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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887932

ABSTRACT

In the context of the new era, paying attention to maternal and child health and advocating prenatal and postnatal care can effectively improve the quality of the birth population. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of prenatal and postnatal healthcare with rich content, which is the theoretical basis of modern related services. With the social development and the improvement of people's awareness of prenatal and postnatal healthcare, people have gradually shifted the focus of prenatal and postnatal healthcare to the peri-pregnancy stage at present, namely that couples of childbearing age are guided to prepare for pregnancy under the premise of solving their basic diseases. Infertility is a common and refractory disease for women of childbearing age. Ovulation disorder is one of its common pathological mechanisms. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that kidney deficiency is the main cause and pa-thogenesis of anovulation infertility and blood stasis is an important factor throughout the disease course. In clinical practice, therapies for invigorating kidney and activating blood are safe and reliable to treat anovulatory infertility mainly by adjusting the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, improving ovarian function, uterine environment and gamete quality and increasing endometrial volume. Under the guidance of the thought of prenatal and postnatal healthcare, the authors tried to explore the effect of therapies for kidney-tonifying and blood-activating in the treatment of anovulatory infertility in eugenics, with the purpose of providing ideas and basis for subsequent relevant clinical studies and contributing to prenatal and postnatal healthcare services.


Subject(s)
Anovulation , Child , Eugenics , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/drug therapy , Kidney , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ovulation , Pregnancy
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 781-801, set. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134079

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo problematiza as relações de gênero no primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado no Rio de Janeiro, em 1929. Abalizadas como a maior manifestação pública do movimento eugênico no Brasil, as Atas e Trabalhos do Congresso foram foco de uma análise das questões de gênero expressas sob o espectro de intrínsecas concepções sobre hereditariedade e reprodução. As problematizações empreendidas se empenham em discutir, por meio do trabalho de diversos participantes do congresso, o papel e o status da mulher na eugenia brasileira, o controle reprodutivo no Brasil e a relação entre os estudos envolvendo a determinação de sexo biológico e a melhora da raça humana.


Abstract This article problematizes gender relations during the first Brazilian Eugenics Conference, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929. Seen as the largest public manifestation of the eugenics movement in Brazil, the Atas e Trabalhos do Congresso (Conference Minutes and Proceedings) were analyzed in terms of gender issues expressed through the spectrum of intrinsic conceptions of hereditarianism and reproduction. The problematizations make an effort to discuss, through the works of several participants in the conference, the role and status of women in Brazilian eugenics, reproductive control in Brazil and the relationship between studies involving determination of biological gender and improvement of the human race.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , History, 20th Century , Eugenics/history , Gender Role , Reproduction , Gender Identity , Interpersonal Relations
4.
Psicol. Educ. (Online) ; (50): 9-17, jan.-jun. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1125400

ABSTRACT

Os ideais eugenistas estabeleceram uma relação estreita e também de condução da Psicologia científica no Brasil, entre meados do século XIX e início do século XX. Neste artigo, demonstramos de que modo a circulação desses ideais no cotidiano consolidou um tipo de cuidado com a maternidade e com a Educação Infantil. Para isto, foram analisados dois jornais de grande circulação do período entre 1893 e 1917. Por meio do conceito de arquivo e conforme paradigma indiciário de Ginzburg foram analisadas partes de uma materialidade do cotidiano composta por esses jornais que permitiram analisar um discurso sobre infância e educação infantil, com destaque para o papel de uma Psicologia do cotidiano na difusão destes ideais eugenistas.


Eugenic ideas established a close relationship and were responsible for the scientific psychology arrival to Brazil, between mid 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. In this article, we demonstrate how the circulation of these ideals in day-to-day life consolidates a type of care with motherhood and early childhood education. For this purpose, two newspapers of great circulation from the period between 1893 and 1917 were analyzed. Through the concept of archive and according to the evidentiary paradigm of Ginzburg, parts of a materiality of daily life composed by these newspapers were analyzed, which allowed to analyze a discourse about childhood and childhood education, with emphasis on the role of a day-to-day psychology in the dissemination of these eugenic ideals.


Los ideales eugenésicos fijaran una relación estrecha e también de conducción de la Psicología científica hasta Brasil, entre el medio siglo XIX y inicio del siglo XX. En este articulo, mostramos de que manera el modo de circulación de esos ideales en el cotidiano mantuve un tipo de cuidado con la maternidad y con la educación infantil. Para eso, fueran analizados dos jornales de gran circulación da época (1893-1917). Por medio del concepto de archivo y de lo paradigma indiciario de Ginzburg fueran analizadas partes de una materialidad de el cotidiano composta por estos jornales. Fue posible analizar un discurso sobre infancia y educación infantil con destaque para el papel de la Psicología del cotidiano en la difusion de esos ideales eugenésicos.


Subject(s)
Psychology , Child Rearing , Parenting , Eugenics , Mass Media , Newspapers as Topic
5.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 30(2): 45-50, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1293350

ABSTRACT

La revolución biológica constituye una de las raíces que, según José Alberto Mainetti, origina la crisis bioética como síndrome de la posmodernidad. El desarrollo de la genómica, como técnica vanguardia de esta revolución, conlleva varias cuestiones que merecen su abordaje bioético. En este trabajo se intentará reflexionar sobre una de ellas: la eugenesia (y el derecho a no nacer) en torno a las nuevas formas de procrear.


The biological revolution constitutes one of the roots that, according to José Alberto Mainetti, originates the bioethical crisis as a post-modernity syndrome. The development of genomics, as the vanguard technique of this revolution, involves several issues that deserve a bioethical approach. In this work we will try to reflect on one of them: eugenics, and the right not to be born , around the new forms of procreation.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Genetics , Eugenics
6.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 212-222, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013399

ABSTRACT

Resumo Frequentemente as ideias eugênicas ressurgem, colocando em questão a aceitação do diferente. Travestidas de "melhoramento", hoje retornam sob a promessa de aperfeiçoamento genético. Nesse contexto, é preciso ressaltar os direitos da pessoa com deficiência, pois embora aparentemente não representem mais um "problema" para a sociedade, o preconceito e a discriminação permanecem. A partir do relato de grupo familiar de imigrantes portugueses que enfrentaram dificuldades para entrar no Brasil em razão da filha deficiente visual, este artigo traça panorama histórico das ideias eugênicas até os dias de hoje. Por fim, reafirma-se a importância de constatar e combater o eugenismo pela reflexão ética.


Abstract Eugenic ideas reemerge intermittently, calling into question the acceptance of the different. Now, the term returns, this time disguised as genetic "improvement". In this context, it is necessary to highlight the rights of people with disabilities because, although they no longer seem to constitute a "problem" to society, prejudice and discrimination still remain. From the report of a family of Portuguese immigrants who faced difficulties to be granted permission to enter Brazil because one of the children had visual impairment, this paper outlines a historical overview of eugenic ideas to this date. Finally, the importance of identifying and combating eugenics through an ethical reflection is reaffirmed.


Resumen Frecuentemente, las ideas eugenésicas resurgen poniendo en cuestión la aceptación de lo diferente. Travestidas de "mejoramiento", hoy retornan bajo la promesa de perfeccionamiento genético. En este contexto, es necesario resaltar los derechos de la persona con discapacidad, pues, aunque aparentemente ya no representan un "problema" para la sociedad, el prejuicio y la discriminación permanecen. A partir del relato de un grupo familiar de inmigrantes portugueses que enfrentó dificultades para entrar en Brasil, debido a una hija con deficiencia visual, este artículo traza un panorama histórico de las ideas eugenésicas hasta los días actuales. Finalmente, se reafirma la importancia de constatar y combatir el eugenismo a partir de la reflexión ética.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Disabled Persons , Emigration and Immigration , Eugenics
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759910

ABSTRACT

Lee Kap-Soo (April 23, 1889–December 5, 1973) graduated from Gyeongseong Medical College in 1920, went to Germany to study, and returned to Korea after graduating from Berlin University in 1924. On September 14, 1933, he played a leading role in the founding of the Joseon Eugenics Society, and he contributed eugenic ideas through written publications and lectures. He was a leading eugenicist who continued his activities related to eugenics, such as re-establishing the Korean National Eugenics Society and making efforts to enact the Eugenics Act after Korea's liberation from Japanese occupation. His ideas on eugenics were then a rapid acceptance of the world's times and science, and his ideas were an expanded eugenics that emphasized the nation. He actively carried out the campaign for eugenics and maintained a consistent stance before and after liberation. His eugenic ideas and activities show that Korean society was not free from the influence of eugenics that was gaining popularity around the world. His eugenic ideas were related to enlightenment, but the basis of eugenics was the logic of discrimination and exclusion. In particular, his eugenic ideas and activities have caused pain to Hansen's patients through forced isolation and discontinuation. In addition, his doctrine of eugenics still holds sway in Korean society. The history of Lee Kap-Soo's life and eugenics-related activities shows the important points and characteristics of the history of eugenics in Korean society before and after the liberation from Japan, and furthermore provides an important clue in understanding and explaining the colonial vestige in Korean society, economic growth first ideology, enthusiasm for scientific development, and competitive social culture.


Subject(s)
Asians , Berlin , Discrimination, Psychological , Economic Development , Eugenics , Germany , Humans , Japan , Korea , Lecture , Leprosy , Logic , Occupations
8.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(4): 1239-1259, Oct.-Dec. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-975447

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta pesquisa centrada na assistência psiquiátrica destinada a crianças e jovens ditos anormais em Santa Catarina. Inicialmente, analisa-se o surgimento da ideia de "criança perigosa", ou da categoria "menor", a partir da discussão de Foucault sobre a noção de "indivíduo perigoso", para então abordarem-se as dificuldades apresentadas na institucionalização da minoridade anormal em Santa Catarina. A seguir, são questionados os vínculos existentes entre as teorias que permitem identificar as crianças ditas anormais com as ideias eugênicas. Por fim, problematiza-se a dinâmica institucional que envolvia os menores ditos anormais internados no Hospital Colônia Sant'Ana na década de 1940.


Abstract Research into the psychiatric care for so-called abnormal children and youths in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina is presented. The emergence of the idea of the "dangerous child" or the category of "minor" is discussed, drawing on Foucault's discussion of the notion of the "dangerous individual." This is followed by a presentation of the difficulties faced in the institutionalization of abnormal minors in the aforementioned state. The links between theories that enable so-called abnormal children to be identified and the ideas of eugenics are then questioned. Finally, the institutional dynamics involving so-called abnormal children admitted to the Hospital Colônia Sant'Ana in the 1940s are scrutinized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , History, 20th Century , Child Health Services/history , Hospitals/history , Mental Disorders/history , Mental Health Services/history , Brazil , Eugenics , Institutionalization/history , Mental Disorders/therapy
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 38(3): 413-423, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-947365

ABSTRACT

O artigo discute as associações que têm sido realizadas no âmbito de pesquisas da área médica e psicológica entre violência, fisiologia e anatomia. Tais associações se fundamentam em uma visão biologizante do mundo e se legitima pelo discurso científico. Com o objetivo de problematizar os aspectos epistemológicos e éticos, o texto aborda as articulações entre ciência e determinismo, bem como a emergência da eugenia no século XIX e seus deslocamentos até a contemporaneidade. Nessa perspectiva, problematizamos que, atualmente, há uma centralidade da produção discursiva relativa ao cérebro, a qual implica também em um modo de condução de condutas. A partir disso, evidenciamos que, no século XXI, encontramo-nos em um regime específico de biossegurança e biopolítica, em que a biologia deixa de ser compreendida como um destino e passa a ser vista como oportunidade. Tal modificação nas formas de entendimento implica numa série de novas lutas políticas em torno de uma economia da vida e, nesse cenário, tais pesquisas, com a justificativa de prevenção ao crime, configuram-se como estratégias de vigilância e controle sobre os corpos, especialmente daqueles sujeitos pertencentes a grupos minoritários....(AU)


The article discusses the associations performed in the medical and psychological areas among violence, physiology and anatomy. These associations base themselves on a biological point of view of the world and legitimates the scientific discourse. Having as objective to problematize the ethical and epistemological aspects, the article tackles the articulations between science and determinism, as well as the emerging eugenics in the century XIX and its changes until contemporary times. Considering this perspective, we problematize that there is currently a brain-centered discourse, which has an impact in the way conducts are analyzed and approached. Based on that, we realized that, in the century XXI, we find ourselves in a specific biosafety and biopolitical regimen, in which biology ceases being considered as a fate and becomes an opportunity. Such modifications on these comprehension forms suggest a series of new political battles around economy of life, and, in this scenario, researches justifying the crime prevention are configured as strategies of vigilance and body-control, especially on those subjects from minority groups....(AU)


El artículo discute las asociaciones que se han realizado en el ámbito de investigaciones del área médica y psicológica entre violencia, fisiología y anatomía. Dichas asociaciones se fundamentan en una visión biologizante del mundo y se legitiman por el discurso científico. Con el objetivo de problematizar los aspectos epistemológicos y éticos, el texto aborda las articulaciones entre ciencia y determinismo, así como la emergencia de la eugenesia en el siglo XIX y sus desplazamientos hasta la contemporaneidad. En esa perspectiva, problematizamos que, actualmente, hay una centralidad de la producción discursiva relativa al cerebro, la cual implica también en un modo de conducción de conductas. A partir de eso, evidenciamos que, en el siglo XXI, nos encontramos en un régimen específico de bioseguridad y biopolítica, en el que la biología deja de ser comprendida como un destino y pasa a ser vista como una oportunidad. Esta modificación en las formas de entendimiento implica una serie de nuevas luchas políticas en torno a una economía de la vida y, en ese escenario, tales investigaciones, con la justificación de prevención al crimen, se configuran como estrategias de vigilancia y control sobre los cuerpos, especialmente de aquellos sujetos pertenecientes a grupos minoritarios....(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 21st Century , Psychology , Violence , Address , Eugenics
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 87-103, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953890

ABSTRACT

Resumen El neomalthusianismo anarquista está recibiendo una creciente atención historiográfica. El artículo pretende abordar la siguiente pregunta: ¿Tuvo algo que ver el primer neomalthusianismo anarquista barcelonés con la eugenesia? ¿Hasta qué punto y cómo? Para responder a ello el artículo tiene en cuenta el carácter transnacional del movimiento anarquista en el que las ciudades ocupaban un lugar esencial. Cosa que se materializaba en la fuerte conexión entre el grupo barcelonés y el francés, heredero de las enseñanzas de Paul Robin. La tesis del artículo es que, aunque el neomalthusianismo y el anarquismo eran movimientos distintos, el hecho de que se comparta el objetivo de regenerar la especie permitía establecer puntos de contacto aun cuando ocasionalmente los anarquistas rechazaran formalmente a la eugenesia.


Abstract Anarchist neo-Malthusianism is increasingly receiving historiographical attention. This article deals with the following question: Did early anarchist neo-Malthusianism in Barcelona have anything to do with eugenics? To what extent, and how? To answer this, the article examines the transnational nature of the anarchist movement, in which cities played an essential role. This is shown in the strong connection between the Barcelona group and the French one, which had inherited the teachings of Paul Robin. The article's thesis is that, although neo-Malthusianism and anarchism were different movements, the fact that they shared the goal of regenerating the species allows us to establish points of contact between them, even though the anarchists formally rejected eugenics on occasion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Politics , Population Dynamics/history , Eugenics/history , Spain
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 51-68, agosto 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953889

ABSTRACT

Resumen El médico chileno Hans Betzhold publicó en 1939 el libro Eugenesia, obra que recibió múltiples galardones y tuvo una segunda edición en 1942. Ambas ediciones y la participación de Betzhold en las Segundas Jornadas Peruanas de Eugenesia de 1943 lo muestran como un actor importante del campo eugénico chileno. Este trabajo analiza su transición desde la publicación de Eugenesia, en la cual propone una Oficina Nacional de Eugenesia aunando proyectos y leyes existentes para hacer realidad el ideal eugénico hasta su intervención, en el año 1943 en la que su optimismo cede a la decepción en torno a la tarea de engendrar un "superhombre chileno".


Abstract The Chilean physician Hans Betzhold published the book Eugenesia (Eugenics) in 1939, which was a work that received multiple awards and ran to a second edition in 1942. Both editions and the participation of Betzhold at the Second Peruvian Conference on Eugenics in 1943 attest to the fact that he was an important actor in the field of Chilean eugenics. This paper analyzes his transition from the publication of Eugenesia, in which he proposes a National Eugenics Department combining existing projects and laws to make the eugenic ideal a reality until its intervention, in the year 1943, when his optimism yields to disillusion regarding the task of creating a "Chilean superman."


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Eugenics/history , Textbooks as Topic , Chile
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 69-86, agosto 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-953888

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa a obra A vida sexual, do neurologista português Egas Moniz, que intencionava com ela divulgar instruções médicas sobre o corpo sexuado. Compilada nos tomos "Fisiologia" e "Patologia" em 1902, teve 19 edições até sua censura pelo Estado Novo português, em 1933. Nela, Moniz elabora um discurso de diferenciação sexual ancorado em ampla bibliografia produzida entre fins do século XIX e início do século XX, em um contexto de intensos debates acerca de papéis de gênero. Observa-se que seu autor recorreu a múltiplos dispositivos de significação da sexualidade - como a eugenia e a teoria freudiana - para difundir sua ideia de que "o homem é essencialmente sexual, a mulher é essencialmente mãe".


Abstract An analysis is presented of A vida sexual (The sexual life), by Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz, in which the author divulged medical instructions about the sexed body. Complied in two volumes - "Physiology" and "Pathology" - in 1902, it was edited 19 times until it was censored under the Portuguese military dictatorship in 1933. In the work, Moniz devises a discourse of sexual differentiation anchored in an extensive bibliography produced between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in a context of intense debate about gender roles. Moniz drew on several theories to define sexuality - including eugenics and Freudian theory - to express his idea that "man is essentially sexual, woman is essentially mother."


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Psychoanalysis , Human Body , Sexuality , Eugenics , Portugal , Sadism , Textbooks as Topic , Masochism
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 105-124, agosto 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953887

ABSTRACT

Resumen El artículo analiza el debate sobre neomalthusianismo y eugenesia que se realizó en medios anarquistas españoles en el primer tercio del siglo pasado. Con marcos teóricos poco utilizados hasta la fecha, se aportan nuevas interpretaciones acerca de lo que supuso la utilización del término eugenesia en las revistas neomalthusianas de inspiración anarquista. Enmarcado en una "lucha por el significado", el neomalthusianismo español resignificó las ideas eugenésicas que tenían como finalidad recuperar el terreno político perdido en la iniciativa por el control individual de la sexualidad humana. Asimismo, se analiza el papel que desempeñó la estrategia de "acción directa" por parte del movimiento anarcosindicalista que consideraba las acciones emprendidas por los anarquistas individualistas como un complemento de su acción revolucionaria.


Abstract This article analyzes the debate on neo-Malthusianism and eugenics in Spanish anarchist publications in the first third of the last century. Using theoretical frameworks that have been under-utilized thus far, it provides new interpretations of what the term "eugenics" meant in pro-anarchist neo-Malthusian journals. Framed within a "struggle over meaning," Spanish neo-Malthusianism re-signified eugenic ideas in an attempt to recover political ground that had been lost in the drive to promote individual control of human sexuality. This study also analyzes the role of the anarcho-syndicalist movement's "direct action" strategy, in which actions undertaken by individualist anarchists were seen as a complement to revolutionary action.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Politics , Population Dynamics/history , Eugenics/history , Mass Media/history , Spain
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 15-32, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953886

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la década de 1930 y los años que precedieron al desenlace de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la sentencia del conde Keyserling "la hora actual es la hora de la eugenesia" enarboló ideas y prácticas que Nancy Stepan vio compartidas por distintos países latinoamericanos. Nos detendremos en los prolegómenos de esa etapa que constituyen una suerte de hora cero que la eugenesia vivió en Argentina al iniciar en la década de 1910 su institucionalización y conformar un nuevo campo científico. Es un período signado por las tensiones intra e interdisciplinarias, la lucha por el monopolio de la autoridad científica y los diálogos entre ideología y poder, donde se inscribe una eugenesia de rasgos viscosos, cuya polifonía inicial perdurará hasta 1932.


Abstract From the 1930s until the end of the Second World War, Count Keyserling's statement that "the hour of eugenics is at hand" was used to champion ideas and practices that Nancy Stepan argues were shared by different Latin American countries. We focus on the period prior to that, a sort of zero hour of eugenics in Argentina, which began institutionalizing in 1910 and emerged as a new scientific field. This period was marked by intra- and interdisciplinary tensions, a struggle to monopolize scientific authority, and dialogues between ideology and power in which a viscous type of eugenics was inscribed, whose initial polyphony lasted until 1932.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , Eugenics/history , Argentina , Sex Education , Societies , Dissent and Disputes
15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 179-192, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953885

ABSTRACT

Resumen La eugenesia como disciplina desembarcó en Argentina a principios del siglo XX. Contó con una amplia recepción entre intelectuales y profesionales de la salud, en medio de una serie de acciones tendientes a fortalecer redes tanto dentro del mundo académico como político. Entre las iniciativas surge, en 1934, la revista Viva Cien Años, como una publicación de carácter científico y popular, en intenciones. Este artículo presenta las posibilidades del corpus documental referido a la revista, publicada en Argentina hasta 1947. El eje central propone vincular la aparición de la publicación con la impronta de la eugenesia de los años 1930 en la Argentina y las estrategias tendientes a la conquista de la opinión pública.


Abstract Eugenics arrived in Argentina as a discipline at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was widely embraced by intellectuals and healthcare professionals, in the midst of a series of actions undertaken to strengthen networks within the academic and political worlds. One of those initiatives was the magazine Viva Cien Años, founded in 1934 as a popular science publication. This article presents the possibilities of the body of documentation relating to the magazine, which was published in Argentina until 1947. The central thesis argues that the appearance of this publication shows the impact of eugenics in the 1930s in Argentina, and its strategies for conquering public opinion.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Eugenics/history , Argentina , Sex Education , Societies , Dissent and Disputes
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 125-144, agosto 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953884

ABSTRACT

Abstract The French physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Charles Richet was the author of an impressive quantity of writings, including novels and poetry. He was an out-and-out eugenicist, convinced that "intentional, conscious, scientific, and methodical" selection could achieve "any result, provided we have enough patience." He believed that the quantitative and qualitative growth of the population was of vital importance for France. In La sélection humaine (1919) and other writings, he dreamt of conscious selection to create "intellectual élites." This process would be crowned by the production of a "higher human nature, a real surhumanité." A staunch believer in the inheritance of acquired characteristics, Richet combined Darwinism and Lamarckism.


Resumo O fisiologista e vencedor do prêmio Nobel Charles Richet foi autor de numerosos escritos, incluindo romances e poesia. Eugenicista meticuloso, estava convencido de que uma seleção "intencional, conscienciosa, científica e metodológica" podeira atingir "qualquer resultado, contanto que tivéssemos paciência". Ele acreditava que o crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo da população tinha importância vital para a França. Em La sélection humaine (1919) e em outros escritos, ele sonhava com uma seleção consciente criando "elites intelectuais". Esse processo culminaria com a produção de uma "natureza humana superior, uma super-humanidade". Crente aguerrido da herança de caracteres hereditários, Richet combinou darwinismo e lamarckismo.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Eugenics/history , France
17.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 33-50, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953883

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo se ocupa de delinear las características principales del estereotipo de familia promovido por la institución emblemática del eugenismo argentino, la Sociedad Argentina de Eugenesia, organización que, nacida en 1945, pervivió en el país hasta la década de 1970. Se exploran aquí las conductas esperables tanto del hombre/marido como de la mujer/esposa; develándose los principales comportamientos requeridos para constituir esa familia ideal, organizada en torno a patrones sustentados en una pretendida moral sexual de sesgo eminentemente confesional.


Abstract This article seeks to outline the main features of the stereotype of family promoted by the emblematic institution of the Argentine eugenics movement, the Argentine Eugenics Society (Sociedad Argentina de Eugenesia), an organization founded in 1945 that remained active in the country until the 1970s. It explores the conduct expected both of the man/husband and of the woman/wife, and shows the principal behaviors required to constitute the ideal family, the outlines of which were based on set of sexual moral with an eminently religious bias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , Eugenics/history , Argentina , Stereotyping , Homosexuality , Marriage , Gender Identity
18.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 145-158, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953882

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo pretende discutir de qué manera ciertos saberes y prácticas orientados al "mejoramiento de la raza" colombiana entre 1920 y 1930 son similares o pueden localizarse en el marco de lo que ha sido definido por la historiografía como "movimiento eugenésico latinoamericano". El término de "higiene social" aparece en algunos textos médicos colombianos durante ese período para hablar del mejoramiento de una fracción de la población que se definía como "degenerada". Se trata de contribuir a la reflexión sobre la necesidad de repensar las estrategias del "mejoramiento de la raza" como problemas locales, heterogéneos y diversos.


Abstract This article discusses the similarities between certain knowledges and practices focused on "improving the race" in Colombia from 1920-1930, showing how they can be located within a framework defined by historiography as the "Latin American eugenic movement." The term "social hygiene" appears in some Colombian medical texts during this period to describe the improvement of a fraction of the population defined as "degenerate." This study contributes to discussion of the need to rethink "racial improvement" strategies as local, heterogeneous, diverse problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Sociology/history , Racial Groups/history , Eugenics/history , Colombia
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(supl.1): 159-178, agosto 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953880

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se analiza de qué modo se articulan las nociones de degeneración y eugenesia en el campo de la siquiatría, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, destacando la existencia de semejanzas y continuidades, pero también señalando sus diferencias y desacuerdos. Se analiza un momento particular de la historia de la siquiatría brasileña, en el cual los argumentos provenientes de la teoría de la degeneración y los argumentos e intervenciones eugenésicas se superponen y confunden, tomando como eje de discusión, entre otros textos, el trabajo de Renato Kehl denominado, "A esterilização dos grandes degenerados e criminosos".


Abstract This article analyzes the notions of degeneration and eugenics in the field of psychiatry in the first decades of the twentieth century, stressing the existence of similarities and continuities, but also differences and conflicts between them. It analyzes a particular moment in the history of Brazilian psychiatry when arguments from degeneration theory and eugenic arguments and interventions became superimposed and mingled. It focuses, among other texts, on the work of Renato Kehl, "A esterilização dos grandes degenerados e criminosos".


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Psychiatry/history , Eugenics/history , Brazil
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