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1.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. fig.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353671

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: O gênero Candida possui alta taxa de incidência no ser humano, sendo a espécie Candida albicans a mais isolada em infecções invasivas e superficiais. Porém, tem sido relatado um aumento considerável de espécies de Candidanão-albicans em infecções fúngicas. Os óleos essenciais, por serem voláteis, podem agir como sinais de comunicação química e arma de defesa. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Eu-calyptus globulus na inibição do crescimento de espécies de Candida não-albicans. Métodos: Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica de S. aromaticum e de E. globulus e do efeito dos seus óleos essenciais sobre a micromorfologia das espécies Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata, foram empregadas, nesta ordem, a técnica de difusão em ágar e de microcultivo para leveduras. Resultados: Na técnica de difusão, o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum apresentou for-mação de halo de inibição para Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata. O óleo de E. globulus, por sua vez, não apresentou crescimento de halos de inibição em nenhuma das concentrações testadas frente às três espécies de Candida não-albicans. Todavia, com o microcultivo, ambos os óleos essenciais se provaram, in vitro, eficazes antimi-crobianos tendo apresentado estruturas indicativas de atividade antifúngica na maior concentração dos óleos e diferentes graus de destruição celular nas demais concentrações. Conclusão: Nas condições deste estudo, concluiu-se que os pro-dutos avaliados exerceram atividade antifúngica contra cepas de Candida não-albicans, destacando-se o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum que apresentou atividade antimicrobiana em ambas as metodologias. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The genus Candida possesses a high incidence of infection in humans, with the Candida albicans species being the most isolated in invasive and superficial infections. However, a considerable increase in non-albicans Candidaspecies has been reported in fungal infections. Essential oils, for being volatile, can act as chemical communication sig-nals and defense mechanisms. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness, in vitro, of the essential oils of Syzygium aromati-cum and Eucalyptus globulus in inhibiting the growth of non-albicans Candida species. Methods: To evaluate the antifun-gal activity of S. aromaticum and E. globulus and the effect of their essential oils on the micromorphology of the species Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, in this order, the agar diffusion technique and microculture for yeasts. Results: In the diffusion technique, the essential oil of S. aromaticum presented an inhibition halo for Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata. E. globulus oil, on the other hand, did not show inhibition halo growth in any of the concentrations tested against the three non-albicans Candida species. However, in the microculture, both essential oils have proven to be effective antimicrobials having shown structures indicative of antifungal activity in the highest concentration and different degrees of cell destruction in the other concentrations. Conclusion: In the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the products evaluated exerted antifungal activity against non-albicans Candidastrains, highlighting the essential oil of S. aromaticum that showed antimicrobial activity in both methodologies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Candida , Syzygium , Candida glabrata , Defense Mechanisms , Eucalyptus , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0147 2021, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250814

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of Microtriatoma borbai in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is reported by the first time. METHODS: A triatomine specimen collected in a hybrid eucalyptus crop in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state was found to be a male M. borbai. RESULTS: This finding expands the geographical distribution of M. borbai from four to five Brazilian states. It is the first report of M. borbai occurrence inside a eucalyptus crop. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of M. borbai in the state of Espírito Santo broadens the geographical distribution of this species in southeastern Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Triatominae , Reduviidae , Eucalyptus , Brazil , Environment
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 406-410, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153373

ABSTRACT

The adaptation of native lepidopteran species to eucalyptus plantations reduces the productivity of this crop in Brazil. Oxydia vesulia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a secondary pest, frequently reported in eucalyptus plantations with population outbreaks and economic damages. Methods of biological control of this pest may include the use of the exotic pupae endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi Olliff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), reported as efficient to controlling lepidopteran pests. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi was evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 ºC, 60 ± 20% humidity and 12:12 h L:D). Each O. vesulia caterpillar or pupae was individually placed in a flat-bottom tube with 10 and 15 females of T. howardi for 48h, respectively. The parasitoids were removed after that period, the caterpillars were fed and the pupae were maintained until emergence of the parasitoid or formation of pupae and emergence of adults of this pest. The fourth-instar caterpillars of O. vesulia, after the parasitism period, were kept in pots with Eucalyptus urophylla leaves, changed daily until the end of the experiment. A total of 40% of the caterpillars died before the pre-pupae stage, 40% reached the pupae stage and died due to inadequate adult formation and 20% generated moths, but none adult parasitoid emerged from the caterpillars. All pupae of O. vesulia were parasitized and showed emergence of parasitoids. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi shows the potential of this natural enemy for the integrated management of this defoliator pest in eucalyptus plantations.


A adaptação de espécies nativas de lepidópteros a plantios de eucalipto reduz a produtividade dessa cultura no Brasil. Oxydia vesulia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) é praga-secundária, frequentemente, relatada em plantios de eucalipto com surtos populacionais e danos econômicos. Métodos de controle biológico, dessa praga, podem incluir o uso do endoparasitoide exótico de pupas Tetrastichus howardi Olliff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) relatado como eficiente para o controle de lepidópteros-pragas. O parasitismo de lagartas e pupas de O. vesulia por T. howardi foi avaliado em condições controladas (25 ± 1º C, 60 ± 20% umidade e 12h fotoperíodo). Cada lagarta ou pupa de O. vesulia foi colocada individualmente em tubos de fundo chato com 10 e 15 fêmeas de T. howardi por 48h, respectivamente e, após esse período, os parasitoides foram removidos, as lagartas alimentadas e as pupas mantidas até a emergência do parasitoide ou formação de pupas ou de adultos dessa praga. As lagartas de quarto ínstar de O. vesulia, após o período de parasitismo, foram mantidas em potes com folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla trocadas, diariamente, até o fim do experimento. Um total de 40% das lagartas de O. vesulia morreu antes da fase de pré-pupa, 40% atingiram o estágio de pupa e morreram devido à má formação ou problemas e 20% originaram mariposas, porém nenhum parasitoide adulto emergiu das lagartas. Todas as pupas de O. vesulia foram parasitadas e tiveram emergência de parasitoides. O parasitismo de lagartas e pupas de O. vesulia por T. howardi mostra o potencial desse inimigo natural para o manejo integrado desse desfolhador em cultivos de eucalipto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Eucalyptus , Hymenoptera , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Moths , Pupa , Brazil
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00302020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348972

ABSTRACT

Plant parasitic nematodes are major threats to Brazilian and world agriculture. Among them, Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita stand out as major pests for several crops, including corn, cotton, soybean among others, which can be components of integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems (ICLFs). In this context, information about the host status of eucalypts (Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) to plant parasitic nematodes becomes more relevant in Brazil, due to the use of eucalypts in ICLFs. If tree components used on this system increase the population density of P. brachyurus and M. incognita, it is possible that these pathogens could damage shorter-cycle crops. Since information about the host status of eucalypts to plant parasitic nematodes is scarce, this study evaluated the host status of some eucalypt species to P. brachyurus and M. incognita. Two greenhouse trials were done to evaluate the reproduction of P. brachyurus and one to M. incognita, using some of the most cultivated species and hybrids of eucalypts in Brazil. The population growth of P. brachyurus increased on Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii × Eucalyptus urophylla, and E. grandis × E. urophylla after ~90 days of inoculation. Conversely, despite M. incognita reproducing well in the control plants, no individuals were recovered from C. citriodora, E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla, which were classified as resistant plants. Based on both obtained and available data, M. incognita poses no threat to eucalypt species today. However, P. brachyurus is suggested to be a threat to eucalypts.


Subject(s)
Tylenchoidea , Eucalyptus , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Soybeans , Forestry , Agricultural Pests , Zea mays , Gossypium
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922767

ABSTRACT

The fruits of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. are known to have a plenty of medicinal properties, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activity. Our previous study found that the phloroglucinol-sesquiterpene adducts in the fruits of E. globulus were immunosuppressive active constituents, especially Eucalyptin C (EuC). Phosphoinositide 3-kinases-γ (PI3Kγ) plays a pivotal role in T cell mediated excessive immune responses. In this study, EuC was first discovered to be a novel selective PI3Kγ inhibitor with an IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus , Flavonoids , Fruit , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01472021, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288070

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of Microtriatoma borbai in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is reported by the first time. METHODS: A triatomine specimen collected in a hybrid eucalyptus crop in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state was found to be a male M. borbai. RESULTS: This finding expands the geographical distribution of M. borbai from four to five Brazilian states. It is the first report of M. borbai occurrence inside a eucalyptus crop. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of M. borbai in the state of Espírito Santo broadens the geographical distribution of this species in southeastern Brazil.


Subject(s)
Triatominae , Reduviidae , Eucalyptus , Brazil , Environment
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 412-441, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1141472

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial, incrementándose su relevancia ante la reciente infección por SARS-CoV-2, causante de la pandemia de COVID-19. Las opciones terapéuticas para esta infección respiratoria son escasas y sin eficacia comprobada. El objetivo de esta revisión fue buscar la información sobre plantas con actividad antiviral o viricida publicada en los últimos 10 años, en las bases de datos de Google Scholar, Scopus y PubMed. La búsqueda priorizó aquellas especies disponibles en Guatemala, la cual se complementó con la búsqueda de moléculas con actividad antiviral para finalmente postular aquellas que puedan prevenir la infección o aminorar la patogénesis del SARS-CoV-2. Se detectaron más de 170 especies con actividad antiviral y se organizó la información por país o región y tipo de actividad antiviral contra virus específicos. De las especies de mayor disponibilidad en Guatemala se seleccionaron 20. La revisión culmina con 15 artículos que proponen plantas o moléculas con potencial actividad específica en el manejo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Se concluye que existen especies vegetales (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis y Eucalyptus globulus) y fitocompuestos vegetales (hesperidina, rutina, diosmina, apiina, aloe-emodina, piperina, capsaicina, curcumina, oleuropeina, rhamnetina y gallato de epicatequina) que podrían contribuir al manejo de la enfermedad. Se insta a académicos y autoridades a poner más atención a estas opciones terapéuticas que nos ofrece la naturaleza y que podrían contribuir a aliviar el colapso de los sistemas de salud prevalentes.


Respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, increasing their relevance by the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic options for this respiratory infection are scarce and without proven effectiveness. The objective of this review was the search for information on plants with antiviral or viricidal activity published in the last 10 years in the Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed databases. The search prioritized those species available in Guatemala, was completed with the search of molecules with potential to prevent infection or reduce the activity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 170 species with antiviral activity were detected and the information organized in surveys by country or region, activity against specific viruses and antiviral information on the 20 most commonly available species in the country. It is complemented with a summary of 15 articles that proposed plants or molecules with potential specific activity in the management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is concluded there are plant species (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus) and phytocompounds isolated from these species (hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, apiine, aloe-emodin, piperine, capsaicin, curcumin, oleuropein and epicatechin gallate) that could contribute to the management of the disease. Academics and authorities are urged to pay more attention to these therapeutic options that nature offer to us and could contribute to alleviate the collapse of the prevailing health systems in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Infections , Therapeutics , Catechin/therapeutic use , Echinacea , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Salvia officinalis , Psidium , Diosmin , Aloe , Eucalyptus , Betacoronavirus , Garlic , COVID-19 , Guatemala , Hesperidin
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 345-353, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132366

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the implantation of forests, soil tillage can affect the soil fauna, but over the years, it is possible that forest development can recompose the biological indicators of soil quality. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different periods of eucalyptus development on community of edaphic fauna. The experiment was carried out in forest areas in the municipality of Ametista do Sul, RS. The Experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments, once 4 of the treatments were with different ages of the Eucalyptus grandis (two, four, six and eight years after trasnplant - YAT); plus 2 control treatments: Native Forest and Soil Naked, with 7 collection points. To sample the edaphic fauna, it was used traps such as PROVID. Also, the edaphic fauna was sampled at the depth of 0-5 cm for the quantification of mites. It was carried out the counting of individuals at the level of order and family for the mites, the means of the groups were submitted to the Tukey test and comparisons by Orthogonal Contrasts and calculated indices of Biodiversity: Margalef Richness, Simpson dominance, Shannon diversity and Pielou uniformity. The results showed lower abundance of individuals in Naked soil, while the Native Forest presented the best Biodiversity indices. With eight years of implantation of eucalyptus there was recovered the biological quality of the soil expressed by the population of springtails. The population of oribatídeos mites increased expressively from the six years of implantation of eucalyptus.


Resumo Na implantação de florestas, o revolvimento do solo pode simplificar a fauna edáfica, porém com o passar dos anos é possível que o desenvolvimento florestal possa recompor os indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes períodos de desenvolvimento de eucalipto sobre a comunidade da fauna edáfica. O experimento foi realizado em área florestal no município de Ametista do Sul, RS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos, sendo 4 tratamentos com diferentes períodos de implantação de Eucalyptus grandis (dois, quatro, seis e oito anos após o transplante - YAT) + 2 tratamentos controle - Mata Nativa e Solo Desnudo, com 7 pontos de coleta. A coleta da fauna edáfica foi por meio de armadilhas do tipo PROVID e amostras centrais de solo na profundidade de 0-5 cm para ácaros. Realizou-se a contagem de indivíduos em nível de classe ou ordem e de família para ácaros, as médias dos grupos foram submetidas ao teste de Tukey e comparações por Contrastes Ortogonais e calculados os índices de biodiversidade: Riqueza de Margalef, dominância de Simpson, Diversidade de Shannon e uniformidade de Pielou. Os resultados demonstram menor abundância de indivíduos no solo Desnudo, enquanto a Mata Nativa apresentou os melhores índices de Biodiversidade. Com oito anos de implantação de eucalipto ha recuperação da qualidade biológica do solo expressa pela população de Colêmbolos. A população de ácaros oribatídeos aumenta expressivamente a partir dos seis anos de implantação de eucalipto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus , Mites , Soil , Forests , Biodiversity
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 310-318, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132308

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral mucositis is a common inflammatory complication among patients with cancer. This study evaluated the histopathological, stereological, and antioxidant markers of 2% eucalyptus extract in induced oral mucositis in male golden hamsters. In this animal study, oral mucositis was induced in 30 male golden hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle once daily on days 3 and 4. On days 14-17, 2% eucalyptus hydroalcoholic extract gel and Calendula officinalis extract gel groups were treated and then compared with a non-treated control group. The histopathological and stereological scores and the pouch content of malondialdehyde, as well as the activities of glutathione and myeloperoxidase in the pouch tissue, were evaluated. Histopathologic scores of oral mucositis were lower in the eucalyptus gel group than those of the calendula and control groups (p<0.05). Also, a lower malondialdehyde level and higher myeloperoxidase and glutathione activities were detected in the eucalyptus group in comparison to the calendula and control groups (p<0.001). The thickness of the mucosa and submucosa increased in the eucalyptus group. The numerical density of the fibroblast and the volume density of the collagen significantly increased in the eucalyptus group. In conclusion, the use of eucalyptus hydroalcoholic extract may be associated with reduced intensity of oral mucositis, diminished concentration of malondialdehyde, increased activity of myeloperoxidase and glutathione, increased volume of mucosa and submucosa, increased fibroblast and collagen in the induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters undergoing 5-FU consumption.


Resumo A mucosite oral é uma complicação inflamatória comum em pacientes com câncer. Este estudo avaliou os marcadores histopatológicos, estereológicos e antioxidantes de Eucalyptus 2% na mucosite oral induzida em hamsters dourados machos. Neste estudo em animais, a mucosite oral foi induzida em 30 hamsters golden masculinos por 5-FU (60 mg / kg) nos dias 0, 5 e 10 do estudo. A bolsa da bochecha foi arranhada com uma agulha estéril uma vez ao dia nos dias 3 e 4. Nos dias 14 a 17, os grupos de gel de eucalipto a 2% e curativos à base de gel foram tratados e comparados com um grupo controle. Foram avaliados os escores histopatológicos e estereológicos e o conteúdo de malondialdeído na bolsa, bem como as atividades de glutationa e mieloperoxidase no tecido da bolsa. Os escores histopatológicos de mucosite foram menores no grupo de gel de eucalipto a 2% do que os do gel e do grupo controle (p <0,05). Além disso, um nível mais baixo de malondialdeído e maiores atividades de mieloperoxidase e glutationa foram detectadas no grupo tratado com eucalipto em comparação aos grupos à base de gel e controle (p <0,001). A espessura da mucosa e submucosa aumentou no grupo Eucalyptus. A densidade numérica do fibroblasto e a densidade do volume do colágeno aumentaram significativamente nos grupos tratados com eucalipto. Em conclusão, o uso do extrato hidroalcoólico de Eucalyptus pode estar associado a menor intensidade de mucosite oral, diminuição da concentração de malondialdeído, aumento da atividade de mieloperoxidase e glutationa, aumento do volume de mucosa e submucosa, aumento de fibroblastos e colágeno na mucosite oral induzida em hamsters dourados em consumo de 5 UF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stomatitis , Mucositis , Eucalyptus , Plant Extracts , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus , Fluorouracil , Mouth Mucosa
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 449-457, 01-03-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146271

ABSTRACT

Forest Red Gum eucalypt provides a versatile wood and is converted into different purposes. However, such wood is somewhat limited in structural ends, which highlights the need to exploit this gap through diffusion of mechanical properties of suchtimber. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture content reduction, from 30 to 12%, in physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis, using Brazilian and American documents, to reinforce the structural potential wood and assisting engineers and architects in decision-making for its best building application. We evaluated two physical and fourteen mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis at two different moisture contents, following the prescriptions of Brazilian (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) and North American (ASTM D-143-14: 2014) standards. Thus, 1091 repeats were carried out for all properties. By a moisture reduction, the bulk density and eleven strength properties statistically showed changes such as modulus of rupture (static bending, parallel and perpendicular compressions), modulus of elasticity (perpendicular compression and static bending), shear stress, tangential cleavage, and parallel and perpendicular hardnesses. Then, the Eucalyptus tereticornis timber could be better usable if is further applied for structural construction uses.


Eucalipto de goma vermelha prove uma madeira versátil e é convertido para diferentes propósitos. Porém, essa madeira é um pouco limitada para fins estruturais, o que destaca a necessidade de explorar essa lacuna mediante à difusão das propriedades mecânicas de tal madeira. Os resultados obtidos deverão auxiliar os engenheiros e arquitetos na tomada de decisão para a sua melhor aplicação construtiva. Esse artigo estudou a avaliação de duas propriedades físicas e catorze propriedades mecânicas do Eucalyptus tereticornis em dois teores de umidade, seguindo as prescrições dos documentos normativos brasileiro (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) e norte-americano (ASTM D-143-14: 2014). Assim, 1091 repetições foram conduzidas para todas essas propriedades. Pela redução de umidade de 30% para 12%, a densidade aparente e onze propriedades de resistência demonstraram estatisticamente mudanças, tais como módulos de ruptura (flexão estática ecompressões paralela e perpendicular), módulos de elasticidade (compressão perpendicular e flexão estática), cisalhamento, fendilhamento e as durezas perpendicular e paralela. Então, a madeira de Eucalyptus tereticornispoderia ser melhor utilizável se for também aplicada para usos construtivos estruturais.


Subject(s)
Wood , Eucalyptus , Humidity
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0832019, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130144

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop and validate a standard area diagram (SAD) set to estimate the severity of bacterial blight of eucalyptus caused by Erwinia psidii. For this purpose, an eight-level SAD was developed and validated by ten inexperienced raters. Accuracy and precision of the estimates by each rater, with and without the SAD, were determined based on Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed SAD improved the accuracy and precision of the estimates. The SAD set studied here is a useful tool in assessments of bacterial blight of eucalyptus for epidemiological research and breeding programs.(AU)


Este trabalho objetivou o desenvolvimento de uma escala para estimar a severidade da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto causada por Erwinia psidii. Para isso, uma escala de oito níveis foi desenvolvida e validada por dez avaliadores inexperientes. A acurácia e precisão das estimativas de cada avaliador, com e sem a escala, foram determinadas baseadas no coeficiente de correlação concordante de Lin. A escala proposta melhorou a acurácia e a precisão das estimativas. A escala estudada se mostrou uma ferramenta útil na avaliação da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto para estudos epidemiológicos e em programas de melhoramento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/classification , Erwinia , Eucalyptus/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 644-651, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057972

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.


Resumo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora e citronelal sobre nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos. A composição do óleo essencial foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As substâncias foram avaliadas in vitro utilizando-se teste de motilidade de vermes adultos (AWMT) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). Teste de toxicidade aguda em camundongos e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais (FECRT) em ovinos foram realizados. Citronelal foi confirmado como componente majoritário do óleo essencial (63,9%). No AWMT, 2 mg/mL de óleo essencial e citronelal inibiram completamente a motilidade de H. contortus 6 h pós-exposição. H. contortus expostos ao óleo essencial e citronelal exibiram modificações ultraestruturais internas. Os valores da dose letal 50 em camundongos foram 5.000 e 2.609 mg/kg para óleo essencial e citronelal, respectivamente. Óleo essencial de E. citriodora reduziu opg de ovinos 14 dias pós-tratamento em 69,5% (P<0,05). Não houve diferença significativa de opg entre grupo controle negativo e citronelal (P>0,05). A interação entre citronelal e outros constituintes do óleo essencial pode ser relevante na atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo. Portanto, avaliação farmacocinética do óleo essencial de E. citriodora e citronelal pode auxiliar a elucidar a atividade anti-helmíntica desses compostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Haemonchiasis/parasitology , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/ultrastructure , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
13.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 179-182, jul. - set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119027

ABSTRACT

Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) is a phytophagous pest of eucalyptus plantations. It was introduced in Brazil in 2008, and expanded rapidly due to its adaptive capacity to different climatic conditions. Eucalyptus has been planted in the Brazilian Amazon since the 1980s, being used in silvopastoral systems and for cellulose production. Since its introduction in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, T. peregrinus has expanded its geographical distribution to 117 municipalities in states in the south (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná), southeast (São Paulo, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais), mid-west (Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás) and northeast (Sergipe) of the country. Here we report the first record of T. peregrinus in the Brazilian Amazonian state of Pará. (AU)


Subject(s)
Amazonian Ecosystem , Agricultural Pests , Cimicidae , Eucalyptus
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1179-1187, july/aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048855

ABSTRACT

Silvopastoral system, in which trees and forage species are grown in the same area together with animals, has emerged as a sustainable alternative of agricultural production systems. However, information on different silvicultural arrangements and combinations of forest, animal and grazing components in this system are still scarce. Thus, this study followed the silvicultural performance of the forest component (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, eucalyptus hybrid, clone I-144) under different population arrangements in a silvopastoral system through periodic dendrometric evaluations and determined the impact of animal component (Nellore females) on tree development and ingestive behavior of animals subjected to rotational grazing in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. The study was conducted at Agropecuária Ouro Branco, located in Bandeirantes, MS, Brazil. Total height, diameter at breast height, and wood volume per hectare were evaluated in three- and five-row ranks. To indicate plant growth, the current and average annual increments werecalculated. Animal behavior was evaluated based on the periodic observation of 15 animals randomly selected in the lot. The initial performance of forest component was satisfactory in both populations, but growth indicators indicated greater current and average annual increments in the five-row rank. The presence of forest component does not interfere with the ingestive behavior and wellbeing of animals in the silvopastoral system, as well as, the presence of animal component does not interfere in the plants silvicultural development.


O sistema silvipastoril, onde espécies arbóreas e forrageiras são cultivadas em uma mesma área, conjuntamente com o componente animal, vem se despontando como uma alternativa sustentável de sistemas de produção agrícola, no entanto, informações sobre os diferentes arranjos silviculturais e combinações dos componentes arbóreo, animal e pastagem no sistema ainda são incipientes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar o desenvolvimento inicial do componente florestal (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, híbrido de eucalipto, clone I-144), em diferentes arranjos populacionais, em sistema silvipastoril, por meio de avaliações dendrométricas periódicas; e, determinar o impacto da inserção do componente animal(fêmeas da raça Nelore) sobre o desenvolvimento das árvores e sobre o comportamento ingestivo dos animais submetidos ao pastejo rotacionado em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. O estudo foi realizado na Agropecuária Ouro Branco, situada em Bandeirantes, MS. Tanto nos renques de três, como no de cinco fileiras, foram avaliados a altura total (H), diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP) e volume de madeira por hectare. Para indicar o crescimento das plantas, foram calculados o Incremento Corrente Anual (ICA) e o Incremento Médio Anual (IMA). O comportamento dos animais foi avaliado baseado na observação periódica de 15 animais selecionados aleatoriamente no lote. Verificou-se que o desempenho inicial do componente arbóreo, em ambos os arranjos populacionais, mostrou-se satisfatório, no entanto, os indicadores de crescimento, apontam para um maior incremento corrente e médio anual nas plantas dos renques com cinco fileiras. A presença do componente arbóreo não interfere no comportamento ingestivo e bem-estar dos animais locados no sistema, assim como, a presença dos animais não interfere no desenvolvimento silvicultural das plantas.


Subject(s)
Forestry , Eucalyptus , Livestock , Crop Production
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 353-356, jan.-fev. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038587

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to characterize the displacement patterns of Nellore cattle in areas of crop livestock and crop livestock forest integration systems with density of 196 and 448 eucalyptus ha-1. Paddock maps were drawn from satellite images of the experimental area. In each evaluated system there was one trained observer, that on the paddock map recorded the place the animals stayed every 10 minutes. The exploration of the area by the animals was observed for 12 hours, starting at 6 a.m. and ending at 6 p.m. The displacement of the animals in the ILP system during the evaluation was bigger than the ILPFs systems, resulting in greater exploration of the area, this fact was due the presence of trees that, for the animals resembled fences, limiting the exploration of the paddock in ILPFs. In the ILPF with higher density of trees, this behavior was more evident. In the period from 10:10 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. the displacement of the animals was decrease by the high temperatures in all systems, although it was more effective in the ILP system. It is concluded that the displacement of cattle is influenced by the presence and density of arboreal component integrated crop livestock system.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Behavior, Animal , Pasture , Forests , Eucalyptus , Animal Husbandry/methods
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: 0202018, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-979668

ABSTRACT

In recent years, compounds with biological properties produced by plants have received attention as an alternative to control microorganisms. Essential oils extracted from green leaves of Eucalyptus sp. have been demonstrated to have antimicrobial activities, but so far there are no reports of antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from dried leaves of Eucalyptus staigeriana. So, the objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from dried leaves of E. staigeriana (EOdlES) and to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of EOdlES against gram-positive and gram-negative, resistance and multiresistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from food and clinical samples. The characterization of EOdlES was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). For this study, 26 bacterial strains were used, which included 11 reference strains and 15 antibiotic resistant and multiresistant E. faecalis strains. Antimicrobial activities of EOdlES against gram-positive and gram-negative were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was evaluated by a microbroth dilution technique. The antibiofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. As a result, 21 compounds were identified, being oxygenated monoterpenes (69.58%) the major chemical family. EOdlES showed only antimicrobial activity against gram-positive strains. E. faecalis resistant and multiresistant strains show the lowest MIC (3.12 to 6.25%), when compared with reference E. faecalis strain. EOdlES has the ability to inhibit the biofilm formation, but little or none ability to inhibit the preformed biofilm. This study demonstrates that EOdlES is a promising alternative to control important foodborne and clinic gram-positive resistant bacteria.(AU)


Nos últimos anos, compostos com propriedades biológicas produzidas por plantas têm recebido atenção como alternativa de controle de micro-organismos. Óleos essenciais extraídos de folhas verdes de Eucalyptus sp. têm demonstrado atividades antimicrobianas. No entanto, até o momento não há nenhum relato de atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais extraídos de folhas secas de Eucalyptus staigeriana. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição química dos óleos essenciais obtidos de folhas secas de E. staigeriana e avaliar in vitro a sua atividade antimicrobiana e de antibiofilme contra gram-positivas e gram-negativas e também resistentes e multirresistentes de Enterococcus faecalis isolados de amostras de alimentos e clínicas. A caracterização de E. staigeriana foi realizada por CG-EM. Para este estudo foram utilizadas 26 cepas bacterianas, que incluíram 11 cepas referência e 15 cepas de E. faecalis resistentes a antibióticos. A atividade antimicrobiana de E. staigeriana contra gram-positivas e gram-negativas foi determinada utilizando o método de disco-difusão. Os valores da concentração inibitória mínima foram avaliados pela técnica de microdiluição. Os efeitos de antibiofilme foram avaliados pelo método de placa de microtitulação. Como resultado, 21 compostos foram identificados, sendo monoterpenos oxigenados (69,58%) a grande família química. E. staigeriana mostrou apenas atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas gram-positivas. Cepas de E. faecalis resistentes e multirresistentes mostraram a menor concentração inibitória mínima (3,12 para 6,25%) quando comparado com a cepa referência de E. faecalis. E. staigeriana apresentou a capacidade de inibir a formação de biofilme, mas pouca ou nenhuma capacidade de inibir o biofilme pré-formado. Este estudo demonstra que o óleo essencial obtido de folhas secas de E. staigeriana é uma alternativa promissora para controle importante de bactérias gram-positivas resistentes de origem alimentar e clínicas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of aroma oils dates back to at least 3000 B.C., where it was applied to mummify corpses and treat the wounds of soldiers. Since the 1920s, the term “aromatherapy” has been used for fragrance therapy with essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the essential oil of Eucalyptus (EOE) affects pain pathways in various pain conditions and motor coordination. METHODS: Mice were subjected to inhalation or intraperitoneal injection of EOE, and its analgesic effects were assessed by conducting formalin, thermal plantar, and acetic acid tests; the effects of EOE on motor coordination were evaluated using a rotarod test. To determine the analgesic mechanism, 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (κ-opioid antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist, 5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (δ-opioid antagonist, 2 mg/kg), and naloxone (μ-opioid antagonist, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. RESULTS: EOE showed an analgesic effect against visceral pain caused by acetic acid (EOE, 45 mg/kg); however, no analgesic effect was observed against thermal nociceptive pain. Moreover, it was demonstrated that EOE did not have an effect on motor coordination. In addition, an anti-inflammatory effect was observed during the formalin test. CONCLUSIONS: EOE, which is associated with the μ-opioid pain pathway, showed potential effects against somatic, inflammatory, and visceral pain and could be a potential therapeutic agent for pain.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Analgesics , Animals , Aromatherapy , Cadaver , Eucalyptus , Formaldehyde , Glyburide , Humans , Inhalation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice , Military Personnel , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociceptive Pain , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Pain Measurement , Rotarod Performance Test , Visceral Pain , Wounds and Injuries
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 255-265, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.


Subject(s)
Wood/growth & development , Forestry , Eucalyptus/growth & development , Fertilizers , Time Factors , Wood/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 425-438, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.


Subject(s)
Wood/anatomy & histology , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology , Gamma Rays , Quality Control , Specific Gravity , Wood/analysis , Brazil
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