaram menor BH do que o Controle (p<0,05). O número de células positivas para TRAP foi menor no grupo ClLi em 20 dias e o maior no grupo Ovariectomia em 30 dias (p<0,05). Aos 10 dias de cicatrização, o grupo ClLi demonstrou imunomarcação mais intensa em todos os marcadores testados quando comparado aos outros grupos, enquanto o grupo Ovariectomia apresentou maior expressão de RANKL do que a do controle (p<0,05). O ClLi melhorou a cicatrização óssea em ratos com deficiência de estrogênio, particularmente nas fases iniciais do reparo. No entanto, como os dados sobre os efeitos do cloreto de lítio no tecido ósseo ainda são preliminares, mais estudos relacionados à sua toxicidade e protocolo de administração são necessários antes de sua aplicação na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Tooth Extraction , Lithium Chloride , Wound Healing , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Tooth Socket , Estrogens
11.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 211-215, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149830

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La disforia de género (DG) hace referencia a una marcada incongruencia entre la identidad de género y el sexo biológico, que genera un malestar clínico de al menos 6 meses de duración. Métodos: Reporte de caso y revisión no sistemática de la literatura. Presentación del caso: Mujer transgénero de 56 años, con historia de enfermedad coronaria y un segundo evento tromboembólico posterior a la automedicación de terapia hormonal. Después del tratamiento agudo de su afección cardiovascular, solicitó tratamiento para su DG. Discusión: La DG requiere un tratamiento multidisciplinario. La THC es el pilar del tratamiento. Se ha documentado que el uso de presentaciones orales de estrógenos puede aumentar el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos en pacientes mayores de 40 años, principalmente cuando tienen factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Conclusiones: Se debe ofrecer un tratamiento integral a todas las personas con DG para aliviar el malestar psicológico, disminuir la comorbilidad psiquiátrica y mejorar su calidad de vida. Hasta el momento hay poca evidencia científica respecto a la THC en mujeres transgénero mayores de 40años, por lo que se recomienda una vigilancia multidisciplinaria, estrecha y rigurosa, en especial cuando hay riesgo cardiovascular.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) refers to a marked incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. GD generates a significant clinical discomfort for at least six months. Methods: Case report and non-systematic literature review. Case presentation: A 56-year-old male-to-female patient, who had a history of coronary disease and a second thromboembolic event after hormone therapy (self-medicated). Once she had received acute management for the cardiovascular disease, she consulted for her GD. Discussion: GD requires multidisciplinary management. Cross-sex hormonal therapy is considered the main treatment. It has been documented that oral oestrogen preparations may increase the risk of thromboembolic events in patients over the age of 40, especially when they have cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Comprehensive treatment should be offered to everyone who has GD, to relieve psychological distress, decrease psychiatric comorbidity and improve quality of life. To date, there is little scientific evidence regarding cross-sex hormonal therapy in transgender women over the age of 40; we therefore recommend multidisciplinary, close and rigorous monitoring, in particular when they have cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Estrogens , Gender Dysphoria , Gender Identity , Quality of Life , Self Medication , Dronabinol , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk Factors , Coronary Disease , Psychological Distress
12.
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): 140-153, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129814

ABSTRACT

La osteoporosis y las enfermedades cardiovasculares son patologías prevalentes en mujeres posmenopáusicas. La calcificación vascular es un proceso en el que se produce una distorsión de la arquitectura natural del tejido arterial con una transformación símil osteogénica. La fisiología vascular y la osteogénesis (formación y remodelación ósea) comparten una complejidad metabólica y funcional crítica, que ha sido poco explorada en forma conjunta, lo que ha impulsado la concepción del Eje Óseo-Vascular como nueva área de investigación, con una visión de estudio integradora con la finalidad de identificar vínculos entre ambos sistemas. En virtud de la controversia planteada sobre los riesgos/beneficios de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal para prevenir enfermedades asociadas a la menopausia, se ha incentivado la búsqueda de nuevas opciones de tratamiento. Los fitoestrógenos, como compuestos nutracéuticos, surgen como una potencial alternativa terapéutica. En particular, las isoflavonas presentan gran analogía estructural con el estrógeno humano 17ß-estradiol, lo que les permite unirse al receptor de estrógenos e inducir acciones estrogénicas tanto en células animales como humanas. Basado en la experiencia propia como en lo reportado en la bibliografía, este artículo analiza la información disponible sobre las acciones vasculares y óseas de los fitoestrógenos (específicamente la isoflavona genisteína), con una visión de ciencia traslacional. Es de esperar que los avances en el conocimiento derivado de la ciencia básica, en un futuro cercano, pueda contribuir a decisiones clínicas a favor de promover terapias naturales de potencial acción dual, para la prevención de enfermedades de alta prevalencia y significativo costo social y económico para la población. (AU)


Osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases are prevalent diseases in postmenopausal women. Vascular calcification is a cellmediated process that leads to the loss of the natural architecture of the arterial vessels due to osteogenic transdifferentiation of smooth muscle cells, and matrix mineralization. Vascular physiology and osteogenesis (bone formation and remodeling) share a critical metabolic and functional complexity. Given the emerging integrative nature of the bonevascular axis, links between both systems are a matter of ongoing interest. In view of the controversy stated about the risks/benefits of hormone replacement therapy to prevent diseases associated with menopause, phytoestrogens arise as a potential natural therapeutic alternative. In particular, isoflavones have a strong structural analogy with the human estrogen 17ß-estradiol, that allows them to bind to the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic actions in animal and human cells. Based in on our own experience and the information available in the literature, in this paper we provide an overview of the role of phytoestrogens on vascular and bone tissues, with focus on Genistein actions. We wish that the basic knowledge acquired may contribute to guide clinical decisions for the promotion of natural therapies for the treatment of diseases that conspire against human health. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Vascular Calcification/drug therapy , Osteogenesis/physiology , Menopause , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Bone Remodeling , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/classification , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Estrogens/biosynthesis , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Vascular Calcification/metabolism
13.
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [132]-[140], mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129806

ABSTRACT

La oxitocina (OXT) como la arginina-vasopresina (AVP) son dos hormonas primitivas secretadas por la hipófisis posterior. Sus receptores están mucho más ampliamente distribuidos en el organismo de lo que se pensaba originalmente, incluido el hueso. En los estudios preclínicos, la OXT ha mostrado ser anabólica para el hueso, promoviendo la osteogénesis sobre la adipogénesis y favoreciendo la actividad osteoblástica sobre la osteoclástica. Tanto los osteoblastos como los osteoclastos tienen receptores para la OXT, y los efectos de los estrógenos sobre la masa ósea en ratones está mediada por lo menos en parte por la OXT. El mecanismo preciso por el cual la activación de los receptores de oxitocina (OXTR) se traduce en un incremento de la formación ósea permanece poco claro. La AVP también podría afectar el esqueleto en forma directa. Dos de los receptores de la AVP, V1a y V2 están expresados en osteoblastos y osteoclastos. La inyección de AVP en ratones de tipo salvaje aumenta la formación osteoclastos que producen resorción y reduce los osteoblastos formadores de hueso. En forma opuesta, la exposición de precursores osteoblásticos a antagonistas de los receptores V1a o V2, incrementan la osteoblastogénesis, como también lo hace la deleción genética del receptor V1a. (AU)


Both oxytocin (OXT) and argininevasopressin (AVP) are primitive hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. OXT receptors are much more widely distributed in the body than originally thought, including in bone. In preclinical studies, OXT has been shown to be anabolic for bone, promoting osteogenesis over adipogenesis and favoring osteoblastic over osteoclastic activity. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts have receptors for OXT, and the effects of estrogen on bone mass in mice is mediated at least in part by OXT. The precise mechanism by which the activation of oxytocin receptors (OXTRs) results in an increase in bone formation remains unclear. AVP could also have direct actions on the skeleton. The two AVP receptors, V1a and V2, are expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Injection of AVP in wild-type mice increases the formation of osteoclasts increasing bone resorption, and reduces bone-forming osteoblasts. On the contrary, the exposure of osteoblastic precursors to V1a and V2 antagonists increase osteoblastogenesis, the same as the genetic deletion of the V1a receptor. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Pituitary Hormones, Posterior/biosynthesis , Arginine Vasopressin/adverse effects , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Osteoblasts/physiology , Osteoclasts/physiology , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/therapy , Pituitary Hormones, Posterior/physiology , Arginine Vasopressin/antagonists & inhibitors , Arginine Vasopressin/biosynthesis , Arginine Vasopressin/physiology , Arginine Vasopressin/therapeutic use , Oxytocin/biosynthesis , Oxytocin/adverse effects , Oxytocin/physiology , Signal Transduction , Bone Density , Bone Density/drug effects , Receptors, Oxytocin/biosynthesis , Receptors, Oxytocin/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Estrogens/physiology
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136174

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cervix Uteri/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Mucous Membrane/drug effects
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(1): 19-24, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089269

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in genes encoding estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and in microRNA17 (which binds to ESR1 and VDR) with persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) after the endodontic treatment. We included 162 patients who completed endodontic treatment at least one year ago and presented apical periodontitis at the beginning of the root canal therapy. Clinical and radiographic exams were performed to evaluate the presence of PAP or healthy periradicular tissues (healed). Saliva samples were collected as a genomic DNA. The genotyping of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799), ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938), VDR (rs739837 and rs2228570) and miRNA17 (rs4284505) were performed by real-time PCR. Chi-square test was used to the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Eighty-nine patients were included in the "healed" group and 73 in the "PAP" group. No association was found between the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms studied and PAP (p>0.05). Haplotype analysis also did not demonstrated an association (p>0.05). In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, VDR and miRNA17 are not associated with PAP.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a associação entre polimorfismos em genes que codificam os receptores de estrogênio 1 (ESR1) e 2 (ESR2), receptor de vitamina D (VDR) e no microRNA17 (que se liga à ESR1 e VDR) e a periodontite apical persistente (PAP) após o tratamento endodôntico. Foram incluídos 162 pacientes com tratamento endodôntico concluído há pelo menos um ano e que apresentavam periodontite apical no início da terapia endodôntica. Exames clínicos e radiográficos foram realizados para avaliar a presença de PAP ou tecidos perirradiculares saudáveis (cicatrizados). As amostras de saliva foram coletadas como fonte de DNA genômico. A genotipagem de ESR1 (rs2234693 e rs9340799), ESR2 (rs1256049 e rs4986938), VDR (rs739837 e rs2228570) e miRNA17 (rs4284505) foram realizadas por PCR em tempo real. O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para a distribuição das frequências genotípicas e alélicas. A análise de haplótipos também foi realizada. Oitenta e nove pacientes foram incluídos no grupo "curado" e 73 no grupo "PAP". Não foi encontrada associação entre os polimorfismos alélicos e genotípicos estudados e a PAP (p>0,05). Concluí-se que os polimorfismos genéticos em ESR1, ESR2, VDR e miRNA17 não estão associados à PAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vitamin D , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Estrogen Receptor alpha/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Haplotypes , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Estrogens , Gene Frequency
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8659, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055485

ABSTRACT

Eosinophils are abundant in the reproductive tract, contributing to the remodeling and successful implantation of the embryo. However, the mechanisms by which eosinophils migrate into the uterus and their relationship to edema are still not entirely clear, since there are a variety of chemotactic factors that can cause migration of these cells. Therefore, to evaluate the role of CCR3 in eosinophil migration, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with CCR3 antagonist SB 328437 and 17β-estradiol. The hypothesis that the CCR3 receptor plays an important role in eosinophil migration to the mouse uterus was confirmed, because we observed reduction in eosinophil peroxidase activity in these antagonist-treated uteruses. The antagonist also influenced uterine hypertrophy, inhibiting edema formation. Finally, histological analysis of the orcein-stained uteruses showed that the antagonist reduced eosinophil migration together with edema. These data showed that the CCR3 receptor is an important target for studies that seek to clarify the functions of these cells in uterine physiology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Uterus/cytology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Eosinophils/drug effects , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Receptors, CCR3/antagonists & inhibitors , Ovariectomy , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(8): e9794, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132540

ABSTRACT

Although estrogen has crucial functions for endometrium growth, the specific dose and underlying molecular mechanism in intrauterine adhesion (IUA) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in normal and fibrotic endometrium, and the role of estrogen and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the formation of endometrial fibrosis. CCK-8 and immunofluorescence assay were performed to access the proliferation of different concentrations of estrogen on normal human endometrial epithelial cells (hEECs). qRT-PCR and western blot assay were utilized to explore the effect of estrogen on EMT in normal and fibrotic endometrium, and main components of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining were used to evaluate the effect of estrogen on endometrial morphology and fibrosis in vivo. Our results indicated that the proliferation of normal hEECs was inhibited by estrogen at a concentration of 30 nM accompanied by upregulation of mesenchymal markers and downregulation of epithelial markers. Interestingly, in the model of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced endometrial fibrosis, the same concentration of estrogen inhibited the process of EMT, which might be partially mediated by regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In addition, relatively high doses of estrogen efficiently increased the number of endometrial glands and reduced the area of fibrosis as determined by the reduction of EMT in IUA animal models. Taken together, our results demonstrated that an appropriate concentration of estrogen may prevent the occurrence and development of IUA by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT and activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Uterine Diseases , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Estrogens , Wnt Signaling Pathway
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828498

ABSTRACT

Aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. The third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), represented by letrozoleand and anastrozole, can combine with aromatase, effectively reducing the estrogen level in the body. Because of its high efficiency, selectivity and reversibility, it has been used in the treatment of McCune-Albright syndrome, familial male-limited precocious puberty, gynecomastia, and adolescent boy with short stature. The good efficacy and safety of AIs have been observed. However, so far the drug instructions of AIs usually do not show indications for children; there are risks of adverse reactions involving liver and kidney function, lipid metabolism, hyperandrogenemia and bone metabolism; especially the long-term effects on reproductive system and bone metabolism are still not clear. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe it carefully and follow up closely. It was not recommended that AIs be routinely used to improve adult height of adolescent boy with short stature. And more clinical evidences are needed for the safety and effectiveness of AIs prescribed in pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aromatase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Estrogens , Humans , Male , Puberty, Precocious
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