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1.
Clinics ; 76: e2380, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of low-dose conjugated estrogen (CE), raloxifene, and the combination thereof on the endometrium of postmenopausal women. METHODS: Postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age, with Gail score≥1.67 and no endometrial disorders, were randomly assigned to receive low-dose CE (0.3 mg), raloxifene (60 mg), or combined therapy for 1 year. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed at baseline and every 3 months; the Kupperman Index was assessed at baseline and every 6 months. Endometrial biopsies were performed if endometrial thickness (ET) was ≥5 mm or if vaginal bleeding occurred. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ET≥5 mm over the one-year period. RESULTS: Seventy-three women were randomly assigned and analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Eight, three, and four women in the CE, raloxifene, and combination groups, respectively, exhibited ET≥5 mm. No genital bleeding was reported in the combination group. Endometrial biopsy revealed atrophy or polyps in all groups, with one patient in the CE group exhibiting a proliferative endometrium without atypia. At 6 months, there was a progressive increase in mean ET in the CE group, but not in the other two groups, with statistically significant differences at 6, 9, and 12 months. Mean scores for vasomotor symptoms and Kupperman Index favored the CE and combination groups over raloxifene. CONCLUSION: Combined raloxifene and low-dose CE decreased the severity of menopausal symptoms to a similar extent as CE alone and had similar effects as raloxifene alone on the endometrium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Raloxifene Hydrochloride , Menopause , Double-Blind Method , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(2): 199-201, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286484

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los estrógenos conjugados vía vaginal para aliviar la atrofia y sequedad vaginales pueden producir cambios endometriales. Objetivo: Conocer el efecto de la frecuencia de aplicación de estrógenos conjugados vía vaginal en el grosor endometrial en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Método: Se estudiaron 70 mujeres posmenopáusicas con sequedad vaginal que recibieron estrógenos conjugados en crema (0.625 mg/1 g) durante 12 semanas divididas de la siguiente manera según la frecuencia de aplicación: grupo 1, dos veces por semana (n = 35) y grupo 2, tres veces por semana (n = 35). Al inicio y final del tratamiento se determinó el valor estrogénico en la citología vaginal y se realizó ultrasonido endovaginal para medir el grosor endometrial. La comparación entre los grupos se realizó con U de Mann-Whitney y entre los valores pre y postratamiento con prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: De 70 mujeres reclutadas solo se estudiaron 38 mujeres, 19 en cada grupo, pareadas por valor estrogénico inicial. No se encontró diferencia entre los grupos, ni antes ni después del tratamiento, en el índice de maduración, valor estrogénico ni grosor endometrial. Conclusión: No hubo diferencias en el grosor endometrial entre las distintas frecuencias de aplicación de estrógenos conjugados en crema.


Abstract Introduction: Conjugated estrogens, when used by the vaginal route for the relief of vaginal dryness and atrophy, can produce endometrial changes. Objective: To know the effect of vaginal conjugated estrogens application frequency on endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women. Method: Seventy postmenopausal women with vaginal dryness who received conjugated estrogen cream (0.625 mg/1 g) for 12 weeks were studied. The women were divided according to application frequency as follows: group 1, twice-weekly (n = 35), and group 2, thrice-weekly (n = 35). At baseline and at end-of-treatment, vaginal cytology was examined to determine the estrogenic value, and an endovaginal ultrasound was performed to measure endometrial thickness. The comparison between groups was carried out with Mann Whitney's U-test, and the comparison between baseline and post-treatment values, with Wilcoxon's test. Results: Of 70 recruited women, only 38 were studied, 19 in each group, paired by baseline estrogenic value. No difference was found between groups, neither at baseline nor after treatment, in the maturation index, estrogenic value or endometrial thickness. Conclusion: There were no differences in endometrial thickness between the conjugate estrogen cream different application frequencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vagina/drug effects , Postmenopause , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)/administration & dosage , Atrophy/etiology , Atrophy/drug therapy , Vagina/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Intravaginal , Drug Administration Schedule , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719532

ABSTRACT

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant bone tumor that typically behaves as a slow and indolent growing mass lesion. We report the case of a female patient presenting with headache and facial deformity and later diagnosed with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (PFD). A 29-year-old woman visited Mealhada Primary Health Care Unit complaining of headache, nasal congestion, and hyposmia for several weeks. She also presented with facial deformity and painful swelling of the upper left orbit. X-ray imaging revealed a suspicious opacity in the left frontal sinus and a right shift of the nasal septum. Computed tomography and bone scintigraphy later confirmed a tumor involving the ethmoid and frontal bone. The patient was referred to the neurosurgery and otorhinolaryngology departments of a central hospital and the suspected diagnosis of PFD was confirmed. A watchful waiting approach with regular imaging screenings was proposed and accepted by the patient, who is now free of symptoms and more acceptant of the benign condition of her tumor. With this case, we aim to make family physicians more aware of this rare but relevant condition that can be difficult to diagnose. FD is a rare but benign tumor that occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults. Symptoms depend on the location and type of the tumor and include facial deformity, vision changes, nasal congestion, and headache. No clear guidelines exist for its treatment, and options include monitoring the progression of the tumor, in addition to medical or surgical approaches.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Neoplasms , Congenital Abnormalities , Diagnosis , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic , Frontal Bone , Frontal Sinus , Headache , Humans , Mass Screening , Nasal Septum , Neurosurgery , Orbit , Otolaryngology , Physicians, Family , Primary Health Care , Radionuclide Imaging , Watchful Waiting , Young Adult
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766893

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a case of infectious keratitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens in a patient after fishing. CASE SUMMARY: A 75-year-old male with no underlying disease other than hypertension was admitted to our hospital because of decreased visual acuity and congestion in his left eye for 2 weeks. At the first ophthalmic examination, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the left eye was counting fingers. Slit lamp examination showed stromal infiltrates with 2.0 × 2.0 mm corneal epithelial defects, endothelial inflammatory plaques and 1 mm height hypopyon with severe inflammation in the anterior chamber. Bacterial culture tests were performed by corneal scraping, which were positive for Shewanella putrefaciens, followed by treatment with moxifloxacin and ceftazidime topical antibiotics. After 2 months of treatment, the BCVA of the left eye improved to 0.4 and the corneal lesion clinically improved with residual mild stromal opacity. CONCLUSIONS: Shewanella putrefaciens should be considered as a causal pathogen of infectious keratitis in patients after fishing. We report a case of infectious keratitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens, which has never previously been reported in the Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anterior Chamber , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Corneal Ulcer , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Fingers , Humans , Hypertension , Inflammation , Keratitis , Male , Republic of Korea , Shewanella putrefaciens , Shewanella , Slit Lamp , Visual Acuity
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738619

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: When there is a mass in the superior temporal orbit area, a lacrimal gland tumor should be suspected. We report a rare case of orbital lymphatic malformation that was histologically diagnosed in a patient with typical clinical features of the lacrimal gland. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old female with no underlying disease and no ophthalmic history visited our clinic with a right upper eyelid edema associated with an enlarged painless eyelid mass 1 month prior to her visit. The patient stated that she discovered the mass 1 year previously.The palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland protruded slightly with congestion of the surrounding conjunctiva. Enhanced computed tomography showed a 3 cm well-defined heterogeneous mass in the right lacrimal gland area and several well-defined round calcifications within the mass. Orbital tissue or bone involvement was not observed. The pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland was the most clinically suspicious, so complete resection of the mass was performed using lateral orbitotomy. Histopathologically, lymphangioma (lymphatic malformation) originating from the lacrimal gland was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Orbital lymphatic malformation can occur in the lacrimal gland. The present case showed that differential diagnosis can reveal the presence of an adult lacrimal gland tumor.


Subject(s)
Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Adult , Conjunctiva , Diagnosis, Differential , Edema , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Eyelids , Female , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus , Lymphangioma , Middle Aged , Orbit
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738616

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report two cases of intraocular lens (IOL) pupillary optic capture following IOL scleral fixation treated with argon laser iridotomy. CASE SUMMARY: (Case 1) A 69-year-old man presented with suddenly decreased visual acuity of the left eye. The best-corrected visual acuity was finger count (FC) 30 cm in the left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed subluxation of the left eye IOL. An IOL scleral fixation and anterior vitrectomy were performed and no specific findings were observed. During the follow-up period, pupillary optic capture was repeated without specific causes, such as trauma, or IOL decentration thus, argon laser iridotomy was performed. (Case 2) A 77-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of congestion of the left eye and decreased visual acuity. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in the left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed subluxation of the left eye IOL. An IOL scleral fixation and anterior vitrectomy were performed, and no specific findings were observed. During the follow-up period, pupillary optic capture was found, and IOL repositioning and argon laser iridotomy were performed. CONCLUSIONS: Laser iridotomy can be used to prevent recurrence of pupillary optic capture in eyes with IOL scleral fixation without decentration or distortion.


Subject(s)
Aged , Argon , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Recurrence , Slit Lamp , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We attempted to discover that Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a comprehensive relationship with congestive heart failure and death. METHODS: We used a nationwide database managed by the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2010 to 2014. Twelve thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients with a diagnosis of AS and 64940 age- and sex- stratified matching subjects without AS were enrolled in the AS and control groups. Incidence probabilities of 6 years congestive heart failure and death in each group were calculated. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio. We divided the AS and control groups into subgroups according to sex, age, income, and comorbidities. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 102 patients (0.79%) in the AS group and 201 patients (0.32%) in the control group developed congestive heart failure (p < ;0.0001). In addition, 211 (1.62%) subjects in the AS group died during the follow-up period compared to 639 (0.98%) subjects in the control group (p < ;0.0001). The adjusted hazard ratio of congestive heart failure and death in the AS group was 2.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80–2.89) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.42–1.95), respectively. The hazard ratios of congestive heart failure and death were significantly increased in all of the subgroups. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of congestive heart failure and death were increased in AS patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Spondylitis, Ankylosing
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759867

ABSTRACT

The deceased was found in the basement staircase of a commercial building. He was drunk the night before his death. He went into the building at 00:45 am as per the security camera recording. He was found at 9:10 am in an inverted and jackknife position causing the hyperflexion of his torso and neck. Autopsy findings revealed facial congestion and conjunctival petechiae. No evidence of critical trauma was noted. Therefore, he can be diagnosed with positional asphyxia. He must have lost his body balance and fallen on his back while climbing up the basement staircase for unknown reasons. His lower body was found to be in the jackknife position due to inertia. The drunken state and the accident prevented movement and this position was sustained for an extended period.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asphyxia , Autopsy , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Neck , Purpura , Torso
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762824

ABSTRACT

Cross-leg flaps are a useful reconstructive option for complex lower limb defects when free flaps cannot be performed owing to vessel damage. We describe the use of the extended distally based sural artery flap in a cross-leg fashion for lower extremity coverage in three patients. To maximise the viability of these extended flaps, a delay was performed by raising them in a bipedicled fashion before gradual division of the tip over 5 to 7 days for cross-leg transfer. Rigid coupling of the lower limbs with external fixators was critical in preventing flap avulsion and to promote neovascular takeover. The pedicle was gradually divided over the ensuing 7 to 14 days before full flap inset and removal of the external fixators. In all three patients, the flaps survived with no complications and successful coverage of the critical defect was achieved. One patient developed a grade 2 pressure injury on his heel that resolved with conservative dressings. The donor sites and external fixator pin wounds healed well, with no functional morbidity. The cross-leg extended distally based sural artery flap is a reliable reconstructive option in challenging scenarios. Adequate flap delay, manoeuvres to reduce congestion, and postoperative rigid immobilization are key to a successful outcome.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Bandages , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , External Fixators , Free Tissue Flaps , Heel , Humans , Immobilization , Leg Injuries , Lower Extremity , Perforator Flap , Sural Nerve , Surgical Flaps , Tissue Donors , Wounds and Injuries
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761731

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is biologically complex and involves multi-factorial mechanisms such as microvascular congestion, immunopathology by the pro-inflammatory cytokine and endothelial dysfunction. Recent data have suggested that a pleiotropic T-cell immunomodulatory protein (TIP) could effectively mediate inflammatory cytokines of mammalian immune response against acute graft-versus-host disease in animal models. In this study, we identified a conserved homologue of TIP in Plasmodium berghei (PbTIP) as a membrane protein in Plasmodium asexual stage. Compared with PBS control group, the pathology of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in rPbTIP intravenous injection (i.v.) group was alleviated by the downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses, and rPbTIP i.v. group elicited an expansion of regulatory T-cell response. Therefore, rPbTIP i.v. group displayed less severe brain pathology and feverish mice in rPbTIP i.v. group died from ECM. This study suggested that PbTIP may be a novel promising target to alleviate the severity of ECM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Graft vs Host Disease , Injections, Intravenous , Malaria, Cerebral , Membrane Proteins , Mice , Models, Animal , Pathology , Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium , Staphylococcal Protein A , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 221-224, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741130

ABSTRACT

Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) refers to left renal vein compression with impaired blood outflow. The etiology of NCS has been attributed to various anatomic anomalies. Posterior NCS is caused by compression of the retroaortic left renal vein between the aorta and spine. The classic symptoms of NCS include left flank pain with gross or microscopic hematuria. The frequency and severity of the syndrome vary from asymptomatic microhematuria to severe pelvic congestion. For this reason, diagnosis of NCS is difficult and often delayed. Here, we report a case of posterior NCS that was incidentally discovered.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Diagnosis , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Flank Pain , Hematuria , Renal Veins , Spine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We attempted to discover that Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a comprehensive relationship with congestive heart failure and death.METHODS: We used a nationwide database managed by the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2010 to 2014. Twelve thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients with a diagnosis of AS and 64940 age- and sex- stratified matching subjects without AS were enrolled in the AS and control groups. Incidence probabilities of 6 years congestive heart failure and death in each group were calculated. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio. We divided the AS and control groups into subgroups according to sex, age, income, and comorbidities.RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 102 patients (0.79%) in the AS group and 201 patients (0.32%) in the control group developed congestive heart failure (p < ;0.0001). In addition, 211 (1.62%) subjects in the AS group died during the follow-up period compared to 639 (0.98%) subjects in the control group (p < ;0.0001). The adjusted hazard ratio of congestive heart failure and death in the AS group was 2.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80–2.89) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.42–1.95), respectively. The hazard ratios of congestive heart failure and death were significantly increased in all of the subgroups.CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of congestive heart failure and death were increased in AS patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Spondylitis, Ankylosing
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763514

ABSTRACT

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients with RDD have spontaneous remission, but in some patients, the disease recurs after complete remission and may not respond to general treatment. Some patients with RDD involving the extranodal system can have serious symptoms such as vital organ dysfunction due to mass effects, neurological symptoms caused by intracranial involvement, and respiratory distress with airway involvement. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with severe dyspnea due to refractory extranodal RDD that caused progressive upper airway obstruction. She was admitted because of nasal congestion and persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, and diagnosed as having RDD by cervical lymph node incisional biopsy. The initial prednisone treatment did not improve her symptoms. The following contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography revealed a newly developed airway mass protruding in the upper trachea. After 8 weeks of chemotherapy with vinblastine, methotrexate, and prednisone, complete remission was attained. Seven months after chemotherapy cessation, the disease recurred, and chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisone was resumed. Despite the chemotherapy and emergency radiotherapy, no improvement was observed in the cervical lymph node enlargement and airway obstructive symptom due to the upper tracheal mass. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine) therapy was initiated, and the patient got complete remission after 6 cycles of the cladribine treatment and maintained no evidence of disease for 2 years. We suggest that cladribine is an effective treatment option for recurrent/refractory RDD.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Biopsy , Child , Cladribine , Cytarabine , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Methotrexate , Neck , Prednisone , Radiotherapy , Remission, Spontaneous , Trachea , Vinblastine , Vincristine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763262

ABSTRACT

Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is patchy or diffuse ischemic destruction of the renal cortex caused by significantly reduced renal arterial perfusion. It is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with high mortality. Here, we review the case of RCN in a 15-year-old boy who developed AKI. A 15-year-old boy was referred to our hospital from a local hospital due to a sharp decrease in his renal function. He presented with acute flank pain, nausea with vomiting, and oliguria for the past two days. He had taken a single dose of antihistamine for nasal congestion. At our hospital, his peak blood pressure was 148/83 mmHg and he had a high body mass index of 32.9 kg/m². The laboratory data showed a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 28.4 mg/dL, a creatinine of 4.26 mg/dL, and a glomerular filtration rate estimated from the serum cystatin C of 20.2 mL/min/1.73m². Proteinuria (spot urine protein to creatinine ratio 1.66) with pyuria was observed. Kidney sonography showed parenchymal swelling and increased renal echogenicity. Due to rapidly progressing nephritis, steroid pulse therapy (750 mg/IV) was done on the second day of his admission and the patient showed complete recovery with normal renal function. However, the kidney biopsy findings revealed renal cortical hemorrhagic necrosis. Multifocal, relatively well-circumscribed, hemorrhagic necrotic areas (about 25%) were detected in the tubulointerstitium. Although RCN is an unusual cause of AKI, especially in children, pediatricians should consider the possibility of RCN when evaluating patients with rapidly decreasing renal function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adolescent , Biopsy , Blood Pressure , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Mass Index , Child , Creatinine , Cystatin C , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Flank Pain , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Cortex Necrosis , Male , Mortality , Nausea , Necrosis , Nephritis , Obesity , Oliguria , Perfusion , Proteinuria , Pyuria , Vomiting
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785888

ABSTRACT

A 19-year-old otherwise healthy male presented to the Emergency Department with left upper quadrant abdominal pain having felt a “pop” in his abdomen which was followed by nausea and lightheadedness. There was no evidence of trauma but 3 weeks earlier he began with symptoms of a sore throat and nasal congestion without cough. On subsequent investigation, given the patient's acute abdominal pain, abnormal vitals and a non-diagnostic computed tomography scan, an emergent exploratory laparotomy was performed. There was 600 mL of blood evacuated from the abdomen. A 643-gram inflamed and ruptured spleen was identified and removed, and follow-up lab work was positive for heterophile antibody. This report describes spontaneous splenic rupture caused by infectious mononucleosis and compares characteristics of traumatic versus non-traumatic cases.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Abdominal Pain , Cough , Dizziness , Emergency Service, Hospital , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Infectious Mononucleosis , Laparotomy , Male , Nausea , Pharyngitis , Spleen , Splenectomy , Splenic Rupture , Young Adult
17.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 213-218, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Motorcycles are one of the important members of commercial transportation because of the convenient use during congested traffic conditions and the ease of parking in narrow streets. This study investigates the characteristics of crashes and traffic signal violations caused by motorcycle couriers. METHODS: From the national compensation data, this study analyzed the traffic crashes caused by 671 motorcycle couriers. RESULTS: Among 671 injured couriers, 50.6% were aged less than 40 years, 49.2% run in a small business of < 5 employees, and 47.2% had work experience of < 6 months. Motorcycle crashes occurred mainly due to “rider overturned alone” (67.5%), in the daytime (73.5%), or on cloudy or clear days (77.2%). However, the violation rate caused by motorcycle couriers was high in couriers in a small business of < 5 employees (13.9%), with work experience of < 6 months (13.9%), on cloudy or clear days (12.4%), on an intersection (29.8%), in the type of “crash with a vehicle” (31.2%), or in a death accident (35.7%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study can be used as a baseline in devising policies for preventing crashes of motorcycle couriers.


Subject(s)
Compensation and Redress , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Motorcycles , Occupational Injuries , Small Business , Transportation
18.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e7-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem and is characterised by one or more symptoms, including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion and rhinorrhea. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the features of AR and the physician's approach to the management of AR patients in four geographical regions. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey concerning AR was completed by Honorary and Corresponding Members of the Italian Society of Rhinology from different countries among 4 world geographical regions—Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa. RESULTS: The prevalence of AR was reported to be 15%–25%. Children and adolescents, as well as young adults, were the age groups more affected by AR with comorbidities of asthma, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and nasal polyposis. Nasal symptoms of AR were more intense in the spring (51.92%) and autumn (28.85%). The most common aero-allergens were pollen and mites (67.31%), animal dander and pollutants (23.08%), and fungal allergens (21.15%). Allergen-specific immunotherapy was prescribed for both perennial and seasonal allergens (32.69%) via sublingual swallow (46.15%) and subcutaneous (32.69%) routes. For the AR patients, the most prescribed drugs were intranasal corticosteroids (86.54%) and oral H₁-antihistamines (82.69%). CONCLUSION: A network of experts can improve our knowledge concerning AR epidemiology, and together with guidelines, could assist practitioners and otolaryngologists in standardising the diagnosis and treatment of AR.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Africa , Allergens , Americas , Animals , Asthma , Child , Comorbidity , Conjunctivitis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dander , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Europe , Global Health , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mites , Pollen , Prevalence , Pruritus , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seasons , Sinusitis , Sneezing , Sublingual Immunotherapy , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorrect administration of an anesthetic during local anesthesia is one of the most important causes of pain symptoms in patients scheduled for dental procedures. The current study assessed the severity of damage to periodontal tissue following different rates of anesthetic administration. METHODS: The research was conducted on 50 outbred male rats with a body mass of 180–240 g. The anesthetic used was 1% articaine. RESULTS: The results showed that administration of the anesthetic at a rapid pace caused structural damage to the periodontal tissue. Further, signs of impaired microcirculation were noted at all rates of administration. Biochemical studies demonstrated changes in the level of glucose and enzymes with the rapid introduction of the anesthetic, indicating severe systemic stress response of the body. CONCLUSIONS: Injection of local anesthetic at any rate of introduction induces vascular congestion in the microcirculatory bloodstream and exudative reactions. Rapid introduction of an anesthetic causes progression of structural changes in the gingival tissue.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Local , Animals , Carticaine , Dentistry , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Glucose , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Mouth Mucosa , Rats
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715334

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Heart failure (HF) is expected to increase worldwide with the aging population trend. The numerous symptoms of and repeated hospitalizations for HF negatively affect the patient's quality of life and increase the patient's economic burden. Up to 50% of patients with HF suffer from urinary incontinence (UI) and an overactive bladder (OAB). However, there are limited data about the relationship between UI, OAB, and HF. The association between HF and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening HF pathophysiology. A comprehensive literature review was conducted for all publications between January 2000 and November 2017 using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. HF represents a major and growing public health problem, with an increased risk of UI and an OAB as comorbidities. Possible effects of HF on urinary problems may be mediated by the prescription of medications for symptomatic relief. Although diuretics are typically used to relieve congestion, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers improve survival, these classes of drugs have been suggested to worsen urinary symptoms in the presence of HF. Further research is required to understand the impact of UI and an OAB on the HF illness trajectory.


Subject(s)
Aging , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Comorbidity , Diuretics , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Heart Failure , Heart , Hospitalization , Humans , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Public Health , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence
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