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1.
Revagog ; 3(3): 76-77, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343785

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: A nivel mundial, la tasa de letalidad es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Algunos estudios lo han sugerido. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la hormona estrogénica, puede disminuir la susceptibilidad al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias de género en los resultados del SARS CoV-2 y analizar si existen diferencias en los resultados en mujeres premenopáusicas en comparación con posmenopáusicas. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 720 pacientes que dieron positivo (+) para SARS CoV-2 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con transcripción inversa en tiempo real, mediante el ensayo Thermo Fischer Taqpath, aprobado por el Consejo Indio de Investigación Médica. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad en las mujeres fue del 12,6%, mientras que la mortalidad en los hombres fue del 19,4%. En el análisis entre grupos, el 8,6% (16/185) de las mujeres murieron en el grupo de edad premenopáusica frente al 12,8% (27/211) en el grupo posmenopáusico. La proporción de mujeres que fallecieron debido a COVID difiere significativamente según la edad y el estado posmenopáusico X2 (1, n = 293) = 7,2, el valor de p es 0,007. La diferencia es estadísticamente significativa a P<0,05. Las mujeres posmenopáusicas tenían más probabilidades de fallecer debido a la infección por COVID-19 en comparación con las mujeres premenopáusicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postmenopause , Estrogens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Perimenopause , COVID-19/complications
2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(4): 486-489, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swyer syndrome is one of the disorders of sexual differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated increased sympathetic activity with heart rate variability (HRV) analysis with decreasing estradiol levels. One patient presented a pure 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis with female phenotype. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed through HRV analysis while at rest. This research analyzed linear and nonlinear indexes. HRV analysis showed reduced parasympathetic and global modulation with an apparent increase in sympathetic tone and a loss of HR fractal dynamics toward correlated behavior, characterized by low entropy and high determinism of time series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY/complications , Progestins/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Nonlinear Dynamics , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use
6.
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 176-186, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253780

ABSTRACT

Una persona transgénero es aquella en la cual el género autopercibido difiere del asignado al nacer, mientras que el término cisgénero es utilizado en aquellos individuos no trans. El tratamiento hormonal cruzado (THC) constituye una opción para lograr caracteres sexuales secundarios deseados. Es conocido que los esteroides sexuales desempeñan un rol fundamental en la adquisición de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) durante la pubertad. Por lo tanto, el impacto del THC sobre la masa ósea se ha convertido en materia de estudio. En estadios puberales tempranos, los análogos de la hormona liberadora de gonadotrofinas (GnRH) son utilizados con un efecto reversible. Si bien la DMO parece mantenerse estable, cuando se compara con una población de referencia del mismo sexo biológico y edad, el Z-score se encuentra por debajo de lo esperado. En adultos, durante el THC no se informaron disminuciones en la DMO. Está reportado que las mujeres trans antes del inicio del TH presentan características densitométricas diferentes de los hombres cisgénero. Hasta el momento, la carga de datos para los calculadores del riesgo de fractura y el software del equipo DXA se basan en el sexo biológico y no en identidad de género. Recientemente, la International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) emitió sus recomendaciones para la evaluación de la masa ósea en personas transgénero y en aquellos individuos no conformes con el género. Si bien la ISCD sugiere realizar la evaluación únicamente en aquellos pacientes con factores de riesgo, es de importancia realizar DXA basal, sobre todo en mujeres transgénero, para determinar el riesgo inicial de dicha población. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia disponible sobre el impacto del THC en la salud ósea de personas transgénero. (AU)


Cross sex hormone therapy (CSHT) in transgender women (TW) it is an option to achieve desired secondary sexual characteristics. It is known that sex steroids play a fundamental role in the acquisition of bone mineral density during puberty, in addition to determining a different characteristic bone pattern between both biological sexes. So the impact of affirming HT on bone is it has become in subject of study. In early pubertal stages, GnRH analogs are used with a reversible effect. Although bone mineral density (BMD) seems to remain stable, when compared with a reference population of the same biological sex and age, the Z-score is lower than expected. In adults, during CSHT no decreases in BMD were reported. However, it was reported that TW prior to starting CSHT present different densitometric characteristics than cisgender men. So far, the data load for the fracture risk calculators and DXA software is based on biological sex and not gender identity. Recently the ISCD issued its recommendations for the evaluation of bone mass in transgender subjects and in those non-conforming to gender. Although the ISCD suggests performing the evaluation only in those patients with risk factors, our group recognizes that baseline DXA, especially in TW, constitutes a useful tool to determine the initial risk of this population. Our proposal arises from our own experience and from that compiled in the international literature, where it is observed that even without starting CSHT, transgender women have lower BMD. DXA. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effect of CSHT on health bone in transgender people. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bone Density/drug effects , Cisgender Persons , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Puberty , Sex Characteristics , Densitometry , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Transgender Persons , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 418-427, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056478

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Tooth eruption requires resorption of the alveolar bone interposed between the tooth germ and the oral mucosa (coronal bone). The cells responsible for bone resorption are the osteoclasts and their activity can be reduced or inactivated by estrogen hormone. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on the process of tooth eruption in rats. Thirty-three Wistar rats, aged two-to-17-days, were divided into control, sham and estrogen-treated groups. After daily injections with estrogen, the animals were euthanized and the jaws removed and processed for histological analysis. We performed clinical examination, morphological analysis, quantification of the number of osteoclasts on the surface of the coronal bone and immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor type alpha (ERα). Estrogen therapy was effective, which could be confirmed by the higher estrogen plasma levels on treated animals. However, it had no effect on tooth development or tooth eruption. Progressive bone resorption was observed and the number of osteoclasts on coronal bone was not affected on hormoneinjected animals, allowing tooth to erupt at the same time observed in untreated animals. Immunohistochemistry for ERα confirmed the presence of this type of receptor in osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Taken together, our results showed that estrogen stimulation was not sufficient to decrease the number of osteoclasts on the coronal bone, supporting the idea that, although estrogen may have a protective activity on bone resorption, this may not apply to the alveolar bone that is meant to be resorbed during eruptive process.


RESUMEN: La erupción dental requiere la resorción del hueso alveolar interpuesto entre el germen dental y la mucosa oral (hueso coronal). Las células responsables de la resorción ósea son los osteoclastos y su actividad puede reducirse o inactivarse por la hormona del estrógeno. Objetivos: apuntamos a investigar los efectos del estrógeno en el proceso de la erupción dental en ratas. Treinta y tres ratas Wistar, de dos a 17 días de edad, se dividieron en grupos de control, Sham y se trataron con estrógenos. Los animales fueron eutanizados después del tratamento con estrógeno y se procesaron las mandíbulas para el análisis histológico. Se realizó el examen clínico, el análisis morfológico, la cuantificación del número de osteoclastos en la superficie del hueso coronal y el análisis inmunohistoquímico del tipo de receptor de estrógeno alfa (ERα). La terapia de estrógeno fue eficaz, lo que podría ser confirmado por los niveles plasmáticos más altos de estrógeno en los animales tratados. Sin embargo, no se observó ningún efecto sobre el desarrollo de los dientes o la erupción dental. Se observó una resorción ósea progresiva y el número de osteoclastos en el hueso coronal no se vio afectado en los animales inyectados con hormonas, permitiendo que el diente erupcionó durante el mismo período de tiempo observado en animales no tratados. La inmunohistoquímica para el ERα confirmó la presencia de este tipo de receptor en los osteoclastos, osteoblastos y osteocitos. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la estimulación del estrógeno no fue suficiente para reducir el número de osteoclastos en el hueso coronal confirmando que, si bien el estrógeno puede tener una actividad protectora en la resorción ósea, esto puede no se aplica al hueso alveolar que está destinado a ser rerecurrido durante el proceso eruptivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Tooth Eruption/physiology , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Receptors, Estrogen , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Animal Experimentation , Osteoclasts , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ethics Committees , Rats, Wistar , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Estrogens/adverse effects , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Alveolar Process/physiology
10.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 12-18, mar. 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021819

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Turner (ST) resulta de la ausencia completa o parcial del segundo cromosoma sexual en fenotipos femeninos. Tiene una incidencia de 1:2000- 2500 nacidas vivas. Recién en la última década se ha puesto atención a la salud de las adultas con ST. La mortalidad es 3 veces superior respecto de la población general debido al riesgo de disección aórtica por anomalías cardiovasculares estructurales y aterosclerosis vinculada a hipertensión arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia y obesidad. También presentan elevada prevalencia de enfermedades autoinmunitarias. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad del seguimiento clínico de pacientes adultas con ST, comparando los controles de salud preconformación y posconformación del Registro y de la Unidad Interdisciplinaria. En el año 2017 fuimos convocados para integrar el Programa de Enfermedades Raras del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. A partir de la creación del Registro Institucional y del equipo multidisciplinario obtuvimos mejoría significativa en los controles por las especialidades de cardiología, endocrinología y otorrinolaringología, en los controles bioquímicos del metabolismo lipídico, hidrocarbonado, hepatograma, TSH y anticuerpos para celiaquía e imágenes cardiovasculares y densitometría ósea. En conclusión, el seguimiento sistematizado e institucional, mediante el Registro y la creación de la Unidad Interdisciplinaria de Síndrome de Turner, permitió encontrar las falencias del sistema de atención y optimizar el seguimiento de esta población. (AU)


Turner syndrome (TS) results from the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in female phenotypes. It has an incidence of 1: 2000-2500 girls born alive. Only in the last decade has been paid attention to the health of adults women with TS. Mortality is 3 times higher than in the general population due to the risk of aortic dissection cause to structural cardiovascular anomalies and atherosclerosis related to hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. They also have a high prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Until nowadays in Argentina do not exist a national registry of this disease that complies with the international follow-up recommendations for these patients. We proposed to develop the institutional register at 2014 and a multidisciplinary team was created to care and follow up girls and women with TS during 2015. It was indexed to Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires' Rare Diseases Program since 2017. After the creation of the institutional registry and the multidisciplinary team we obtained a significant improvement in cardiology, endocrinology and otorhinolaryngology schedule visits, in lipids and hydrocarbon metabolism, liver, thyroid and celiac diseases biochemical controls and in the performance of cardiovascular MNR and bone densitometry. In conclusion, the systematized and institutional follow-up, through the registry and the creation of the Interdisciplinary Unit of Turner Syndrome, allowed us to find the flaws of the care system and to optimize the follow up of this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Turner Syndrome/prevention & control , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , Aneurysm, Dissecting/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Turner Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/etiology , Turner Syndrome/mortality , Turner Syndrome/epidemiology , Aftercare/methods , Cardiovascular Abnormalities/complications , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus , Atherosclerosis/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Gonadal Disorders/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Infertility, Female/etiology , Obesity/complications
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(4): 148-155, dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968639

ABSTRACT

Turner syndrome (TS) is a common disorder (1/2.000 women) that affects multiple organs at different stages of life and needs a multidisciplinary approach. It can be present in women of all ethnicities and is caused by a monosomy of the X chromosome that causes a haploinsufficiency of certain genes. Its main features consist of specific but variables physical characteristics, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, middle and inner ear diseases, skeletal alterations, and from the endocrinological point of view, short stature and ovarian insufficiency. Given the comorbidities associated with TS, it has been estimated that they have an increased risk of mortality (up to 3 times more) and a reduction in life expectancy of approximately 13 years. Depending on the genotype, the abnormalities can become very subtle, in these cases the diagnosis is late, when the adolescent consults, for example, for primary amenorrhea or an adult woman for infertility. Once the diagnosis is confirmed by a karyotype, these patients must remain in pediatric control in a continuous way to investigate associated pathologies in a timely manner, with periodic evaluations by specialists, such as otolaryngologists, cardiologists, neurologists and endocrinologists, among others. Numerous advances in the care of these patients gave rise to new guidelines published in 2017. In this article we will comment on the main conditions associated with TS and its specific etiology, we will mention what is relevant regarding the genotype-phenotype relationship in this syndrome and we will discuss the fundamental aspects of the control of the TS patient, with emphasis on the treatment of short stature and ovarian insufficiency, as well as the cardiovascular aspects and those related to fertility.


El Síndrome de Turner (ST) es una patología frecuente (1/2.000 mujeres) que afecta múltiples órganos en distintas etapas de la vida y necesita un enfoque multidisciplinario. Se produce por una monosomía del cromosoma X que provoca una haploinsuficiencia de determinados genes. Sus características principales consisten en un fenotipo característico pero variable, con presencia de cardiopatías congénitas, anomalías renales, enfermedades del oído medio e interno, alteraciones esqueléticas, y del punto de vista endocrinológico, talla baja e insuficiencia ovárica. Dadas las comorbilidades asociadas al ST, principalmente cardiovasculares (CV), presentan mayor mortalidad con respecto a la población general (hasta 3 veces más). Dependiendo del genotipo, las anomalías pueden llegar a ser muy sutiles, realizándose en estos casos el diagnóstico en forma tardía, cuando la adolescente consulte, por ejemplo, por amenorrea primaria o una mujer adulta por infertilidad. Una vez confirmado el diagnóstico mediante un cariotipo, estas pacientes deben permanecer en control endocrinológico pediátrico en forma continua hasta la transición hacia adultos, con el fin de pesquisar patologías asociadas en forma oportuna. Por ello requieren evaluaciones periódicas por especialistas, tales como otorrinolaringólogos, cardiólogos, neuropsiquiatras, entre otros. Numerosos avances en el cuidado de estas pacientes, dieron origen a nuevas guías publicadas el 2017. En este artículo comentaremos sobre las principales condiciones asociadas al ST y su etiología específica, mencionaremos lo relevante respecto a la relación genotipo-fenotipo en este síndrome y discutiremos los aspectos fundamentales del control de la paciente con ST, haciendo énfasis en el tratamiento de la talla baja y la insuficiencia ovárica, así como los aspectos CV y los relacionados a fertilidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Turner Syndrome/drug therapy , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Gonadal Dysgenesis/etiology , Growth Disorders/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Infertility, Female
13.
Porto Alegre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Telessaúde; 2018.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995567

ABSTRACT

Sangramento uterino anormal (SUA) é caracterizado por diferentes padrões de sangramento menstrual que variam de alteração no volume, irregularidades na duração e no ciclo menstrual. A condição costuma impactar na qualidade de vida das mulheres, sendo um problema de saúde frequente no atendimento da Atenção Primária à Saúde, acometendo cerca de 10% das mulheres em idade reprodutiva. As principais causas do sangramento uterino anormal são disfunções ovulatórias, gravidez, anormalidades estruturais, distúrbios de coagulação e causas iatrogênicas. Esta guia apresenta informação que orienta a conduta para casos de sangramento uterino anormal no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde, incluindo: classificação, etiologias de SUA por faixa etária, avaliação diagnóstica, tratamento, encaminhamento para serviço especializado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uterine Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Uterine Hemorrhage/therapy , Primary Health Care , Progestins/therapeutic use , Referral and Consultation , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Uterine Myomectomy/instrumentation , Hysterectomy/instrumentation , Medroxyprogesterone/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 80(3/4): 134-135, 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of potentized estrogen compared to placebo in homeopathic treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain (EAPP). Study design: The present was a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial that included 50 women aged 18-45 years old with diagnosis of deeply infiltrating endometriosis based on magnetic resonance imaging or transvaginal ultrasound after bowel preparation, and score ≥ 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: range 0 to 10 points) for endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Potentized estrogen (12cH, 18cH and 24cH) or placebo was administered twice daily per oral route. The primary outcome measure was change in the severity of EAPP global and partial scores (VAS) from baseline to week 24, determined as the difference in the mean score of five modalities of chronic pelvic pain (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, non-cyclic pelvic pain, cyclic bowel pain and/or cyclic urinary pain). The secondary outcome measures were mean score difference for quality of life assessed with SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire, depression symptoms on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety symptoms on Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). RESULTS: The EAPP global score (VAS: range 0 to 50 points) decreased by 12.82 (p< 0.001) in the group treated with potentized estrogen from baseline to week 24. Group that used potentized estrogen also exhibited partial score (VAS: range 0 to 10 points) reduction in three EAPP modalities: dysmenorrhea (3.28; p< 0.001), non-cyclic pelvic pain (2.71; p= 0.009), and cyclic bowel pain (3.40; p< 0.001). Placebo group did not show any significant changes in EAPP global or partial scores. [...] CONCLUSIONS: Potentized estrogen (12cH, 18cH and 24cH) at a dose of 3 drops twice daily for 24 weeks was significantly more effective than placebo for reducing endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02427386.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Homeopathy , Homeopathic Remedy , Rebound Effect , Endometriosis , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Pelvic Pain/therapy
15.
Reprod. clim ; 32(1): 43-47, 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882559

ABSTRACT

Sintomas relacionados com a atrofia vulvovaginal apresentam um impacto negativo sobre a qualidade de vida de até 50% das mulheres na pós­menopausa. No entanto, algumas recusam o uso de estrogênios, que é a terapia eficaz padrão, devido à publicidade negativa nos últimos anos e à disponibilidade de outras terapias opcionais. Esta revisão avaliou a eficácia de tratamentos hormonais, fitoterápicos de uso oral ou tópico para aliviar os sintomas da atrofia vaginal em mulheres na pós­menopausa. Foram avaliados estudos do Medline, Scopus e Cochrane Central Register de Ensaios Controlados com as palavras­chaves vagina, postmenopause, isoflavones, estrogen, syndrome genitourinária, vulvovaginal atrophy, clinical applications. Estudos de revisão e ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos neste estudo. Os dados mostraram que os estrogênios de uso sistêmico ou local são os mais indicados, as isoflavonas só mostraram efeitos positivos quando de uso local. Alguns tratamentos não hormonais, como hidratantes, lubrificantes e o uso de laser vaginal, também são indicados. Outra possibilidade de tratamento é o ospemifeno, um modulador de receptor hormonal seletivo (SERM) na dispareunia e na atrofia vulvovaginal. Assim, o uso de opções é benéfico para mulheres com risco de neoplasia relacionada aos estrogênios.(AU)


Symptoms related to atrophy vulvovaginal have a negative impact on quality of life up to 50% of women after menopause. However, some refuse the use of estrogens that is the standard effective therapy due to negative publicity in recent years and other available alternatives therapies. This review assessed the effectiveness of hormonal treatments, herbal oral or topical use to relieve the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in women after menopause. We evaluated studies of Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using vagina, postmenopause, isoflavones, estrogen, syndrome genitourinária, vulvovaginal atrophy, clinical applications, as keywords. Review studies and randomized controlled trials were included in this study. The data showed that the systemic or local use of estrogens are the most appropriate, and the isoflavones only showed positive effects when used locally. Some non­hormonal treatments such as moisturizing, lubricating and the use of vaginal laser are also suitable. Another possible treatment is ospemifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on dyspareunia and vulvovaginal atrophy. Thus, the use of alternatives is beneficial for women with cancer risk related to estrogens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Atrophy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female Urogenital Diseases/drug therapy , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Vagina/pathology
17.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 36(1): 19-28, mar. 2016. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147777

ABSTRACT

Cuando hablamos de sexualidad humana debemos saber que estamos hablando de una compleja y cambiante interacción de factores biológicos y socioemocionales altamente influenciables por la familia, la religión y los patrones culturales. Esto se ve en los hombres y en las mujeres, especialmente en las mujeres. La sexualidad es un concepto intuitivo que cuesta definir. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, se define salud sexual como "un estado de bienestar físico, emocional, mental y social relacionado con la sexualidad, la cual no es solamente la ausencia de enfermedad, disfunción o incapacidad". Es una definición que tiene en cuenta varios conceptos, muy importantes todos ellos. La respuesta sexual consiste en una serie de cambios neurofisiológicos, hemodinámicos y hormonales que involucran al conjunto del organismo. Si bien es similar en ambos sexos, en las mujeres no siempre el inicio y la progresión se correlacionan en forma sistemática o lineal como en los hombres. Y de ese intrigante devenir de la respuesta sexual femenina surge la dificultad del diagnóstico de la "disfunción sexual femenina". Podríamos resumirla en "un conjunto de trastornos en los que los problemas fisiológicos o psicológicos dificultan la participación o la satisfacción en las actividades sexuales; lo cual se traduce en la incapacidad de una persona para participar en una relación sexual de la forma que le gustaría hacerlo"16. La menopausia es percibida por muchas mujeres como el fin de la sexualidad, y no solo como el fin de la vida reproductiva. Si bien es cierto que en esta etapa la actividad sexual suele declinar y puede verse afectada por una serie de factores hormonales, psicológicos y socioculturales, para la mayoría de las mujeres la sexualidad sigue siendo importante. Debemos comprender que la disfunción sexual femenina, en cualquier etapa de la vida, es multicausal y multidimensional. A la hora de realizar el abordaje de una paciente, debemos tener en cuenta todos los factores involucrados y saber con qué herramientas contamos. El abordaje terapéutico clásicamente incluye la terapia psicológica y la terapia hormonal. Sin embargo, recientemente se ha incorporado una nueva droga recientemente aprobada por la FDA de los Estados Unidos para el tratamiento del deseo sexual hipoactivo en la mujer: el flibanserín, un psicofármaco que actúa a nivel de mediadores del deseo sexual en el sistema nervioso central, favoreciéndolo. (AU)


When we talk about human sexuality, we know that we are talking about a complex and changing interaction between biological and socioemotional factors, which are highly influenced by society, family, religion and cultural norms. This can be seen in men and women especially in women. Sexuality is an intuitive concept difficult to define. According to the World Health Organization, it is defined as "A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well being related to sexuality, which is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or disabilityˮ. It is a definition that takes into account several concepts, all very important. Sexual response is a series of neurophysiological, hemodynamic and hormonal changes involving the whole body. While similar in both sexes, women are not always the onset and progression correlate systematically or linearly as in men. And that intriguing evolution of the female sexual response, the difficulty of diagnosis of "female sexual dysfunctionˮ. We could summarize it in "a group of disorders in which the physiological or psychological problems impede participation or satisfaction in sexual activities; which results in the inability of a person to participate in a sexual relationship the way she or he would like to do itˮ16. Menopause is perceived by many women as to the end of sexuality, not only as the end of reproductive life. Sexual activity declines with age, and may be affected by a number of hormonal, psychological and sociocultural factors, but, for most women it continues to be important. We must understand that female sexual dysfunction, at any stage of life is multicausal and multidimensional. When approaching a patient, it is important to know all the factors that are involved, and which tools we have for deal with it. Classically, the therapeutic approach has consisted of psychological therapy and hormone therapy. However, we have to consider a recently approved drug by the FDA for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire in women: Flibanserin. It is a psychotropic substance that acts on the mediators of sexual desire on the central nervous system favoring it. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Climacteric/physiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Steroids/administration & dosage , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Climacteric/psychology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate/therapeutic use , Sexuality/physiology , Sexuality/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/physiopathology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Sexual Health/statistics & numerical data , Asexuality , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Actual. osteol ; 12(3): 197-214, 2016. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1371338

ABSTRACT

Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with antiremodeling agents has had a mixed record of results. It is likely that remodeling suppression is only effective when used in the early phases of OA, before significant progression. Animal and human studies largely bear this out. Treatment of young mice with a RANKL inhibitor suppresses bone resorption and prevents OA progression. Likewise, bisphosphonate treatments in rodents and rabbits with induced injury or inflammatory arthritis, reduced cartilage degeneration when administered preemptively, but later administration did not. The increased prevalence of OA in women after the menopause, and presence of estrogen receptors in joint tissues, suggests that treatment with estrogens or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators may be effective. However, in clinical trials of knee and hip, results show decreased or increased risk for OA, or no effect. Raloxifene had positive effects in animal models, but no effect in human studies. More recent potential treatments such as strontium ranelate or cathepsin-K inhibitors may be effective, but may work directly on the cartilage rather than through their well-known effects on bone. The conclusion from these studies is that anti-remodeling agents must be administered pre-emptively or in the very early stages of disease to be effective. This means that better imaging techniques or identification of early structural changes in bone that occur before progressive cartilage destruction must be developed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mice , Rabbits , Osteoarthritis/prevention & control , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Cathepsin K/therapeutic use , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Rodentia , Postmenopause , Disease Progression , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Estrogens/therapeutic use , RANK Ligand/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin K/pharmacology
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(6): 507-518, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771993

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by sustained painful symptoms that are responsible for a decline in the quality of life of sufferers. Conventional treatment includes surgical and pharmacological therapy aiming at reducing painful symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate pain levels in women with endometriosis, focusing on the influence of conventional treatment in controlling this variable. To do so, a literature search was conducted in the Medline/Pubmed databases, with 119 scientific articles found. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 were selected for reading and elaboration of this review. Thus, 9 studies evaluated the contribution of surgery, 17 the use of drugs to reduce pain levels in patients with endometriosis and one assessed surgical and medical treatment. The main results of these searches are presented and discussed in this revision. Surgery and the use of drugs provided reduced pain scores in patients with endometriosis but nevertheless exhibit disadvantages, such as risk of recurrence and side effects, respectively. Treatment of endometriosis is, therefore, a challenge for gynecologists and patients, as they must select the best therapeutic approach for this disease. However, improved quality of life in these patients has been obtained with the use of conventional treatment.


RESUMO A endometriose é uma doença ginecológica crônica caracterizada por quadros álgicos constantes responsáveis pela redução da qualidade de vida das portadoras. O tratamento convencional, que inclui o cirúrgico e farmacológico, tem por finalidade reduzir os sintomas de dor. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os níveis de dor nas mulheres com endometriose, com enfoque na influência do tratamento convencional no controle dessa variável. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica no Medline/PubMed e foram encontrados 119 artigos científicos, sendo que, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 27 foram selecionados para leitura e elaboração desta revisão. Desse modo, nove estudos avaliaram a contribuição da cirurgia; dezessete, o uso de medicamentos para redução nos níveis de dor em pacientes com endometriose; e um, o tratamento cirúrgico e medicamentoso. Os principais resultados dessas pesquisas estão apresentados e discutidos nesta revisão. A cirurgia e o uso de medicamentos proporcionaram redução nos escores de dor nas pacientes com endometriose, no entanto, exibem desvantagens como risco de recorrência e efeitos colaterais, respectivamente. Assim, o tratamento para endometriose é um desafio para ginecologistas e pacientes, uma vez que é necessário selecionar a melhor abordagem terapêutica para essa doença. Entretanto, melhora na qualidade de vida das pacientes foi obtida com o emprego do tratamento convencional.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Pain Measurement/methods , Pelvic Pain/drug therapy , Progestins/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endometriosis/complications , Endometriosis/surgery , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/standards , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Pelvic Pain/surgery , Quality of Life
20.
Clinics ; 70(10): 700-705, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion.METHODS:In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day.RESULTS:The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers.CONCLUSIONS:Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Analysis of Variance , Evoked Potentials, Motor/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Time Factors
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