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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888009

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex is an authentic medicinal material with broad growing areas( such as Hunan and Sichuan provinces in China. It is well-known for its efficacy in tonifying liver and kidney,strengthening muscles and bones,and stabilizing fetus. It has also been proven in pharmacology to possess the functions such as lowering blood pressure and lipids. Hence,Eucommiae Cortex has attracted increasing attention. The current quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex vary in different countries or regions. The quality of Eucommiae Cortex products on the market is affected by mix-ups of non-medicinal parts and insufficient growth years. In view of these problems,this paper summarizes the current quality standards and research progress of Eucommiae Cortex in China and overseas,aiming to provide a reference for the establishment of the quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Humans , Reference Standards
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 319-328, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a medicinal plant native to China, with its bark (Eucommiae Cortex) traditionally being used for medicinal purposes. Previous research has shown that Eucommia male flowers can exert anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, and other pharmacological effects, including immune regulation. This study explored the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of male flowers (EF) of E. ulmoides in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-administered mice.@*METHODS@#Cytotoxicity of EF for RAW 264.7 cells was investigated using Cell Counting Kit-8. The production of proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. IL-17, IL-23, and IL-10 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in RAW 264.7 cells was investigated via Western blotting. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of EF were studied in an LPS-induced acute inflammation mouse model by analyzing lung tissue histopathology, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#EF showed no significant cytotoxicity at concentrations from 10 to 60 μg/mL (cell viability > 80%) in the CCK-8 cell viability assay. EF inhibited the RAW 264.7 cell proliferation (EF 60 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 250 μg/mL vs. negative control: 87.31 ± 2.39% vs. 100.00 ± 2.50%, P = 0.001; 79.01 ± 2.56 vs. 100.00 ± 2.50%, P < 0.001; and 64.83 ± 2.50 vs. 100.00 ± 2.50%, P < 0.001), suppressed NO (EF 20 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL vs. LPS only, 288.81 ± 38.01 vs. 447.68 ± 19.07 μmol/L, P = 0.004; and 158.80 ± 45.14 vs. 447.68 ± 19.07 μmol/L, P < 0.001), TNF-α (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 210.20 ± 13.85 vs. 577.70 ± 5.35 pg/mL, P < 0.001), IL-1β (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 193.30 ± 10.80 vs. 411.03 ± 42.28 pg/mL, P < 0.001), and IL-6 (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 149.67 ± 11.60 vs. 524.80 ± 6.24 pg/mL, P < 0.001) secretion, and downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-17 (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 0.23 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.12, P < 0.001), IL-23 (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 0.29 ± 0.01 vs. 0.42 ± 0.06, P=0.002), and IL-10 (LPS+EF vs. LPS only, 0.30 ± 0.01 vs. 0.47 ± 0.01, P=0.008) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. EF inhibited the LPS-induced NF-κB p65 (LPS+EF 20 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL vs. LPS only: 0.78 ± 0.06 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08, P < 0.001; and 0.90 ± 0.06 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08, P =0.002) and inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) phosphorylation (LPS+EF 20 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL vs. LPS only: 0.25 ± 0.01 vs. 0.63 ± 0.03, P < 0.001; and 0.31 ± 0.01 vs. 0.63 ± 0.03, P < 0.001), LPS+EF 30 μg/mL inhibited IκB kinase (IKKα/β) phosphorylation (LPS+EF 30 μg/mL vs. LPS only, 1.12 ± 0.14 vs. 1.71 ± 0.25, P = 0.002) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, EF 10 mg/kg and EF 20 mg/kg inhibited lung tissue inflammation in vivo and suppressed the serum TNF-α (LPS+EF 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg vs. LPS only, 199.99 ± 186.49 vs. 527.90 ± 263.93 pg/mL, P=0.001; and 260.56 ± 175.83 vs. 527.90 ± 263.93 pg/mL, P = 0.005), and IL-6 (LPS+EF 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg vs. LPS only, 41.26 ± 30.42 vs. 79.45 ± 14.16 pg/ ml, P = 0.011; and 42.01 ± 26.26 vs. 79.45 ± 14.16 pg/mL, P = 0.012) levels and MPO (LPS+EF 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg vs. LPS only, 3.19 ± 1.78 vs. 5.39 ± 1.51 U/g, P = 0.004; and 3.32 ± 1.57 vs. 5.39 ± 1.51 U/g, P = 0.006) activity in lung tissue.@*CONCLUSIONS@#EF could effectively inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors and overactivation of neutrophils. Further investigation is needed to evaluate its potential for anti-inflammation therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Flowers , Chemistry , Inflammation , Blood , Drug Therapy , Interleukin-1beta , Blood , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages , Mice , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Blood , NF-kappa B , Blood , Nitric Oxide , Blood , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774580

ABSTRACT

Based on high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic technology,the community composition and ecological functions of endophytic fungi in the bark of Eucommia ulmoides from three producing areas,Fengxiang town in Zunyi county of Guizhou province,Lingyang town of Cili county of Hunan province and Mumen town of Wangcang county of Sichuan province,were analyzed. A total of110 865 effective sequences of endophytic fungi were obtained in the study. The corresponding fungal group of OTUs after clustering belonged to 3 phyla( Ascomycota,Basidiomycota,Zygomycota),10 classes,25 orders,41 families,57 genera and 74 species. Among them,the dominant genera of Sichuan Wangcang Bark of E. ulmoides( EWP) was an unclassified genus in the Nectriaceae of the Crimsonaceae,with a relative abundance of 54. 79%; The dominant species of Hunan Cili Bark of E. ulmoides( ECP) was the unclassified genus of Ascomycota,with a relative abundance of 39. 97% and the dominant species of Guizhou Zunyi bark( EZP) was Lophiostoma,and its relative abundance was 47. 07%. The analysis of α diversity indicated that the shannon diversity index of endophytic fungi from different places was as follows: ECP: 1. 340 2>EZP: 1. 380 4 > EWP: 1. 168 3. The simpson diversity index was: EWP( 0. 427 3) >EZP( 0. 332 5) > ECP( 0. 313 6). FUNGuild software platform analysis displayed that endophytic fungi of E. ulmoides bark from three producing areas contained the following 14 functional groups: plant pathogen,animal pathogen and endophyte et al.,the number of functional groups in the 3 samples of E. ulmoides reached up 8 genera and exceeded one half of the total number. Correlation analysis of Canonical correspondence analysis( CCA) between endophytic fungal community diversity and four active compounds of E. ulmoides were analyzed,the results showed that the contents of pinoresinol diglucoside and chlorogenic acid,to a certain extend,had a positive correlation with an unclassified genus of Davidiellaceae,Mortierella,Chaetomium and Pestalotiopsis from the endophytic fungi in EWP sample.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascomycota , Chlorogenic Acid , Ecosystem , Eucommiaceae , Fungi
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773672

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the pollution of heavy metals in Guizhou soil planting Eucommia ulmoides,the paper has determined the contents of five heavy metals respectively( Cu,Cd,Pb,Hg and As) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The soil environmental quality by single factor pollution index was evaluated,nemerow integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index,the correlation of 5 heavy metals was analyzed and the relationship between heavy medals content and p H value was discussed. The results showed that: ①The soils of LP,SB and ZA-2 had low heavy metals content,LP soil met the first national standard,and other soils met the second national standard; ②The soils of LP,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were all in a clean state,while HX and BZ-1 were in a light pollution state,and the pollution degree was Cu>Pb>As>Cd>Hg; ③The soil of BZ-2 was light warning( medium ecological risk),the soils of HX,BZ-1 and MT were early warning( low ecological risk),the main warning source was Cu and Pb,and the rest were no warning( no ecological risk); ④Cd and As were positively correlated with Pb and Hg,and Cd,Pb and As were positively correlated with p H. The research showed that the soils of LP,SB,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were clean and could be used for E. ulmoides to continue planting,the soils of HX,MT,BZ-1 and BZ-2 were polluted and should be treated in time by effective measures.


Subject(s)
China , Environmental Monitoring , Eucommiaceae , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment , Soil , Chemistry , Soil Pollutants
5.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 143-149, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760551

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex (EC), bark of Eucommia ulmoides, has been known as a traditional medicine to regulate hypertension and immune system. Because silk of gum in the EC blocks the release of active ingredients, EC generally has been utilized after processing with carbonization or salt-water to breakdown it. This study aimed to investigate the differences of non-processed EC and processed EC on antioxidant and anticancer properties. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by measuring the content of total polyphenols, reducing power, and ABTS radical scavenging effect. And anticancer effects were examined by evaluating the viability of pancreatic cancer cells and wound healing ability. The results demonstrated that processed EC contained more content of polyphenols and exhibited more potent reducing power and radical scavenging effect than non-processed EC. In addition, processed EC more efficiently inhibited proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. These results suggest that processing of medicinal plants can improve the biological properties such as antioxidant or anticancer activity, which may lead to the development of herbal medicine treatment technology.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Cell Proliferation , Eucommiaceae , Gingiva , Herbal Medicine , Hypertension , Immune System , Medicine, Traditional , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Plants, Medicinal , Polyphenols , Silk , Wound Healing
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51946

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Dinoprostone , DNA , Eucommiaceae , Glycogen Synthase , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation , Zinc
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351267

ABSTRACT

The method was established for determination of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, pinoresinoldiglucoside, which are three kinds of constituents of Eucommia ulmoides absorbed into the blood components. LC-MS/MS technique was applied to determine the blood components of the bloodstream after administration of E. ulmoides extract. At the same time, HPLC was used for detection of the ingredients content of the blood sample from 23 batches of E. ulmoides. The results showed that geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside are prototype into the blood in rats after oral administration of E. ulmoides extract, The linear range of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside was good, and the average recoveries geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside were 98.69%, 100.8% and 98.39%, respectively. The method is simple and feasible with good reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorogenic Acid , Blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Glycosides , Blood , Iridoid Glucosides , Blood , Lignans , Blood , Male , Plasma , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237742

ABSTRACT

Elucidate the mechanism of Eucommiae Cortex in treatment of hypertension, to provide the basis for further research and development of Eucommiae Cortex. Our study using the entity grammar systems inference rules to analyse the interactions of chemical constituents of Eucommiae Cortex and disease target proteins at the molecular level, and got a biological network of Eucommiae Cortex anti-hypertension which inciude 602 nodes and 2 354 edges. We got 3 treatment of hypertension pathways of Eucommiae Cortex by analyzing biological network, that is, by inhibition of vascular remodeling to improve the deterioration of hypertension, reduce activity of polymorphism genetic genes related to essential hypertension, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase 1 to maintain the osmotic pressure, Eucommiae Cortex play the role of anti-hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antihypertensive Agents , Chemistry , Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Essential Hypertension , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319628

ABSTRACT

A total of 152 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from the barks of Eucommia ulmoides in three regions (Lueyang country, Zunyi country, Cili country). Based on morphological characteristics and analysis of ITS sequences, these strains were identified into 8 genera. Thereinto Phomopsis, Diaporthe and Alternaria were common genera to Eucommia barks from different sites. But the dominant genus was different: Alternaria was the dominant genus in the barks from Cili country, and Phomopsis was the dominant genus from Zunyi country, then Diaporthe was the one from Lueyang country. According to the similarity coefficient, the composition of the endophytic fungi was distinctly different between the barks from three sites. The diversity and species richness in Lueyang country and Cili country were found higher than those in Zunyi country. The evenness of endophytic fungi was 0.936 5 in Lueyang county, which was higher than 0.737 1 or 0.641 0 in Cili county or Zunyi county, respectively. After phylogenic analysis and calculating the genetic distances of typical strains belong to Phomopsis and its perfect stage--Diaporthe, there was very high genetic diversity in the two genera from our study. In conclusion, the community structure and diversity of endophytic fungi were significant different in Eucommia barks from the three habitats.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Ecosystem , Endophytes , Classification , Physiology , Eucommiaceae , Microbiology , Fungi , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Phylogeny , Plant Bark , Microbiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812246

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To establish and apply a new LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous, quantitative determination of six ingredients, aucubin (AU), geniposide (GP), geniposidic acid (GPA), pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG), secologanin (SLG), and loganin (LG) in single and combined extracts of Eucommia ulmoides and Dipsacus asperoides.@*METHOD@#Using the LC/MS/MS-ESI(-)-MRM mode to detect the six compounds, chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of solvent A (CH3CN) and solvent B (H2O containing 0.01% CH3COOH V/V).@*RESULTS@#This method was successfully applied to quantify the six compounds in rat plasma after oral administration, and showed good precision, accuracy, reproducibility, and linear regression (r(2)>0.99).@*CONCLUSION@#The results showed that following the use of the two medicinal plants, for AU and GP, the values of Cmax markedly increased, and the values of cmax markedly decreased. It was found that the compatibility of the medicinal plants might affect their pharmacokinetic properties of their constituents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Dipsacaceae , Chemistry , Drug Combinations , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Female , Iridoid Glucosides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Iridoids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Lignans , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts , Blood , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300250

ABSTRACT

Ten compounds were isolated from the leaf of Eucommia ulmoides by means of recrystallization and chromatographic techniques such as D-101 macroporous resin, MCI resin, ODS gel, Sephadex LH-20 and Rp-HPLC. Their structures were identified by NMR spectral analyses as kaempferide 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-xylosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucoside (5), (2S,3S)-taxifolin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6) ,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (7), (+)-cycloolivil (8), pinoresinol beta-D-glucoside (9), squalene (10). Among them compounds 1,5-7,10 were isolated from the Eucommia genus for the first time. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, compound 2 exhibited significant activity (IC50 13.7 micromol x L(-1)), compared with vitamin C (IC50 59.9 micromol x L(-1)); compounds 1, 3 and 9 showed moderate activity (IC50 161,137, 214 micromol x L(-1)), compared with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (IC50 236 micromol x L(-1)); compound 4 and 6 showed weak activity (IC50 264, 299 micromol x L(-1)).


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341879

ABSTRACT

Nine triterpenes compounds were isolated from the male flowers of Eucommia ulmoides by recrystallization and chromatographic techniques over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18 gel. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis and as 3-oxo-12-en-ursane-28-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl (1 --> 6) -β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2α, 3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid(28 --> 1) -β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), ursolic acid (3), α-amyrin (4), uvaol (5), ursolic acid acetate (6), 3-O-acetate oleanoic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), and betulinol (9). Compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2, 4-7 were isolated from the Eucommiu genus for the first time. Cytotoxic activity was tested for all the compounds against K562 and HepG2 cells. The results showed that only compound 3, exhibited cytotoxic activity.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , K562 Cells , Triterpenes , Pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341855

ABSTRACT

According to the 2010 Chinese pharmacopeia, salt processed and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were pre- pared. HPLC-DAD analysis of the content of the bark and leaf of Eucommiae Cortex showed that the bark of Eucommiae Cortex mainly contained lignans such as pinoresinol glucose and iridoid including genipin, geniposide, geniposidic acid, while the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex consisted of flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic compound such as chlorogenic acid. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 18 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased approximately by 30% and 85%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times, 23 times, 28 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in salted Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 25%, 40% and 40%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 98%, 70%, 70%, respectively. The content of caffeic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of caffeic acid was decreased by about 50% in the salted Eucommiae Cortex. While the content of caffeic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex was decreased approximately 75%; the content of chlorogenic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 1/6 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of chlorogenic acid in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased by 40% and 75%, respectively; the content of quercetin in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was only 1/40 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of quercetin in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 60% and 50%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202593

ABSTRACT

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark (EUE) is commonly used for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, and ischialgia as well as to promote longevity. In this study, we tested the effects of EUE aqueous extract in graded doses to protect and enhance cognition in scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. EUE significantly improved the impairment of short-term or working memory induced by scopolamine in the Y-maze and significantly reversed learning and memory deficits in mice as measured by the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. One day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), EUE dramatically increased the latency time in the target quadrant in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EUE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner. EUE also markedly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of cAMP element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that EUE may be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits, and that the beneficial effects of EUE are mediated, in part, by cholinergic signaling enhancement and/or protection.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Carrier Proteins , Cognition , Eucommiaceae , Hippocampus , Hypertension , Learning , Longevity , Low Back Pain , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mice , Phosphorylation , Scopolamine
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318645

ABSTRACT

Eucommia ulmoides is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, whose cortexes have long been used as medi cines. Due to the scarcity of its resources, people began using its leaves instead of cortexes in medicines. Eucommiae Folium and its leaves have many pharmacological effects and thereby being clinically applied as genuine traditional Chinese medicines. Modern pharmological studies have showed that Eucommiae Folium leaves have such effects as blood pressure reduction, blood lipid regulation, cardiovascular protection, anti-obesity, anti-inflammation, anti-virus, enhancement of immunologic function, resistance against senility and anti-fatigue. In clinic, Eucommiae Folium is mainly used to treat hypertention and obstetrical and gynecological disease. The essay summarizes the latest advance in domestic and foreign studie on pharmacological effeets and clinical applications of Eucommiae Folium leaves, and thus providing reference for studies on new drugs of Eucommiae Folium leave.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Humans
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 69-75, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-591952

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés por el uso de terapias alternativas para la curación de heridas. La miel de abeja es una antigua medicina natural que ha sido utilizada en el tratamiento de heridas y úlceras, mientras la vitamina C mejora la barrera epidérmica y reduce la contracción de heridas. Este estudio pretende avalar el tratamiento con miel asociada a vitamina C oral como curación alternativa y eficiente en quemaduras tipo AB-B. Se utilizaron 12 cuyes (Cavia porcellus). Los animales se distribuyeron en grupos A (sin Vitamina C) y B (con Vitamina C). Bajo efectos anestésicos se provocó una quemadura de 1.7 mm de diámetro en la región dorsal derecha, que fue tratada con curaciones con miel. Al mismo tiempo, se provocó una quemadura de similares características en la región dorsal izquierda, tratada con suero Ringer, siendo utilizada como control. De ambas lesiones se obtuvieron biopsias a los 6, 10 y 14 días post injuria. Nuestros resultados muestran que la formación de tejido granular, activación de fibroblastos, y reepitelización es más rápida en el grupo B, donde se observó un tejido vascularizado y fibras colágenas organizadas en el día 14 post injuria, similar al control (biopsia de animal sano). Estos datos confirman que la utilización de la miel de ulmo asociada a Vitamina C oral mejora la regenaración de este tipo de heridas, logrando una cicatrización efectiva, rápida y de buena calidad.


In recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of alternative therapies for healing wounds. Bee honey is an ancient natural medicine that has been used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers, while Vitamin C improves the epidermal barrier and reduces wound contraction. The aim of this study is to support treatment with honey associated with oral vitamin C as an alternative and efficient healing treatment, in type AB-B burns. For this study, twelve guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used. The animals were distributed in groups A (without Vitamin C) and B (with Vitamin C). While under anesthetic effect burn of 1.7 mm in diameter was caused in the right dorsal region, subsequent healing was treated with honey. At the same time a burn of similar characteristics was caused in the left dorsal region, treated with Ringer serum being used as control. Biopsies were obtained from both lesions at days 6, 10 and 14 post injury. Results showed granular tissue formation, fibroblast activation, and reepitalization is more rapid in group B, where vascularized tissue and organized collagen fibers were observed at day 14 post injury similar to control (biopsy in healthy animal). These results confirm that the use of Ulmo honey associated with oral Vitamin C improves regeneration in this type of wound, achieving effective, rapid and good quality healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adult , Rabbits , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Eucommiaceae , Burns/pathology , Burns/drug therapy , Burns/therapy , Burns/veterinary , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/injuries , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Complementary Therapies/veterinary
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260662

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a rapid determination method of pinoresinol diglucoside in Eucommiae unloads by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Forty-one samples of E. unloads were collected from three different producing areas and their main component, namely pinoresinol diglucoside, was determined by HPLC. Corresponding data of samples were collected from 12 000 to 4 000 cm(-1) by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The spectral pretreatment was optimized by OPUS software and the calibration equations between the content of pinoresinol diglucoside and spectrum data were constructed by partial least squares regression.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Available information could be extracted from spectra in the range from 7 502 to 4 597.6 cm(-1) after corrected by applying second derivative transformation and subtract a linear correction. Cross validation was used to prevent over-fitting. Good correlation existed between pinoresinol diglucoside content and NIR spectra ( R2 = 0.926 4, SEC = 0.029 and SEP = 0.066 2).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>NIRS calibration equations developed in this study could be applied to the rapid analysis of the pinoresinol diglucoside content.</p>


Subject(s)
Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Lignans , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Methods , Time Factors
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344568

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze and compare the cell growth and accumulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in the callus and suspension cell of Eucommia ulmoides.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The callus induced from the leaf of E. ulmoides seedlings were suspended in liquid medium. The time courses of cell growth and yields of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid were studied.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The highest contents of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in the callus were 13.46, 1.712 mg x g(-1), respectively, while the contents of these two secondary metabolites were 16.63, 3.93 mg x g(-1) in suspension cell culture correspondingly.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Comparing with callus, the suspension cell showed a short growth period and high growth rate with a remarkable high content of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Chlorogenic Acid , Metabolism , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Metabolism , Flavonoids , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344513

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To introduce the hairy root of Eucommia ulmoides, and screen put the excellent roots.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Hairy roots were obtained by infecting the different explants of E. ulmoides. Aucubin content was detected by HPLC.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The best transformation condition was embryonic axis infected by twenty minutes bacillus water dip-dye and three-days co-culture. Liquid culture was better than solid culture, and advantageous to accumulating of biomass and medical contents of hairy root. The E1 was the excellent roots.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Hairy root of E. ulmoides will be useful for the production of active components in aucubin.</p>


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Metabolism , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glucosides , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Iridoids , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 185-190, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268148

ABSTRACT

To investigate the chlorogenic acids resources in Eucommia ulmoides Olive leaves, Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves and Houttuynla cordata Thunb. leaves, methanolic extracts of these three materials have been analysed qualitatively for chlorogenic acids and their derivatives by structure-diagnostic LC-MSn. Three monocaffeoylquinic acids (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA) were detected. 5-CQA dominated this subgroup in Eucommia ulmoides Olive and Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves, but 3-CQA and 4-CQA dominated this subgroup of chlorogenic acids in the leaves of Houttuynla cordata Thunb. Caffeoylquinic acid-glycosides were detected for the first time from Eucommia ulmoides leaves. 5-FQA was found in Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves, and 3-FQA and 4-pCoQA have been identified in Houttuynla cordata Thunb. This is the first report of the chlorogenic acid profile in Houttuynla cordata Thunb. The comparatively unusual profile of caffeoylquinic acids in Houttuynla cordata Thunb. makes it a convenient source of 3-CQA and 4-CQA that are not commercially available.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, Liquid , Methods , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Lonicera , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Saururaceae , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Methods
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