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1.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 101(1): 10-19, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411560

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the financial and time cost of breast cancer biomarker analysis by immunohistochemistry with that by the Xpert® STRAT4 assay. Methods We estimated costs (personnel, location, consumables and indirect) and time involved in breast cancer diagnosis at the Butaro Cancer Centre of Excellence, Rwanda, using time-driven activity-based costing. We performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost of biomarker analysis for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status with immunohistochemistry versus STRAT4. We performed sensitivity analyses by altering laboratory-specific parameters for the two methods. Findings We estimated that breast cancer diagnosis in Rwanda costs 138.29 United States dollars (US$) per patient when conducting biomarker analysis by immunohistochemistry. At a realistic immunohistochemistry antibody utilization efficiency of 70%, biomarker analysis comprises 48.7% (US$ 67.33) of diagnostic costs and takes 33 min. We determined that biomarker analysis with STRAT4 yields a reduction in diagnosis cost of US$ 7.33 (10.9%; 7.33/67.33), and in pathologist and technician time of 20 min (60.6%; 20/33), per patient. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that no cost savings would be made in laboratories with antibody utilization efficiencies over 90%, or where only estrogen and/or progesterone receptor status are assessed; however, such operational efficiencies are unlikely, and more laboratories are pursuing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 analysis as targeted therapies become increasingly available. Conclusion Breast cancer biomarker analysis with STRAT4 has the potential to reduce the required human and capital resources in subSaharan African laboratories, leading to improved treatment selection and better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis , RNA, Messenger , Estrogens , Pathology, Molecular , Genetics
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 274-282, out.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400235

ABSTRACT

Introdução: os anticoncepcionais orais hormonais são fármacos constituídos por hormônios, geralmente combinados, estrogênio e progestogênio, ou apenas progestogênio. Devido às propriedades características desses hormônios, são também responsáveis por diversos efeitos colaterais, o que tem levado a uma evolução contínua das formulações e tem-se observado vários benefícios não contraceptivos à saúde da mulher. Objetivo: o objetivo dessa revisão foi analisar os usos não contraceptivos dos anticoncepcionais orais hormonais, evidenciando sua eficácia e segurança. Metodologia: A pesquisa foi realizada em bases de dados eletrônicos e portais de busca, priorizando materiais publicados na faixa anual de 2008 a 2018, sendo encontrados 332 e utilizados 148 materiais de estudo. Resultados: esses fármacos tem sido uma alternativa eficaz de tratamento da síndrome do ovário policístico, uma vez que reduzem os androgênios circulantes e induzem a melhora dos sintomas como acne, irregularidade menstrual e dismenorreia. Estão associados ao tratamento da endometriose e à menor incidência de câncer de ovário. Neste último, exercem um efeito protetor durante anos, até mesmo após a interrupção. Conclusão: assim, os anticoncepcionais orais hormonais têm representado uma nova proposta terapêutica simples, segura e eficaz, para diversas utilidades não contraceptivas, e seus benefícios ultrapassam os riscos associados, proporcionando uma terapia adequada e individualizada para cada mulher.


Introduction: hormonal oral contraceptives are drugs consisted by hormones, usually combined, estrogen and progestogen, or just progestins. Due to the characteristic properties of these hormones, they are also responsible for several side effects, which has led to a continuous evolution of the formulations and various non-contraceptive benefits to women's health have been observed. Objective:the objective of this review was to analyze the non-contraceptive uses of hormonal oral contraceptives, showing their effectiveness and safety. Methodology: the research was conducted in electronic databases and search portals, prioritizing materials published in the annual range from 2008 to 2018, with 332 found and 148 study materials used. Results: these drugs have been an effective alternative for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, since they reduce circulating androgens and induce improvement in symptoms such as acne, menstrual irregularity and dysmenorrhea. They are associated with the treatment of endometriosis and a lower incidence of ovarian cancer. In the latter, they have a protective effect for years, even after the interruption. Conclusion: thus, hormonal oral contraceptives have represented a new simple, safe and effective therapeutic proposal, for several non-contraceptive uses, and their benefits outweigh the associated risks, providing an adequate and individualized therapy for each woman


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Progestins , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Contraceptive Agents , Estrogens , Hormones
3.
Femina ; 50(9): 572-576, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397895

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) é a doença bacteriana mais comum no sexo feminino, e cerca de 25% a 30% das mulheres apresentam ITUs recorrentes ao longo da vida. Os antibióticos são muito utilizados para o tratamento e prevenção dessas infecções. Entretanto, o uso excessivo e indevido desses medicamentos, além dos efeitos adversos, está relacionado ao surgimento de uropatógenos multirresistentes. Há um interesse crescente na comunidade científica para encontrar alternativas ao uso de antibióticos para tratamento e/ou prevenção das infecções bacterianas. Esta revisão tem por objetivo discutir algumas dessas alternativas.(AU)


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial disease in females, and about 25% to 30% of women experience recurrent UTIs throughout their lives. Antibiotics are widely used standard for treating and preventing these infections. However, the excessive and improper use of these drugs, in addition to the adverse effects, is related to the emergence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. There is a growing interest in the scientific community to find alternatives to the use of antibiotics for the treatment and/or prevention of bacterial infections. This review aims to discuss some of these alternatives.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Reinfection/therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Drinking , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gonadal hormone is essential for the health of postmenopausal women, however, few studies have focused on the epidemiological distribution of gonadal hormones in postmenopausal women in very late postmenopausal women. This study aims to investigate and analyze the differences of serum gonadal hormone content and its influential factors among female centenarians in Hainan, China.@*METHODS@#The questionnaire and physical examination data of 741 female centenarians and 401 elderly females in Hainan Province were collected, and venous blood samples were taken to detect the indexes of lipid metabolism, bone metabolism, and gonadal hormone. The differences of gonadal hormones and relavant factors in female centenarians were analyzed and compared.@*RESULTS@#The serum levels of estradiol and progesterone of female centenarians were significantly higher than those of the elderly females (both P<0.001). The serum levels of estradiol and testosterone of ethnic minority centenarians were higher than those in Han nationality (P<0.001), and the serum estradiol and testosterone concentrations were relatively higher when the daily activities were more than 10 min (both P<0.05). Serum estradiol concentration was negatively correlated with apolipoprotein A-I, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and bone formation markers such as calcium, inorganic phosphorus and vitamin D3, and was positively correlated with the special sequence of β-collagen (markers of bone resorption) (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For the extremely late postmenopausal women (such as centenarians), there may be characteristic expressions of gonadal hormones, especially estradiol. There is an unprotective correlation of serum estradiol with lipid metabolism index and bone metabolism index in female centenarians, so it is necessary to evaluate the estrogen content and the use of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Centenarians , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estradiol , Estrogens , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Minority Groups , Testosterone
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which estradiol modulates the immunophenotype of macrophages through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.@*METHODS@#Peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57 mice were cultured in the presence of 60 ng/mL interferon-γ (IFN-γ) followed by treatment with estradiol (1.0 nmol/L) alone, estradiol with estrogen receptor antagonist (Acolbifene, 4 nmol/L), estradiol with IRE1α inhibitor (4 μ 8 C), or estradiol with IRE1α agonist. After the treatments, the expression levels of MHC-Ⅱ, iNOS and endoplasmic reticulum stress marker proteins IRE1α, eIF2α and ATF6 in the macrophages were detected with Western blotting, and the mRNA levels of TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were detected with RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Estrogen treatment of the macrophages significantly decreased the expressions of M1-related proteins MHC-Ⅱ (P=0.021) and iNOS (P < 0.001) and the mRNA expressions of TNF-α (P=0.003) and IL-6 (P=0.004), increased the mRNA expression of TGF-β (P=0.002) and IL-10 (P=0.008), and up-regulated the protein expressions of IRE1α (P < 0.001) and its downstream transcription factor XBP-1 (P < 0.001). Addition of the estrogen inhibitor obviously blocked the effect of estrogen. Compared with estrogen treatment alone, combined treatment of the macrophages with estrogen and the IRE1α inhibitor 4 μ 8 C significantly up-regulated the protein expressions of MHC-Ⅱ (P=0.002) and iNOS (P=0.003) and the mRNA expressions of TNF-α (P=0.003) and IL-6 (P=0.024), and obviously down-regulated the mRNA expression of TGF-β (P < 0.001) and IL-10 (P < 0.001); these changes were not observed in cells treated with estrogen and the IRE1α agonist.@*CONCLUSION@#Estrogen can inhibit the differentiation of murine macrophages into a pro-inflammatory phenotype by up-regulating the IRE1α-XBP-1 signaling axis, thereby producing an inhibitory effect on inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Mice , Phenotype , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , X-Box Binding Protein 1/metabolism
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1191-1201, dez. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350048

ABSTRACT

Resumo A prevalência de obesidade e insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) aumenta significativamente em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Embora a obesidade seja um fator de risco para disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDFVE), o mecanismo que liga a interrupção da produção de hormônios ovarianos, especialmente o estrogênio, ao desenvolvimento da obesidade, DDFVE, e ICFEP em mulheres em processo de envelhecimento não é claro. Estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos demonstram que mulheres na pós-menopausa com obesidade abdominal (definida pela circunferência de cintura) têm risco maior de desenvolver a ICFEP do que homens ou mulheres sem obesidade abdominal. Este estudo analisa dados clínicos que corroboram a existência de uma ligação de mecanismo entre a perda de estrogênio mais obesidade e o remodelamento ventricular esquerdo com ICFEP. Ele também discute os possíveis mecanismos celulares e moleculares para a proteção mediada por estrogênio contra tipos de células, depósitos de tecidos, função e metabolismo de adipócitos negativos que podem contribuir para a DDFVE e a ICFEP.


Abstract The prevalence of obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) increases significantly in postmenopausal women. Although obesity is a risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), the mechanisms that link the cessation of ovarian hormone production, and particularly estrogens, to the development of obesity, LVDD, and HFpEF in aging females are unclear. Clinical, and epidemiologic studies show that postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity (defined by waist circumference) are at greater risk for developing HFpEF than men or women without abdominal obesity. The study presents a review of clinical data that support a mechanistic link between estrogen loss plus obesity and left ventricular remodeling with LVDD. It also seeks to discuss potential cell and molecular mechanisms for estrogen-mediated protection against adverse adipocyte cell types, tissue depots, function, and metabolism that may contribute to LVDD and HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Estrogens , Obesity, Abdominal/complications
8.
Revagog ; 3(3): 78-79, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343840

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) relacionada con el SARS 2019-2020 ha traído desafíos sin precedentes a los sectores de la salud en todo el mundo. Hasta noviembre de 2020, ha habido más de 64 millones de casos confirmados y se acercan a 2 millones de muertes en todo el mundo. A pesar de la gran cantidad de casos positivos, existen muy pocos estándares establecidos de atención y opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Hasta la fecha, (Diciembre 2020) todavía no existe una vacuna aprobada por la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) para COVID-19, aunque existen varias ensayos clínicos en diferentes. etapas de desarrollo. En este documento, hemos realizado una revisión global que evalúa los roles de la edad y el sexo en las hospitalizaciones por COVID-19, las admisiones a la UCI, las muertes en hospitales y las muertes en hogares de ancianos. Hemos identificado una tendencia en la que las personas mayores y los pacientes masculinos se ven afectados significativamente por los resultados adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology , Hormone Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens , Gender Role , COVID-19/drug therapy
9.
Revagog ; 3(3): 76-77, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343785

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: A nivel mundial, la tasa de letalidad es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Algunos estudios lo han sugerido. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la hormona estrogénica, puede disminuir la susceptibilidad al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias de género en los resultados del SARS CoV-2 y analizar si existen diferencias en los resultados en mujeres premenopáusicas en comparación con posmenopáusicas. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 720 pacientes que dieron positivo (+) para SARS CoV-2 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con transcripción inversa en tiempo real, mediante el ensayo Thermo Fischer Taqpath, aprobado por el Consejo Indio de Investigación Médica. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad en las mujeres fue del 12,6%, mientras que la mortalidad en los hombres fue del 19,4%. En el análisis entre grupos, el 8,6% (16/185) de las mujeres murieron en el grupo de edad premenopáusica frente al 12,8% (27/211) en el grupo posmenopáusico. La proporción de mujeres que fallecieron debido a COVID difiere significativamente según la edad y el estado posmenopáusico X2 (1, n = 293) = 7,2, el valor de p es 0,007. La diferencia es estadísticamente significativa a P<0,05. Las mujeres posmenopáusicas tenían más probabilidades de fallecer debido a la infección por COVID-19 en comparación con las mujeres premenopáusicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postmenopause , Estrogens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Perimenopause , COVID-19/complications
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(4): 486-489, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swyer syndrome is one of the disorders of sexual differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated increased sympathetic activity with heart rate variability (HRV) analysis with decreasing estradiol levels. One patient presented a pure 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis with female phenotype. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed through HRV analysis while at rest. This research analyzed linear and nonlinear indexes. HRV analysis showed reduced parasympathetic and global modulation with an apparent increase in sympathetic tone and a loss of HR fractal dynamics toward correlated behavior, characterized by low entropy and high determinism of time series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY/complications , Progestins/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Nonlinear Dynamics , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 27(2): 82-85, 20210000. fig, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1357889

ABSTRACT

El síndrome genitourinario de la menopausia se refiere a los signos y síntomas relacionados a la disminución estrogénica dando como resultado una atrofia vaginal, esto ocasiona un gran impacto negativo en las actividades cotidianas de las mujeres, existen varios tratamientos para aliviar y resolver los síntomas, siendo los más frecuentes la incontinencia urinaria por esfuerzo y resequedad vaginal. Dentro de los distintos tratamientos, el láser tiene como objetivo la restauración de la mucosa vaginal, estimulando los fibroblastos para obtener la neo colagenogenesis y vascularización, recuperando su funcionalidad y obteniendo mejoría de los síntomas junto con la calidad de vida de las pacientes


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause refers to a group of signs and symptoms related to the decreased estrogen and as a result, the vaginal atrophy, this has a great negative impact on the daily activities of women, there are several treatments to alleviate and resolve the symptoms, the most frequent being stress urinary incontinence and vaginal dryness. Among the different treatments, the laser aims to restore the aavaginal mucosa, stimulating fibroblasts to obtain neo-collagen oogenesis and revascularization, recovering their functionality and obtaining an improvement in symptoms along with the quality of life of patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Atrophy , Urogenital System , Menopause , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Estrogens , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
12.
Revagog (Impresa) ; 3(2): 60-61, Abr-Jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344618

ABSTRACT

Más de nueve millones de sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama en todo el mundo sufren un deterioro en la calidad de vida atribuible a los síntomas de la menopausia relacionados con el déficit de los estrógenos y con los efectos secundarios de la terapia contra el cáncer. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) es muy eficaz para controlar estos síntomas en la población general y en las sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, la preocupación de la recurrencia del cáncer de mama como resultado del uso de TRH impide que muchos oncólogos utilicen este enfoque en el tratamiento de los síntomas menopáusicos. La evidencia de ensayos aleatorizados, estudios observacionales y meta-nálisis sobre el impacto del uso de TRH en la recurrencia y supervivencia del cáncer de mama sigue siendo controvertida.


More than nine million breast cancer survivors in everyone suffers a deterioration in the quality of life attributable to the symptoms of menopause related to the deficiency of the estrogens and with the side effects of anti-estrogen therapy Cancer. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is very effective in controlling these symptoms in the general population and in survivors of breast cancer. However, the concern of recurrence of breast cancer as a result of the use of HRT prevents many oncologists use this approach in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and meta-analysis on the impact of the use of HRT on recurrence and Breast cancer survival remains controversial


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Menopause/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Hormone Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Survivors , Estrogens/pharmacology , Life Style
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 560-570, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278353

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on progesterone/estrogen (P4/E2) and eCG during unfavorable breeding season using cooled (CS) and frozen semen (FS). A total of 446 buffaloes (> 40 days postpartum) were randomly distributed into four blocks (years): B1-2014 (n = 143), B2-2015 (n = 34), B3-2016 (n = 90), and B4-2017 (n = 179). Each block was subdivided into two (AI with CS and FS using the same ejaculate of each bull). Thus, the block subdivision was as follows: B1 (CS = 71 and FS = 72); B2 (CS = 18 and FS = 16); B3 (CS = 47 and FS = 43); and B4 (CS = 90 and FS = 89). The ejaculates of eight Murrah bulls collected using an artificial vagina were divided into two aliquots: one aliquot was diluted in Botu-Bov® commercial extender and cooled (BB-CS), and the other was diluted in the same extender and frozen (BB-FS). BB-CS aliquots were cooled at 5 °C/24 h using a refrigerator. BB-FS group aliquots were also cooled, and after equilibrating at 5 °C for 4 h, were placed in a 21-L Styrofoam box, 5 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen. In the afternoon (A) on D0 (2:00 p.m.) the animals received EB 2.0 mg IM (Estrogin®) and an ear implant (CRESTAR® 3.0 mg P4). At D9 (A), the implant was removed, and the animals received eCG 400 IU IM (Folligon® 5000) + Cloprostenol PGF2α 0.530 mg IM (Sincrocio®). At D10 (A), the animals received EB 1.0 mg IM (Estrogin®), and at D12 (8:00 a.m.), AI was performed. At D42, pregnancy was diagnosed via ultrasonography. Total CRs were 48.2% CS and 34.6% FS for years 2014 to 2017, with a significant difference of 13.7% (P<0.05). In conclusion, cooled semen resulted in higher CR than frozen semen in dairy buffaloes under the P4/E2 and eCG FTAI during the unfavorable reproductive season.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência reprodutiva de búfalas leiteiras submetidas a protocolos de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) à base de progesterona/estrogênio (P4/E2) e eCG, durante a estação reprodutiva desfavorável, usando-se sêmen resfriado (SR) e congelado (SC) Um total de 446 búfalas (> 40 dias após o parto) foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro blocos (anos): B1-2014 (n = 143), B2-2015 (n = 34), B3-2016 (n = 90) e B4-2017 (n = 179). Cada bloco foi subdividido em dois (IA com SR e SC utilizando-se a mesma ejaculação de cada touro). Assim, a subdivisão do bloco foi a seguinte: B1 (SR = 71 e SC = 72); B2 (SR = 18 e SC = 16); B3 (SR = 47 e SC = 43); e B4 (SR = 90 e SC = 89). Os ejaculados de oito touros Murrah coletados com vagina artificial foram divididos em duas alíquotas: uma alíquota diluída em diluente comercial Botu-Bov® e resfriada (BB-SR), e a outra diluída no mesmo diluente e congelada (BB-SC). As alíquotas de BB-SR foram resfriados a 5°C/24h usando-se um refrigerador. As alíquotas do grupo BB-SC também foram resfriadas e, após equilíbrio a 5°C por 4h, foram colocadas em uma caixa de isopor de 21L, 5 cm acima da superfície do nitrogênio líquido. À tarde (A), no D0 (14h), os animais receberam BE 2,0 mg IM (Estrogin®) e um implante auricular (Crestar® 3,0 mg P4). No D9 (A), o implante foi retirado e os animais receberam eCG 400 UI IM (Folligon® 5000) + cloprostenol PGF2α 0,530 mg IM (Sincrocio®). No D10 (A), os animais receberam BE 1,0mg IM (Estrogin®), e, no D12 (8h da manhã), foram realizadas as IAs. No D42, a gestação foi diagnosticada por ultrassonografia. As taxas de concepção (TC) totais foram 48,2% SR e 34,6% SC para os anos de 2014 a 2017, com uma diferença significativa de 13,7% (P<0,05). Em conclusão, o sêmen resfriado resultou em maior TC do que o sêmen congelado em bubalinos leiteiros sob P4/E2 e eCG FTAI durante a estação reprodutiva desfavorável.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Buffaloes/physiology , Estrus Synchronization , Progesterone/administration & dosage , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Estrogens/administration & dosage
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879087

ABSTRACT

With the process of urbanization and population aging in China, the burden of cardiovascular disease and the incidence of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women have greatly increased. Studies have found that the incidence of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women is closely related to the level of estrogen, but there are still difficulties of low efficiency and large side effects in current therapies. Kidney deficiency has a strong correlation with reproductive development and overall function. The clinical manifestations and characteristics of postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients conform to the pathogenesis of kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. The kidney-invigorating method has a good efficacy in treating postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients. This paper summarizes clinical and pharmacological evidences, expounds the relationship between kidney deficiency and the level of estrogen, and the pathological mechanism of the kidney-tonifying method in the treatment of coronary heart disease, and defines the clinical efficacy and advantages of the kidney-tonifying method. The method may become an effective method to prevent and treat postmenopausal coronary heart disease, and is expected to benefit patients with coronary heart disease better.


Subject(s)
China , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Kidney , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 208-216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878249

ABSTRACT

The transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) plays a key role in unfolded protein reaction. This study was aimed to investigate the expression pattern and regulation of XBP1 in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy. The methods of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to test XBP1 expression in early pregnancy, artificial decidualization, oestrous cycle and hormone-regulated mouse models. The results showed that XBP1 was spatiotemporally expressed in mouse uterus during early pregnancy. The XBP1 protein was mainly detected in the luminal and glandular epithelia on days 1-4 of pregnancy, and was strongly detected in the decidual area on days 5-8 of pregnancy. Similarly, XBP1 expression was also mainly expressed in decidual cells following artificial decidualization. During the oestrous cycle, Xbp1, Xbp1u, and Xbp1s mRNA was predominantly present in proestrus. In the ovariectomized uterus, the expression of XBP1 in luminal and glandular epithelia was up-regulated after estrogen treatment. These results suggest that XBP1 is associated with embryo implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy in mice, and the expression of XBP1 in luminal and glandular epithelia may be regulated by estrogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Decidua , Embryo Implantation , Estrogens , Female , Mice , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Uterus
16.
Med. lab ; 25(1): 393-408, 2021. tab, graf, ilus, fotografia
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292643

ABSTRACT

La ginecomastia es el crecimiento mamario benigno en el varón. Etiológicamente se clasifica en fisiológica y patológica. La ginecomastia fisiológica se presenta frecuentemente en ciertos periodos de la vida, como la época neonatal, puberal y senil. La patológica se asocia a múltiples factores, incluyendo los hormonales, los de origen tumoral, y al uso de ciertos medicamentos, entre otros; sin embargo, en muchos pacientes no se consigue identificar nunca la causa. La historia clínica y el examen físico son los pilares fundamentales que permiten orientar hacia la etiología, con el apoyo de pruebas de laboratorio e imagenología que permitan descartar una enfermedad clínica subyacente. En los casos moderados o severos, la cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. El objetivo del presente manuscrito es discutir algunos puntos de interés acerca de los aspectos más importantes relacionados con la ginecomastia, incluyendo la fisiopatología, la clínica y el diagnóstico, además de presentar las principales causas asociadas a esta condición. Por último, se describen los tipos de tratamiento disponibles para estos pacientes


Gynecomastia is the benign breast enlargement in males. Etiologically it is classified as physiological and pathological. Physiological gynecomastia is more frequently observed in newborns, adolescents, and in older men. Pathological gynecomastia is associated with multiple factors, including hormonal and of tumor origin, and to the use of certain medications, among other factors; however, in many patients the underlying cause may never be identified. Anamnesis and physical examination are the fundamental pillars that will guide towards the etiology, with the support of laboratory and imaging tests to rule out an underlying disease. In moderate or severe cases, surgery is the treatment of choice. The aim of this article is to discuss some key points about the most important aspects related to gynecomastia, including pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis, in addition to presenting the main causes associated with this condition. Finally, the types of treatment available for these patients are described


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Testosterone , Estrogens , Hypogonadism , Androgens
17.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2021. 128 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1344193

ABSTRACT

Os inibidores de aromatase (IAs) são medicamentos mais comumente utilizados para tratamento para pacientes com câncer de mama. Os IAs atuam inibindo a enzima aromatase, que é responsável pela conversão de hormônios esteroidais. Vários estudos mostram a importância do estrógeno para a formação óssea. Acredita-se que a privação do estrógeno possa ter um efeito deletério no osso causando o aumento da reabsorção óssea, diminuição da densidade mineral óssea (DMO) e com isso o aumento do risco de osteoporose e fraturas. A osteoporose é uma doença sistêmica multifatorial caracterizada pela redução da massa óssea e desorganização estrutural do tecido ósseo. O diagnóstico da osteoporose é baseado em critérios densitométricos da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) com referência na classificação do T-score, realizada pela técnica de absorciometria de energia dupla de raios X (DXA), cujo valor avalia a DMO. Por se tratar de uma doença sistêmica, a osteoporose também afeta os ossos maxilares. Desta forma, o trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar parâmetros imaginológicos em pacientes mulheres que fazem tratamento com; IAs e encaminhadas para investigação de perda de massa óssea em um hospital de referência no tratamento dessas pacientes. Foram avaliadas 40 mulheres sob terapia com IAs. Foram avaliados índices radiomorfométricos (IR) de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) e análise fractal (AF) para algumas regiões de interesse (RI), espessura da cortical mandibular (ECM) e índice cortical mandibular (ICM) em radiografias panorâmicas digitais (RPD). Todas as pacientes foram submetidas ao exame DXA para avaliar a condição de DMO e divididas nos grupos: normal e baixa DMO. Para cada IR e para as RI da dimensão fractal, foram estabelecidas a curva característica de operação do receptor (ROC), a área sob a curva (AUC), a sensibilidade e a especificidade com seus receptivos intervalos de confiança. Os valores de AUC para os índices de RPD variaram de 52,6%-75,8%. O índice com a maior AUC foi a ECM, apresentando sensibilidade de 38,1%-100,0% e especificidade de 36,8%-84,2%. Para a AF, a RI do trabeculado total teve a maior sensibilidade, enquanto a RI anterior ao forame mentual teve a maior especificidade. Na análise da TCFC, os valores de AUC variaram de 51,8%-62,0%. Os índices com a AUC mais elevada foram o índice molar (M), com sensibilidade 18,1%-61,6% e especificidade de 66,9%-98,7% e o índice anterior (A) com sensibidade de 25,7%- 70,2% e especificidade de 48,8%-90,9%. O índice da sínfise (S) apresentou a maior sensibilidade e o índice posterior (P) apreentou a maior especificidade. Os índices de tomografia computadorizada inferior (ITC I) apresentou sensibilidade e especificidade razoáveis. Assim a ECM, a AF das RI do ângulo da mandíbula e do trabeculado total da RPD, bem como os índices ITC (I), M, P e A na TCFC mostraram-se úteis para identificar mulheres na pós-menopausa que usavam AI com baixa DMO.


Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most commonly used drugs to treat breast cancer patients. AIs work by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme, which is responsible for converting steroid hormones. Several studies show the importance of estrogen for bone formation. It is believed that estrogen deprivation can have a deleterious effect on bone, causing increased bone resorption, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and thus an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Osteoporosis is a multifactorial systemic disease characterized by reduced bone mass and structural disorganization of bone tissue. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on densitometric criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO) with reference to the T- score classification, performed by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique, whose value assesses the BMD. As it is a systemic disease, osteoporosis also affects the maxillary bones. Thus, the study aims to evaluate imaging parameters in female patients undergoing treatment with AIs and referred for investigation of bone mass loss in a reference hospital in the treatment of these patients. Forty women undergoing therapy with AIs were evaluated. Radiomorphometric indices (RI) of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fractal dimension (FD) were evaluated for some regions of interest (ROI), mandibular cortical width (MCW) and mandibular cortical index (MCI) in digital panoramic radiographs (DPR). All patients underwent the DXA exam to assess the status of BMD and divided into groups: normal and low BMD. The AUC values for the DPR indices ranged from 52.6%-75.8%. The index with the highest AUC was the mandibular cortical width ([MCW]; sensitivity: 38.1%-100.0%; specificity: 36.8%-84.2%). For FD, the total trabecular index had the greatest sensitivity, while the index anterior to the mental foramen (MF) had the highest specificity. In CBCT analysis, the values of AUC ranged from 51.8%-62.0%. The indices with the highest AUC were the molar index (M, sensitivity: 18.1%-61.6% and specificity: 66.9%-98.7%) and anterior (A, sensitivity: 25.7%-70.2% and specificity 48.8%-90.9%). The symphysis (S) index had the highest sensitivity, and the posterior (P) index presented the highest specificity. Sensitivity and specificity reasonable were obtained to computed tomography index (Inferior) [CTI (I)]. The MCW, FD of ROI of the mandible angle and total mandibular in the DPR, as well as the CTI (I), M, P, and A indices in the CBCT are useful to identify postmenopausal women who were using AI with low BMD.


Subject(s)
Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Aromatase Inhibitors , Estrogens , Radiography, Panoramic , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cancellous Bone , Cortical Bone
18.
Clinics ; 76: e3042, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung transplantation is limited by the systemic repercussions of brain death (BD). Studies have shown the potential protective role of 17β-estradiol on the lungs. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of estradiol on the long-lasting lung inflammatory state to understand a possible therapeutic application in lung donors with BD. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were separated into 3 groups: BD, subjected to brain death (6h); E2-T0, treated with 17β-estradiol (50 μg/mL, 2 mL/h) immediately after brain death; and E2-T3, treated with 17β-estradiol (50 μg/ml, 2 ml/h) after 3h of BD. Complement system activity and macrophage presence were analyzed. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6 gene expression (RT-PCR) and levels in 24h lung culture medium were quantified. Finally, analysis of caspase-3 gene and protein expression in the lung was performed. RESULTS: Estradiol reduced complement C3 protein and gene expression. The presence of lung macrophages was not modified by estradiol, but the release of inflammatory mediators was reduced and TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression were reduced in the E2-T3 group. In addition, caspase-3 protein expression was reduced by estradiol in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: Brain death-induced lung inflammation in females is modulated by estradiol treatment. Study data suggest that estradiol can control the inflammatory response by modulating the release of mediators after brain death in the long term. These results strengthen the idea of estradiol as a therapy for donor lungs and improving transplant outcomes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pneumonia , Brain Death , Rats, Wistar , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2683, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in the intestine could lead to severe endothelial injury, compromising intestinal motility. Reportedly, estradiol can control local and systemic inflammation induced by I/R injury. Thus, we investigated the effects of estradiol treatment on local repercussions in an intestinal I/R model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to ischemia via the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (45 min) followed by reperfusion (2h). Thirty minutes after ischemia induction (E30), 17β-estradiol (E2) was administered as a single dose (280 μg/kg, intravenous). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. RESULTS: I/R injury decreased intestinal motility and increased intestinal permeability, accompanied by reduced mesenteric endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin (ET) protein expression. Additionally, the levels of serum injury markers and inflammatory mediators were elevated. Estradiol treatment improved intestinal motility, reduced intestinal permeability, and increased eNOS and ET expression. Levels of injury markers and inflammatory mediators were also reduced following estradiol treatment. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings indicate that estradiol treatment can modulate the deleterious intestinal effects of I/R injury. Thus, estradiol mediates the improvement in gut barrier functions and prevents intestinal dysfunction, which may reduce the systemic inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Permeability , Reperfusion , Estrogens , Intestines , Ischemia
20.
Clinics ; 76: e2846, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278914

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm in women and is considered a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. One of the major risk factors is genetic alteration. Changes in CYP19A1 gene expression levels have been associated with increased risk and increased aggressiveness of breast cancer. Increased CYP19A1 gene expression and/or aromatase activity are among the major regulatory events for intratumoral production of estrogens in breast malignant tissues. This systematic review aimed to investigate the influence of CYP19A1 gene expression levels in women with breast cancer. The research was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Searches were conducted between February 2 and May 15, 2019. Inclusion criteria were studies published between 2009 and 2019, English language publications, and human studies addressing the gene expression of CYP19A1 in breast cancer. A total of 6.068 studies were identified through PubMed (n=773), Scopus (n=2,927), and the Web of Science (n=2,368). After selecting and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were included in this systematic review. This systematic review provides evidence that increased or decreased levels of CYP19A1 gene expression may be related to pathological clinical factors of disease, MFS, OS, DFS, WATi, markers of metabolic function, concentrations of E1, FSH, and in the use of multiple exons 1 of the CYP19A1 gene in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Aromatase/genetics , Gene Expression , Estrogens
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