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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 291-300, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153366

ABSTRACT

The use of medicinal plants for disease prevention, treatment and cure is an ancient practice used by humanity, and many plants species are used in bioprospecting research. In this context, its stands out Eugenia uniflora L., populary known as pitangueira and belongs to the Myrtaceae family, with a wide geographic distribution and native of Brazil. In view of the therapeutic qualities of the plant and the lack of the studies on its seeds, the present study had as objective to evaluate the phytochemical profile of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. seeds, from different solvents, as well as their antibacterial activity, antioxidant and its inhibitory effect of intestinal disaccharidases. Results showed a high content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, thus characterizing antioxidant activity, also highlighting the best bacteriostatic action for the Gram positive strain of Staphylococcus aureus in the ethanolic fraction. Regarding the disaccharidases, a strong inhibitory action was observed for all concentrations, evidencing a antihyperglycemic potential. The present research allowed to concluded that Eugenia uniflora L. seeds have promising biological activities for the industrial sector, but a more detailed investigation is needed regarding their bioactive compounds.


A utilização de plantas com fins medicinais para prevenção, tratamento e cura de doenças é uma prática antiga utilizada pela humanidade, sendo que muitas espécies vegetais são usadas para a pesquisa da bioprospecção. Neste contexto, destaca-se a Eugenia uniflora L., conhecida popularmente como pitangueira e pertencente à família Myrtaceae, com ampla distribuição geográfica e nativa do Brasil. Diante das qualidades terapêuticas da planta e a falta de estudos sobre suas sementes, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil fitoquímico dos extratos das sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. a partir de diferentes solventes, bem como sua atividade antibacteriana, antioxidante e seu efeito inibidor de dissacaridases intestinais. Os resultados mostraram um alto teor de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides totais, caracterizando a atividade antioxidante, destacando também a melhor ação bacteriostática para a cepa Gram positiva de Staphylococcus aureus na fração etanólica. Em relação às dissacaridases, uma forte ação inibitória foi observada para todas as concentrações, evidenciando um potencial anti-hiperglicêmico. A presente pesquisa permitiu concluir que as sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. apresentam atividades biológicas promissoras para o setor industrial, mas é necessária uma investigação mais detalhada de seus compostos bioativos.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Disaccharidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 228-234, 20200930. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255088

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Devido à atual resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos e à necessidade de buscar novas substâncias com essa atividade, principalmente em produtos naturais, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar e comparar o potencial antibacteriano de extratos de folhas da planta Eugenia brasiliensis, ainda pouco estudada, obtidas por coletas sazonais. Métodos: As coletas foram realizadas trimestralmente no Jardim Botânico do RJ (JBRJ) e os extratos etanólicos preparados com o pó das folhas secas. Foram utilizadas cepas de referência ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) Gram positivas de Staphylococcus aureus: 25.923 (Beta Lactamase -) e 29.213 (Beta Lactamase +), e duas Gram negativas, Escherichia coli (28.922) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.853). A técnica de escolha foi a microdiluição em placa de 96 poços, pois permite avaliar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e posteriormente a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM). Resultados: A melhor atividade antibacteriana (1 mg/mL) foi identificada nos extratos obtidos nos meses mais quentes (menores CIM para bactérias Gram positivas). A CBM foi compatível com a CIM na maioria das estações/cepas bacterianas, indicando possível atividade bactericida dos extratos. Conclusão: A pesquisa demonstrou uma atividade antibacteriana promissora para Gram positivos e existência de variação sazonal, sugerindo um bom potencial para o uso de E. brasiliensis como antimicrobiano. Os resultados também indicam que, no futuro, outros estudos devem ser realizados, como a prospecção química destes extratos.


Objective: Due to the current bacterial resistance to antimicrobials and the need to search for new substances with this activity, mainly in natural products, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the antibacterial potential of Eugenia brasiliensis leaf extracts, still little studied, obtained by seasonal collections. Methods: Leaf collections were made quarterly at the Jardim Botânico do RJ (JBRJ) and ethanol extracts prepared with dry leaf powder. Reference strains ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) Gram positive from Staphylococcus aureus were used: 25923 (Beta Lactamase -) and 29213 (Beta Lactamase +), and two Gram negative strains, Escherichia coli (28.922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.853). The technique of choice was microdilution in a 96-well plate, as it allows the assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and subsequently the minimum bactericidal concentration (CBM). Results: The best antibacterial activity (1 mg/mL) was identified in the extracts obtained in the warmer months (lower MICs for Gram positive bacteria). CBM was compatible with MIC in most seasons/ bacterial strains, indicating possible bactericidal activity of the extracts. Conclusion: The research demonstrated a promising antibacterial activity for Gram positive and seasonal variation, suggesting a good potential for the use of E.brasiliensis as an antimicrobial. The results also indicate that in the future, other studies should be carried out, such as the chemical prospecting of these extracts.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421

ABSTRACT

In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).


Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Biological Products , Candida albicans , Oils , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Volatile Organic Compounds
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190704, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132229

ABSTRACT

Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dentures , Klebsiella oxytoca/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0432018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118052

ABSTRACT

The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is considered the main insect pest of small fruit in the world. Identifying susceptible hosts is essential to develop management strategies. The aim of this study was to verify the level of D. suzukii infestation in blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cattley guava and Surinam cherry fruits cultivated in the southern region in Brazil, and to determine the infestation index (II) per fruit. The studies were carried out during two harvests (2015/16 and 2016/17) in three areas with organic cultivation of small fruit. The highest level of D. suzukii natural infestation was observed in blackberry (40 to 65% infestation), and strawberry (approximately 30% infestation) fruits. In contrast, blueberries were less preferred (< 7% infestation). For native fruit of the region (cattley guava and Surinam cherry), it was also verified infestation of the fly, demonstrating they are hosts for multiplication in the off-season periods of the other crops. In relation to II, blackberry and Surinam cherry provided a higher average number of insects per gram of fruit (≈ 1.6 adults of D. suzukii). In contrast, blueberries and cattley guava had the lowest insect ratio per gram of fruit (≈ 0.7 adults per gram). The period between late spring to mid-autumn was considered ideal for the pest occurrence in the field. The knowledge of natural infestation levels is essential for understanding the behavior of the pest in the field, which will assist in the design of management strategies.(AU)


A drosófila-da-asa-manchada, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, é considerada o principal inseto-praga de pequenos frutos no mundo. A identificação de hospedeiros suscetíveis é essencial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de infestação de D. suzukii em frutos de amoreira-preta, mirtileiro, morangueiro, araçazeiro e pitangueira cultivados na região no sul do Brasil e determinar os índices de infestação (II) por fruto. Os estudos foram realizados durante duas safras (2015/16 e 2016/17) em três áreas com cultivo orgânico de pequenas frutas. O maior nível de infestação natural de D. suzukii foi observado em amora-preta (40 a 65% de infestação) e morango (aproximadamente 30% de infestação). Em contraste, o mirtilo foi menos preferido (< 7% de infestação). Para as frutas nativas da região (araçá e pitanga), também ocorreu infestação da mosca, demonstrando serem hospedeiros potenciais para a multiplicação da praga nos períodos de entressafras. Em relação ao II, amoras e pitangas proporcionaram um maior número médio de insetos por grama de fruto (≈ 1,6 adultos de D. suzukii). Por outro lado, mirtilos e araçás apresentaram a menor relação de insetos emergidos por gramas de frutos (≈ 0,7 adultos por grama). O período entre final da primavera até meados do outono foi considerado ideal para a ocorrência da praga no campo. O conhecimento dos níveis de infestação natural é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento da praga no campo, o que auxiliará no delineamento de estratégias de manejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drosophila , Fruit/parasitology , Seasons , Brazil , Agricultural Pests , Vaccinium myrtillus , Morus , Fragaria , Introduced Species , Eugenia
8.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-994984

ABSTRACT

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Psychology/history , Ergonomics , Psychology, Comparative , Psychology, Military , Eugenia , Nervous System
9.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-994986

ABSTRACT

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychology/history , Personality , Brazil , Mental Health , Eugenia
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 879-888, Nov. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056911

ABSTRACT

Brazil has one of the largest commercial cattle herds in the world, which naturally coexist with an enormous number of parasitic species. Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is among these species, interfering with animal productivity and causing losses to the beef and dairy cattle sector. The use of chemical acaricides in the control of this mite has resulted in the emergence of resistant populations. In this sense, alternative control measures using plants as sources of botanical acaricides have shown to be effective. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess is a Brazilian plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity in the literature. The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal and larvicidal potential of E. pyriformis leaf essential oil (EO) on southern cattle tick at different stages of the reproductive cycle. E. pyriformis leaves were collected and dried, and had their EO extracted by hydrodistillation (3h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 32 compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene class were identified: hydrocarbons (17.98%) and oxygenated forms (81.96%), with spathulenol (43.65%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.17%) as the most common. The EO was evaluated by the Adult Immersion Test at the concentrations (500.00 to 3.12mg/mL) in which the following parameters were measured: mortality of females (%), hatchability of eggs (%), and product efficiency (%). Larvae were assessed by the Larval Packet Test at concentrations ranging from 25.00 to 0.00004mg/mL. Lethal concentrations (LC) required for killing 50 and 99.9% of adult females and larvae were determined using Probit analysis. LC50 and LC99.9 of EO were 0.06 and 24.60mg/mL and 1,208.80 and 2,538mg/mL for larvae and adult females, respectively. Action of the EO in the free-living cycle of R. (B.) microplus larvae was another parameter assessed. To this end, the larvae were deposited in pots containing Brachiaria decumbens and, after migration to the leaf apex, a solution containing LC99.9 (24.60mg/mL) of the EO was sprayed. After 24h, 72.25% of the larvae had died, indicating stability of the EO when subjected to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanism of action through which the EO killed the larvae and adult females was investigated by the Bioautographic Method, which showed inhibition of 3.15mg/mL of the EO on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The results found in the present experiment indicate that E. pyriformis essential oil is an alternative in the control of southern cattle tick in the larval (parasitic) and free-living cycle (non-parasitic) stages under field conditions.(AU)


O Brasil dispõe de um dos maiores rebanhos bovinos comerciais do mundo, sendo natural que junto a esse rebanho, coexista uma enorme quantidade de espécies parasitárias; dentre estes o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus que interfere na produtividade animal, causando prejuízos à pecuária de corte e leite. A utilização de acaricidas químicos no controle deste ácaro tem causado o surgimento de populações resistentes e neste sentido, controles alternativos utilizando plantas como fontes de acaricidas botânicos têm se mostrado eficazes. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess é uma planta brasileira com atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, entretanto não há relatos da atividade acaricida. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu na avaliação do potencial acaricida e larvicida do óleo essencial das folhas de E. pyriformis sobre o carrapato bovino nos diferentes estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. As folhas foram coletadas, secas e o OE extraído por hidrodestilação (3 horas) em aparelho Clevenger modificado. A análise química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) sendo identificados 32 compostos, pertencentes à classe sesquiterpenos: hidrocarbonetos (17.98%) e oxigenados (81.96%); tendo como majoritários o spathulenol (43,65%) e caryophylene oxide (12,17%). O OE foi avaliado pelo teste de imersão de adultos nas concentrações (500,00 a 3,12mg/mL) onde foram mensurados os parâmetros: mortalidade das fêmeas (%), eclodibilidade dos ovos (%) e eficiência do produto (%). As larvas foram avaliadas pelo teste de imersão larval (Larval Packet Test) nas concentrações que variaram de 25,00 a 0,00004mg/mL. Foram determinadas as concentrações letais (CLs) necessárias para matar 50 e 99,9% das fêmeas adultas e das larvas utilizando a análise de Probitos. As CL50 e CL99,9 do OE foram (0,06 e 24,60mg/mL) para as larvas e (1.208,80 e 2.538mg/mL) para as fêmeas adultas, respectivamente. Outro parâmetro avaliado em nossa pesquisa foi mensurar a ação do OE no ciclo de vida livre das larvas de R.(B.) microplus; onde as larvas foram depositadas em vasos com Brachiaria decumbens e após migração destas para o ápice das folhas, foi aspergido solução contendo a CL99,9 (24,60mg/mL) do OE. Após 24 horas, 72,25% das larvas morreram indicando que houve estabilidade do OE quando submetido a condições de temperatura e umidade não controladas. O mecanismo de ação pelo qual o OE matou as larvas e fêmeas adultas foi investigado pelo método bioautográfico, indicando uma inibição de 3,15mg/mL do óleo essencial sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os resultados encontrados no presente experimento indicaram que o óleo essencial de E. pyriformis é uma alternativa no controle do carrapato bovino no estágio larval (parasitário) e no ciclo de vida livre (estágio não parasitário) em condições de campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rhipicephalus , Larvicides , Acaricides , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180285, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that reaches half of the world population and it's recognized as the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of the methanolic (MeOH) extract of Eugenia uniflora leaves and chemical profile. Anti-H. pylori activity was evaluated by spectrophotometric broth microdilution technique by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), in addition to the evaluation of the effect on the urease enzyme. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by capturing O2 •-, HOCl e NO• radicals. The immunomodulatory effect was evaluated on the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and on nitric oxide through inhibition in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The chemical profile was performed by total phenolic, tannin and flavonoid contents and mass spectrometry analysis by ESI-FT-ICR MS. In the anti-H. pylori assay the extract showed MIC of 128 μg/mL, however it did not obtain MBC. The extract also showed ability to inhibit the urease enzyme about 20%. The antioxidant activity of the MeOH extract showed EC50 values of 29.77 µg/mL, 15.71 µg/mL and 442.10 µg/mL to O2 •-, HOCl and NO•, respectively. The extract also showed influence on the release of TNF-α, IL-6 and NO in LPS-stimulated macrophages, ranging from 39% to 97% inhibition. Flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, tannins, triterpenoids and carbohydrates were the major classes of compounds present in the MeOH extract as identified by (-)-ESI-FT-ICR MS. The results indicate important anti-H. pylori, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities from Eugenia uniflora highlighting its importance in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Eugenia/drug effects , Antioxidants , Peptic Ulcer/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Immunomodulation , Gastritis/drug therapy
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e035, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001616

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Gingiva/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Brazil , Cells, Cultured , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RAW 264.7 Cells , Nitric Oxide/analysis
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170562, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011531

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Cerrado is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and Brazil's second largest biome. Many native species of the Brazilian Cerrado provide fruits that have unique sensory characteristics and high nutritional value. This study aimed at characterizing the pulp of Eugenia klotzschiana O. Berg, concerning its proximal composition, bioactive compound content and antioxidant activity. The pulp under study had high moisture (89.47 g kg-1) and caloric (96.07 kcal kg-1) values whereas its contents of protein (0.59 g kg-1) and lipids (2.35 g kg-1) were low. The cerrado pear pulp also had high iron content (16.5 mg kg -1) and dietary fiber (6.45 g kg-1), besides 0.034-0,055 mg kg-1 carotenoids, 8.66 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid and 0.66 mg kg-1 total chlorophyll. Total phenolic compounds (333.41-566.33 mg EAG kg-1) and flavonoids (225-50 mg EQ kg-1) were found by extraction methods named Method 1 (water) and Method 2 (acetone+methanol), respectively. Thus, the cerrado pear can be an alternative to improving nutrient intake and to providing sustainable use of the native flora in the Cerrado.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Nutrients , Eugenia/chemistry , Antioxidants/physiology , Pyrus
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17742, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039072

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia sulcata, in the Myrtaceae family, has a demonstrated antihypertensive effect, but its effects on heart muscle and its toxicity have not yet been elucidated. Little chemical or biological data are available for E. sulcata, whether emphasizing the beneficial effects or the pharmacological security of this species. This study aims to evaluate myocardial contractility and to analyze angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and myosin ATPase activities associated with use of this essential oil. In addition, we evaluated the immunotoxicity of E. sulcata essential oil. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated daily for 30 days (10 mg/kg of oil) to evaluate the isometric force of the papillary muscle, ACE measured by fluorimetry, and myosin ATPase activities by inorganic phosphate. Lymphocyte cultures were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and mutagenicity of the essential oil. The results demonstrate that the treatment did not change the cardiac contraction force and did not alter the functioning of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, extrusion of the membrane calcium, or modify the membrane calcium channels or ß-adrenergic receptor activity. Tetanic contractions were potentiated in the SHR animals. Myosin ATPase activity was also increased in the SHR animals. Cardiac ACE activity was reduced in both animal strains, and the serum ACE was reduced only in the SHR animals. The essential oil did not cause cytotoxicity or mutagenicity and presented low DNA damage. Our results demonstrated that the essential oil does not change myocardial contractility and does not present relevant immunotoxicity


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Myrtaceae/adverse effects , Eugenia/adverse effects , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/immunology , Myocardial Contraction
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1469-1480, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003338

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gall-inducing insects manipulate the structural, histochemical and physiological profiles of host-plant tissues to develop galls. We evaluated galls induced by Eugeniamyia dispar on the leaves of Eugenia uniflora in an attempt to answer the following questions: (i) How does this gall-inducing insect change the structural and histochemical profiles of the host-plant organ? (ii) Despite structural changes, can gall tissues maintain photosynthetic activity? Starch, proteins, reducing sugars and reactive oxygen species were detected mainly in the nutritive tissue surrounding the larval chamber. Despite structural changes, the galls induced by E. dispar on E. uniflora retain chlorophyllous tissue, although its amount and photosynthetic activity are less than that of non-galled leaves. This reduced photosynthetic activity, in association with the presence of large intercellular spaces, could improve gas diffusion and, consequently, avoid hypoxia and hypercarbia in gall tissue.(AU)


Resumen Los insectos que inducen las agallas manipulan los perfiles estructurales, histoquímicos y fisiológicos de los tejidos de la planta hospedera para su desarrollo. Nosotros evaluamos las agallas inducidas por Eugeniamyia dispar en las hojas de Eugenia uniflora en un intento de responder las siguientes preguntas: (i) ¿Cómo este insecto inductor de agallas cambia los perfiles estructurales e histoquímicos en el órgano de la planta hospedera? (ii) A pesar de las modificaciones estructurales, ¿pueden los tejidos de la agalla mantener la actividad fotosintética? El almidón, las proteínas, los azúcares reductores y las especies reactivas de oxígeno se detectaron principalmente en la capa de tejido nutritivo que rodea a la cavidad larval. A pesar de las modificaciones estructurales, las agallas inducidas por E. dispar en E. uniflora retienen su tejido clorofílico, aunque su cantidad y actividad fotosintética son menores que en las hojas no agalladas. Esta actividad fotosintética reducida, asociado a la presencia de grandes espacios intercelulares, pueden mejorar la difusión de gases y, en consecuencia, evitar la hipoxia y la hipercapnia en los tejidos de las agallas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Diptera , Eugenia , Chlorophyll A , Hypoxia
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 604-609, nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007366

ABSTRACT

This study describes the qualitative and quantitative seasonal analysis of the essential oils from an unexplored plant Eugenia brevistyla, native from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest and Semidecidual Forest. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 28 compounds. The largest fraction corresponds to oxygenated sesquiterpenes in all seasons. The major compound was E-nerolidol in all seasons, being higher in winter (83.14%) and lower in spring (69.6%). The second major compound was byciclogermacrene in the spring and in the summer essential oils. Alloaromadendrene and spathulenol were the second major compounds in autumn and winter, respectively. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons showed higher variation along the year (58%) than oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2%). No monoterpenes were found in the analyzed essential oils.


Este estudio describe el análisis estacional cualitativo y cuantitativo del aceite esencial de la planta inexplorada Eugenia brevistyla, nativa de la Selva Tropical Atlántica dey del Bosque Semidecidual de Brasil. El análisis por GC-FID y GC-MS permitió la identificación de 28 compuestos. La fracción más grande corresponde a sesquiterpenos oxigenados en todas las estaciones. El compuesto principal fue E-nerolidol en todas las estaciones, siendo más alto en invierno (83.14%) y más bajo en la primavera (69.6%). El segundo compuesto principal fue biciclogermacreno en los aceites esenciales de la primavera y del verano. El aloaromadendreno y el espatulenol fueron los segundos compuestos principales en otoño e invierno, respectivamente. Los hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos mostraron una mayor variación a lo largo del año (58%) que los sesquiterpenos oxigenados (2%). No se encontraron monoterpenos en los aceites esenciales analizados.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Eugenia , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Brazil , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
17.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 42(2): 269-282, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000102

ABSTRACT

The genus Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) comprises plants with reported antioxidant and antidiarrheal capability among other therapeutic potentials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil; diuretic and hypotensive activities of aqueous extracts from leaves of Eugenia uniflora. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated . The diuretic and hypotensive activities were evaluated in normotensive Wistar rats by measuring blood pressure and urine flow after received four different concentrations of aqueous extracts (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). Essential oil inhibited the growth of Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans with MIC values lower than 14.41 mg/mL, equal to 57.75 mg/mL for Candida krusei. Among antibacterial effect, essential oil inhibited growth with a MIC equals to 153.93 mg/mL for all strains tested, except for Escherichia coli (MIC equals to 307.96 mg/mL. Aqueous extracts showed powerful reductions of the arterial pressure (34% and 31% lower than the control), after administration of 10% and 25% of aqueous extract, respectively. However, the animals that received the aqueous extract at the 15% and 20% concentrations presented a discrete hypotensive effect (20% and 21% lower than control group, respectively) concomitantly to powerful diuretic effect (280% and 91% higher than control group, respectively). These data confirmed the potential biological effect of this species, and represents an important step toward a depth study on the therapeutic properties of this species


O gênero Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) compreende plantas com capacidade antimicrobiana e antioxidante entre outros potenciais terapêuticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial; atividade diurética e hipotensora de extrato aquoso de folhas de Eugenia uniflora. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) e concentração mínima bactericida (MBC) de cepas bacterianas e concentração fungicida mínima (MFC) para fungos. A atividade diurética e hipotensora foi avaliada em ratos Wistar normotensos pela mensuração da pressão sanguínea e fluxo urinário após administração de quatro diferentes concentrações de extrato aquoso (10%, 15%, 20% e 25%). Óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de Candida parapsilosis e Candida albicans com valores de MIC menores que 14,41 mg/mL, igual a 57,75 mg/mL para Candida krusei. A respeito do efeito antimicrobiano, o óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todas as cepas testadas, com MIC igual a 153,93 mg/mL, exceto para Escherichia coli (MIC igual a 307.96 mg/mL). O extrato aquoso mostrou redução importante da pressão arterial (34% e 31% quando comparado ao controle), após administração de 10% e 25% do extrato aquoso, respectivamente. Contudo, os animais que receberam o extrato aquoso na concentração de 15% e 20% apresentaram discreto efeito hipotensor (20% e 21% menor que o grupo controle, respectivamente) concomitantemente ao importante efeito diurético (280% e 91% maior quando comparado ao grupo controle, respectivamente). Esses achados confirmam o potencial efeito biológico dessa espécie, e representa um importante embasamento para estudos relacionados as propriedades terapêuticas da Eugenia uniflora


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils , Diuretics , Eugenia , Hyperglycemia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Antihypertensive Agents , Brazil , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Antioxidants
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Extratos obtidos de plantas e frutos fornecem uma alternativa relativamente segura e prática para os remédios convencionais de doenças gastrointestinais. A espécie Eugenia mattosii, popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "cerejinha", pertence à família Myrtaceae. Espécies desta família apresentam propriedades farmacológicas e podem ser utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos frutos de Eugenia mattosii. MÉTODOS: A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia em camada delgada e dois modelos experimentais foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade gastroprotetora em camundongos: modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise fitoquímica indicaram que a casca e polpa e as sementes de E. mattosii apresentam compostos fenólicos, terpenos e/ou esteroides. No modelo de úlcera gástrica induzido pelo etanol, foi evidenciada redução significativa de áreas danificadas para doses de 50 e 250 mg/kg do extrato das sementes, enquanto no modelo de úlcera induzida por indometacina, todas as partes do fruto apresentaram capacidade de defesa da mucosa gástrica ao reduzir as lesões nas doses de 50, 125 e 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie E. mattosii possui compostos bioativos com atividade gastroprotetora, apresentando possível potencial terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Brazil , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indomethacin , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(1): 49-58, jan./feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966584

ABSTRACT

Uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis) is a fruit tree of the Myrtaceae family. It has recalcitrant seeds of limited longevity, making seed propagation difficult. Micropropagation is an alternative method to obtain a large quantity of progeny plants in a short period of time, by using any part of the plant as explant. The high concentration of phenols associated with the chemical composition of the Myrtaceae, and the presence of microorganisms in the plant material or culture media, can make in vitro propagation difficult and/or impossible. The objective was to evaluate various concentrations of antioxidants affecting the control of microbial contamination and phenol oxidation in vitro in uvaia. A completely randomized design was used, with a 3 (antioxidants PVP, L-cysteine, and ascorbic acid) × 3 (antioxidant concentrations 100, 200, and 300 mg L-1) × 2 (activated charcoal at 0 and 2 g L-1) factorial arrangement + 2 additional variables (absence of antioxidants and activated charcoal; absence of antioxidants with 2 g L-1 activated charcoal), with three repetitions comprising four plants each. The percentage of bacterial and fungal contaminations, along with the number of oxidized explants, was evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days of in vitro cultivation. It was concluded that, where bacterial and fungal contaminations were concerned, in vitro cultivation of uvaia can be performed without the use of antioxidants. PVP or ascorbic acid must, however be used in the process, at a concentration of 300 mg L-1, along with 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal. This helps to minimize phenol oxidation.


A uvaia Eugenia pyriformis é uma frutífera da família das mirtáceas cujas sementes apresentam longevidade curta e aspecto recalcitrante, fato que dificulta a propagação seminífera. A micropropagação surge como alternativa para obtenção de grande quantidade de mudas em curto período de tempo, por meio da utilização de qualquer parte da planta como explante. A elevada concentração de fenóis associados à composição química das mirtáceas e a presença de microrganismos no material vegetal ou no meio de cultura podem dificultar e/ou impossibilitar a propagação in vitro. Objetivou-se avaliar tipos e concentrações de antioxidantes no controle da contaminação microbiana e da oxidação fenólica in vitro de E. pyriformis. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (antioxidantes ­ PVP, L-cisteína e ácido ascórbico) x 3 (concentrações - 100, 200 e 300 mg L-1) x 2 (carvão ativado ­ 0 e 2 g L-1) + 2 adicionais (ausência de antioxidantes e de carvão ativado; ausência de antioxidantes com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado), com três repetições constituídas por quatro plantas. Após sete, 14 e 21 dias do cultivo in vitro foram avaliadas a porcentagem de contaminação bacteriana, fúngica e de explantes oxidados. Conclui-se que o cultivo in vitro de E. pyriformis, em relação as contaminações bacterianas e fúngicas, pode ser efetuado sem a utilização de agentes antioxidantes. Entretanto, para reduzir a oxidação fenólica deve ser utilizado o PVP ou ácido ascórbico, ambos na concentração de 300 mg L-1, associados a 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado.


Subject(s)
Povidone-Iodine , Ascorbic Acid , Charcoal , Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Antioxidants
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0752017, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-995690

ABSTRACT

Natural products extracted from plants have always played an important role in the discovery of bioactive substances. This work carried out a review of the literature on the bioactive activities of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherries), as a potential plant in the various uses, be it medicinal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticide and protective. In the literature, studies were found to confirm the antibacterial activity of E. uniflora leaves extract on Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The presence of antioxidant compounds as total phenolics, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids, induction in the protection of plants by phytoalexins, as well as insecticidal and anthelmintic effects by the use of the extract of the E. uniflora tree. Although these different potential biotics of E. uniflora have already been reported, further studies are still needed on the use of natural products extracted from E. uniflora for employment for different purposes.(AU)


Os produtos naturais extraídos de plantas sempre exerceram papel importante na descoberta de substâncias bioativas. Este trabalho realizou uma revisão da literatura acerca das atividades biotivas da Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga) como planta potencial em várias utilizações, podendo ser medicinal, antimicrobiana, antioxidante, inseticida e protetora. Foram encontrados trabalhos que comprovam a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de folhas de E. uniflora L. sobre Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli, além da presença de compostos antioxidantes, tais como fenólicos totais (antocianinas e flavonoides), a indução na proteção das plantas pelas fitoalexinas, bem como efeitos inseticida e anti-helmíntico pela utilização do seu extrato. Embora esses diferentes potenciais bioativos da pitangueira já tenham sido relatados, ainda são necessários mais estudos quanto à utilização de produtos naturais extraído de E. uniflora para o emprego em diferentes finalidades.(AU)


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
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