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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 291-300, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153366

ABSTRACT

The use of medicinal plants for disease prevention, treatment and cure is an ancient practice used by humanity, and many plants species are used in bioprospecting research. In this context, its stands out Eugenia uniflora L., populary known as pitangueira and belongs to the Myrtaceae family, with a wide geographic distribution and native of Brazil. In view of the therapeutic qualities of the plant and the lack of the studies on its seeds, the present study had as objective to evaluate the phytochemical profile of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L. seeds, from different solvents, as well as their antibacterial activity, antioxidant and its inhibitory effect of intestinal disaccharidases. Results showed a high content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, thus characterizing antioxidant activity, also highlighting the best bacteriostatic action for the Gram positive strain of Staphylococcus aureus in the ethanolic fraction. Regarding the disaccharidases, a strong inhibitory action was observed for all concentrations, evidencing a antihyperglycemic potential. The present research allowed to concluded that Eugenia uniflora L. seeds have promising biological activities for the industrial sector, but a more detailed investigation is needed regarding their bioactive compounds.


A utilização de plantas com fins medicinais para prevenção, tratamento e cura de doenças é uma prática antiga utilizada pela humanidade, sendo que muitas espécies vegetais são usadas para a pesquisa da bioprospecção. Neste contexto, destaca-se a Eugenia uniflora L., conhecida popularmente como pitangueira e pertencente à família Myrtaceae, com ampla distribuição geográfica e nativa do Brasil. Diante das qualidades terapêuticas da planta e a falta de estudos sobre suas sementes, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil fitoquímico dos extratos das sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. a partir de diferentes solventes, bem como sua atividade antibacteriana, antioxidante e seu efeito inibidor de dissacaridases intestinais. Os resultados mostraram um alto teor de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides totais, caracterizando a atividade antioxidante, destacando também a melhor ação bacteriostática para a cepa Gram positiva de Staphylococcus aureus na fração etanólica. Em relação às dissacaridases, uma forte ação inibitória foi observada para todas as concentrações, evidenciando um potencial anti-hiperglicêmico. A presente pesquisa permitiu concluir que as sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. apresentam atividades biológicas promissoras para o setor industrial, mas é necessária uma investigação mais detalhada de seus compostos bioativos.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Disaccharidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190704, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132229

ABSTRACT

Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dentures , Klebsiella oxytoca/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e035, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001616

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Gingiva/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Brazil , Cells, Cultured , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RAW 264.7 Cells , Nitric Oxide/analysis
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170562, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011531

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Cerrado is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and Brazil's second largest biome. Many native species of the Brazilian Cerrado provide fruits that have unique sensory characteristics and high nutritional value. This study aimed at characterizing the pulp of Eugenia klotzschiana O. Berg, concerning its proximal composition, bioactive compound content and antioxidant activity. The pulp under study had high moisture (89.47 g kg-1) and caloric (96.07 kcal kg-1) values whereas its contents of protein (0.59 g kg-1) and lipids (2.35 g kg-1) were low. The cerrado pear pulp also had high iron content (16.5 mg kg -1) and dietary fiber (6.45 g kg-1), besides 0.034-0,055 mg kg-1 carotenoids, 8.66 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid and 0.66 mg kg-1 total chlorophyll. Total phenolic compounds (333.41-566.33 mg EAG kg-1) and flavonoids (225-50 mg EQ kg-1) were found by extraction methods named Method 1 (water) and Method 2 (acetone+methanol), respectively. Thus, the cerrado pear can be an alternative to improving nutrient intake and to providing sustainable use of the native flora in the Cerrado.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Nutrients , Eugenia/chemistry , Antioxidants/physiology , Pyrus
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Extratos obtidos de plantas e frutos fornecem uma alternativa relativamente segura e prática para os remédios convencionais de doenças gastrointestinais. A espécie Eugenia mattosii, popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "cerejinha", pertence à família Myrtaceae. Espécies desta família apresentam propriedades farmacológicas e podem ser utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos frutos de Eugenia mattosii. MÉTODOS: A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia em camada delgada e dois modelos experimentais foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade gastroprotetora em camundongos: modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise fitoquímica indicaram que a casca e polpa e as sementes de E. mattosii apresentam compostos fenólicos, terpenos e/ou esteroides. No modelo de úlcera gástrica induzido pelo etanol, foi evidenciada redução significativa de áreas danificadas para doses de 50 e 250 mg/kg do extrato das sementes, enquanto no modelo de úlcera induzida por indometacina, todas as partes do fruto apresentaram capacidade de defesa da mucosa gástrica ao reduzir as lesões nas doses de 50, 125 e 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie E. mattosii possui compostos bioativos com atividade gastroprotetora, apresentando possível potencial terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Brazil , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indomethacin , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1907-1915, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus/drug effects , Prevotella/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 20(3): 151-158, set.-dez. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832965

ABSTRACT

O interesse em terapias alternativas e o uso terapêutico por derivados de plantas vêm crescendo nos últimos anos, obtendo um grande avanço científico no aspecto químico e farmacológico, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), considera as plantas medicinais como importantes instrumentos da assistência farmacêutica. Objetivo: Determinar atividade antibacteriana comparada entre os extratos de Senna spectabilis, Rosmarinus officinalis e Eugenia uniflora frente à cepa padrão de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 e Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615. As folhas de E. uniflora, R. officinallis e S. spectabilis foram coletadas no Horto de plantas medicinais da Universidade Estadual de Maringá ­ UEM/PR e as cepas foram fornecidas pela Universidade Paranaense ­ Unipar. A atividade antibacteriana foi determinada por meio da técnica do microdiluição em placa, empregando revelador de crescimento Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). A concentração mínima inibitória (CIM) empregando R. officinalis, E. uniflora, frente a cepa de S. aureus ATCC pode revelar resultados de 125 µg/mL, para extratos de S. spectabilis o CIM foi de 250 µg/mL; para S. pyogenes o CIM de 125 µg/mL foi admitido apenas para R. officinalis e S. spectabilis, E. uniflora apresentou resultados de 500 µg/mL, para P. aeruginosa o CIM para os três extratos foi superior a 500 µg/mL. Os extratos são promissores quando empregados contra S. aureus e S. pyogenes, exceto para P. aeruginosa, no entanto cabe buscar novas alternativas para tratamento deste Gram-negativo.


The interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of plant extracts has been increasing in recent years, and has had great scientific advances regarding the chemical and pharmacological aspects. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers medicinal plants as important pharmaceutical care instruments. In order to determine the compared antibacterial activity between Senna spectabilis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Eugenia uniflora extracts against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, the leaves of E. uniflora, R.officinallis and S. spectabilis were collected in the medicinal plant garden of the State University of Maringa - UEM/PR, and strains were provided by University Paranaense - Unipar. The antibacterial activity was determined by broth microdilution plate technique using Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) growth revelant. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using R. officinalis, E. uniflora against the S. aureus ATCC strain revealed results of 125 µg/mL, for S. spectabilis extracts, MIC was of 250 µg/mL; S. pyogenes resulted in a MIC of 125 µg/mL was admitted only for R. officinalis and S. spectabilis, E. uniflora results showed 500 µg/mL, and for P. aeruginosa, MIC was greater than 500 µm/mL for the three extracts. The extracts are considered as promising when used against S. aureus and S. pyogenes, but not for P. aeruginosa. However, new alternatives are being sought for treating this gram-negative strain.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Senna Plant/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
9.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 3(4): 218-224, dic. 2014. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776884

ABSTRACT

Dental caries is a disease which affects the human oral cavity. Currently, the search for active principles of plants with antimicrobial effect seems promising for dental therapy. In this article the activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) was evaluated with an emphasis on its antimicrobial properties. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, characterized by thin layer chromatography and chemical tests. The main compound was identified in the oil obtained from the flower buds and its antibacterial activity against plank¬tonic cells Streptcoccus mutans ATCC700611 was assessed by performing serial dilutions, from 15 up to 1000 ug/mL, compared with 0.12 percent chlorhexidine and dimethylsulfoxide. MIC was also determined. Subsequently, UFC was analyzed and compared with CMR Test Ivoclar Vivadent. The efficiency in obtaining the oil was 2.20 percent. By using the CCD technique, a fraction was revealed by UV light, corresponding to eugenol. It had a good response for triterpenoids and flavonoids. It showed greater antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 1000, 500 and 250ug/ ml. The MIC and MBC of the oil was 125 to 250ug/mL, respectively. Eugenol was found as an active principle in the oil obtained. Currently, the impact of using plant extracts has favored the evaluation of alternative, effective and biocompatible antibacterial agents for the formulations of oral hygiene products applied to the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.


La caries dental es una enfermedad que afecta la cavidad oral en los humanos. Actualmente la búsqueda de principios activos de plantas con efecto antimicrobiano representa una promesa en la terapia Odontológica. El presente trabajo, evaluó la actividad, del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum (clavo) con énfasis en su propiedad antimicrobiana. El aceite fue obtenido por hidrodestilación, caracterizado por cromatografía en capa delgada y pruebas químicas. Se iden¬tificó el compuesto principal en el aceite obtenido de los botones florales y se evaluó su actividad antibacteriana contra células plantónicas de Streptcoccus mutans ATCC (700611) realizándose diluciones seriadas; desde 15 hasta 1000ug/mL, comparándose con clorhexidina al 0.12 por ciento y dimetilsulfóxido, además se determinó la CMI. Posteriormente, se analizó las UFC, comparándose con el Test CMR® Ivoclar Vivadent. La eficiencia en la obtención del aceite fue de 2.20 por ciento. Por la técnica de CCD se identificó una fracción al revelado UV, corres¬pondiente al eugenol. Presentó respuesta positiva para flavonoides y triterpenos. Mostró mayor actividad antimicrobiana a las concentraciones de 1000, 500 y 250 ug/mL. La CMI y CMB del aceite, resultó a 125 y 250 ug/mL respectivamente. Se comprobó la presencia del eugenol como principio activo en el aceite obtenido. Actualmente la proyección del uso de extractos de plantas ha favorecido la evaluación de agentes antibacterianos alternos, eficaces y biocompatibles para su empleo en las formulaciones de productos de higiene bucal aplicados a la prevención o tratamiento de enfermedades orales.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Eugenia/chemistry , Eugenol/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Chromatography , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 473-477
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142606

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning


Subject(s)
Histamine/biosynthesis , Histidine Decarboxylase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Morganella morganii/drug effects , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 357-365, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688567

ABSTRACT

This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Meat/microbiology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Refrigeration , Temperature
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(3): 208-217, mayo 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-647659

ABSTRACT

Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida yeasts. In Brazil, C. tropicalis is the second most frequently isolated microorganism after C. albicans. The arising of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents has increased the search for new alternatives from natural products, especially essential oils. This research investigated essential oil activity against strains of C. tropicalis by disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also determinate. In the disk diffusion, the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Origanum vulgare had the highest inhibition zones values. MIC and MFC values of E. caryophyllata essential oil were 512 and 1024 ug/mL, respectively. MIC and MFC amphotericin B values were identical (2 ug/mL). Therefore, it was concluded that E. caryophyllata essential oil has strong antifungal activity and may be subject to further studies.


La candidiasis es una infección fúngica oportunista causada por levaduras del género Candida. En Brasil, la especie C. tropicalis esta siendo aislada frecuentemente, es el segundo microorganismo más aislado después de C. albicans. La aparición de cepas resistentes a los antifúngicos convencionales ha aumentado la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas provenientes de productos naturales, especialmente los aceites esenciales. En este estudio se investigó la actividad de los aceites esenciales contra las cepas de C. tropicalis, utilizando el método de difusión en disco, la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) y la concentración fungicida mínima (CFM). En el método de difusión en disco, con los aceites esenciales de Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eugenia caryophyllata y Origanum vulgare se obtuvieron mayores valores de inhibición. La CIM y CFM del aceite esencial de Eugenia caryophyllata fueron 512 y 1024 ug/mL, mientras que los de la anfotericina B fueron idénticos, 2 ug/mL. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que el aceite esencial de E. caryophyllata tiene potente actividad antifúngica y puede ser objeto de nuevos estudios sobre esta actividad.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida tropicalis , Eugenia/chemistry , Brazil , Origanum/chemistry
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(2): 240-245, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596401

ABSTRACT

Atualmente o uso de métodos alternativos para o controle de doenças e pragas na agricultura, visando minimizar os danos ao meio ambiente e à saúde pública é uma prática reconhecida e necessária. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ação do óleo essencial de Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry sobre o crescimento micelial in vitro dos fungos fitopatogênicos Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum e Macrophomina phaseolina. A análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massa possibilitou a identificação de eugenol (83,6 por cento), acetato de eugenila (11,6 por cento) e cariofileno (4,2 por cento). A avaliação microscópica dos micélios dos fungos evidenciou diversas alterações morfológicas, como a presença de vacúolos, desorganização dos conteúdos celulares, diminuição na nitidez da parede celular, intensa fragmentação e menor turgência das hifas. O óleo essencial de cravo apresentou atividade fungicida na concentração de 0,15 por cento sobre o crescimento de R. solani, F. oxysporum e F. solani, entretanto não demonstrou essa atividade sobre M. phaseolina. Esses resultados indicam perspectivas favoráveis para posterior uso do óleo de cravo no controle desses fitopatógenos na agricultura.


Currently, the use of alternative methods to control diseases and pests in agriculture has been a recognized and necessary practice to minimize damages to the environment and public health. This study aimed to investigate the action of clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry] essential oil on the in vitro mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of eugenol (83.6 percent), eugenyl acetate (11.6 percent) and caryophyllene (4.2 percent). Microscopic evaluation of mycelia showed several morphological changes such as presence of vacuoles, cell content disorganization, decreased cell wall clearness, intense fragmentation and lower turgescence of hyphae. Clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity at 0.15 percent on the growth of R. solani, F. oxysporum and F. solani, but not for M. phaseolina. These results indicate favorable perspectives for future use of clove essential oil to control these phytopathogens in agriculture.


Subject(s)
Eugenia/parasitology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fungi , Hyphae/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/toxicity
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Oct; 45(10): 861-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63230

ABSTRACT

The ethanolic extract of seeds of S. cumini increased body weight and decreased blood sugar level in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Level of significance for decrease in blood sugar after feeding alcoholic extract of S. cumini seeds in various doses was highly significant. The extract feeding showed definite improvement in the histopathology of islets. The most important finding is that the blood sugar level, which once dropped to normal levels after extract feeding was not elevated when extract feeding was discontinued for 15 days.


Subject(s)
Alloxan/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Ethanol/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Powders , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Seeds/chemistry
16.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2007 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 131-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108777

ABSTRACT

Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) fruit has been reported to give soothing effect on human digestive system. Present study includes the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of E. jambolana (EJE) against gastric ulcers induced by 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h), 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h) and 4 h pylorus ligation (PL) in rats. To ascertain the mechanism of action of EJE, its effect was studied on mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO, free radical) and defensive mucin secretion, cell proliferation, glycoprotein and glutathione (GSH, an antioxidant). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were also conducted for the safety profile of Eugenia jambolana. EJE 200 mg/kg, when administered orally for 10 days in rats was found to reduce the ulcer index in all gastric ulcer models. It tended to decrease acid-pepsin secretion, enhanced mucin and mucosal glycoprotein and decreased cell shedding but had no effect on cell proliferation. It showed antioxidant properties indicated by decrease in LPO and increase in GSH levels in the gastric mucosa of rats. Acute toxicity study indicated LD50 to be more than 10 times (>2000 mg/kg) of the effective ulcer protective dose while subactue toxicity study (>1000 mg/kg) indicated no significant change in the general physiological and haematological parameters, liver and renal function tests. The result of the present study indicates that E. jambolana seed has gastro-protective properties mainly through promotion of mucosal defensive factors and antioxidant status and decreasing lipid peroxidation.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Aspirin , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cold Temperature , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Female , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Stress, Physiological
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(1): 105-115, Jan. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439665

ABSTRACT

Myrtaceae is a plant family widely used in folk medicine and Syzygium and Eugenia are among the most important genera. We investigated the anti-allergic properties of an aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (SC). HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids are the major components of the extract. Oral administration of SC (25-100 mg/kg) in Swiss mice (20-25 g; N = 7/group) inhibited paw edema induced by compound 48/80 (50 percent inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, the allergic paw edema (23 percent inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05). SC treatment also inhibited the edema induced by histamine (58 percent inhibition; P <= 0.05) and 5-HT (52 percent inhibition; P <= 0.05) but had no effect on platelet-aggregating factor-induced paw edema. SC prevented mast cell degranulation and the consequent histamine release in Wistar rat (180-200 g; N = 7/group) peritoneal mast cells (50 percent inhibition, 1 æg/mL; P <= 0.05) induced by compound 48/80. Pre-treatment of BALB/c mice (18-20 g; N = 7/group) with 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly inhibited eosinophil accumulation in allergic pleurisy (from 7.662 ± 1.524 to 1.89 ± 0.336 x 10(6)/cavity; P <= 0.001). This effect was related to the inhibition of IL-5 (from 70.9 ± 25.2 to 12.05 ± 7.165 pg/mL) and CCL11/eotaxin levels (from 60.4 ± 8.54 to 32.8 ± 8.4 ng/mL) in pleural lavage fluid, using ELISA. These findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect of SC, and indicate that its anti-edematogenic effect is due to the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and of histamine and serotonin effects, whereas the inhibition of eosinophil accumulation in the allergic pleurisy model is probably due to an impairment of CCL11/eotaxin and IL-5 production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Eugenia/chemistry , Histamine Release/drug effects , Pleurisy/drug therapy , Anti-Allergic Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Edema/chemically induced , Edema/immunology , Eosinophils/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/immunology , Peritoneal Cavity/cytology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pleurisy/chemically induced , Pleurisy/immunology , Rats, Wistar
18.
Bulletin of the National Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt. 2007; 30: 46-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145818

ABSTRACT

This work aims to study the bioactivity of five plant extracts against the 3 fungal species of Aspergillus flavus, Asp. parasiticus and Asp. ochraceus, as well as 3 bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. Both the fungal and bacterial isolates were identified as undesirable and toxin producing microorganisms. The five plants of clove [Syzygiurn aromaticum], sage [Salvia officinalis], rosmary [Rosmariinus officinalis], basil [Ocimum basilicurn] and lemon grass [Cymbopogon citrates] were collected from local markets then extracted to obtain the oil fraction. The crude oil extracts were used to determine its inhibitory effects on the previous strains of fungi and bacteria. Also, the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of each extract and its content of the phytochemicals of plenols, flavonoids and terpenoids were determined. Data exhibited wide range of the bioactivity of the 5 plants, reached its maximum using clove and its minimum using sage extracts against the tested microorganisms. No antimicrobial activity was observed in the treatment[s] of sage extract against the mold Asp. ochraceus. The other 3 extracts of rosmary, basil and lemon grass showed roughly the same bioactivity. Also, data obtained from MIC and semi-quantitative determinations confirmed the results obtained from the antimicrobial bioactivity study. Except sage extract, the MIC of the other 4 extracts ranged between 0.2-1.5 mg/me, reached, its maximum using clove and its minimum using lemon grass extracts. As well, the semi-quantitative determination of the phytochemicals of phenols, flavonides and terpenoids proved that clove extract had the highest concentration of terpenoids, while sage extract showed traces from the 3 phytochemicals. The other 3 extracts of basil, rosmary and lemon grass showed roughly the same content of the sum of the 3 phytochemicals


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Eugenia/chemistry , Salvia officinalis/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Ocimum/chemistry
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-38067

ABSTRACT

Spices and flavouring agents are now receiving increasing attention as many of them have been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties. Cloves, sun-dried unopened flower buds from the plant Syzygium aromaticum L, are commonly used as a spice and food flavour. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive action of aqueous infusion of cloves on 9,10-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss mice. The results indicate protection against skin papilloma formation in a dose dependent manner. It has been shown that oral administration of aqueous infusions of clove at a dose of 100 microl/mouse/day not only delays the formation of papilloma but also reduces the incidence of papilloma as well as the cumulative number of papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse. Our observations suggest a promising role for cloves in restriction of the carcinogenesis process.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Administration, Oral , Animals , Carcinogens , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Chemoprevention , Eugenia/chemistry , Mice , Neoplasms, Experimental , Papilloma/physiopathology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Skin Neoplasms/physiopathology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32572

ABSTRACT

Oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (makaen), widely used essential oils for dental caries or flavoring of food in Thailand, were prepared as 10 experimental repellent products in gel or cream form against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles dirus under laboratory conditions, using the human-arm-in-cage method. Two products that gave the longest-lasting complete protection were selected to examine their repellency against a variety of mosquito species under field conditions. In laboratory tests, 0.1 g of each product was applied to 3x10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm, while in field trials, 1.0 g was applied to each volunteer's leg (from knee to ankle). In the laboratory, the gel dosage form contained 20% clove oil (Gel B) or 10% clove plus 10% makaen oil mixture (Gel E) were promising plant-based repellents against three mosquito species and gave significantly longer complete protection times of 4-5 hours than all other developing products. Therefore, their efficacy in the field was evaluated. Under field conditions, Gel E showed complete protection for 4 hours and gave 95.7% repellency after 5 hours application, whereas Gel B and 20% deet (di-methyl benzamide) provided only 86.8 and 82.7% repellency after treatment, respectively against Ae. aegypti, daytime-biting mosquitos. For nighttime-biting, the 3 repellents under development yielded equally excellent (average 97.1%) repellency for 5 hours against the predominant Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis, but they gave 89.0% repellency against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. This finding demonstrated the effectiveness of Gel B and Gel E products for possible use by low-income rural communities against various mosquito species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Clove Oil/administration & dosage , Culicidae/drug effects , Drug Evaluation , Eugenia/chemistry , Humans , Insect Repellents/administration & dosage , Malaria/parasitology , Mosquito Control/methods , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Thailand , Zanthoxylum/chemistry
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