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1.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 4(1): 4-14, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145755

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Determinar la composición química, características físico-químicas y el efecto genotóxico del aceite de Plukenetia volubilis L. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, esteroles, fosfolípidos, carotenoides, tocotrienoles y fenoles; así como las características físico-químicas y trazas metálicas. La genotoxicidad fue evaluada a través del ensayo de morfología de la cabeza de espermatozoides. Para este ensayo, se emplearon ratones albinos machos formando 3 grupos de experimentación de 7 animales cada uno: control negativo (solución salina 0,9%), control positivo (50 mg/kg/pc/día de ciclofosfamida) y grupo problema que recibió por vía oral 0,5 ml de aceite sacha inchi (NIMET); las sustancias se administraron cada 24 horas por 5 días. Resultados. El aceite contiene ácidos grasos poliinsaturados(81,72%), monoinsaturados (10,31%) y saturados(7,67%); siendo el alfa-linolénico (47,35%) y el linoleico (34,34%) los más abundantes. El tocoferol y esterol más abundante fueron el gamma-tocoferol y el beta-siitosterol respectivamente, y en escasa cantidad se halló: fenoles, fosfolípidos, carotenoides y tocotrienoles. Los índices de refracción, saponificación, yodo, peróxido y de acidez, fueron 1,48, 189 mg KOH/g, 190, 0,9 meq/kg, 1,11 KOH/g respectivamente. La densidad, materia insaponificable y humedad y materias volátiles fueron 0,9276, 0,27%, 0,05% respectivamente. Los niveles de arsénico y de plomo, no excedieron los límites máximos permisibles. El grupo de ciclofosfamida mostró una cantidad mayor de espermatozoides anormales (P<0,01) con respecto a los grupos de solución salina y NIMET; no se halló diferencia significativa entre los grupos de solución salina y NIMET . Conclusiones. el aceite de Plukenetia volubilis, es rico en ácidos grasos esenciales alfa-linolénico y linoleico, con una óptima proporción omega 6/omega 3, con significativas cantidades de tocoferoles y fitoesteroles los cuales le brindan una estabilidad oxidativa y con características físico-químicas que corroboran su calidad.En este diseño evaluado el aceite de sacha inchi no induce genotóxicidad, podemos decir que su consumo es seguro como alimento.


Objectives. To determine the chemical composition, physical-chemical characteristics and the genotoxic effect of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Materials and methods. The profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, tocotrienols and phenols was evaluated; as well as the physical-chemical characteristics and metallic traces. Genotoxicity was assessed through the sperm head morphology test. For this test, male albino mice were used forming 3 experimental groups of 7 animals each: negative control (saline solution 0.9%), positive control (50 mg / kg / pc / day of cyclophosphamide) and problem group received via oral 0.5 ml sacha inchi oil (NIMET); the substances were administered every 24 hours for 5 days. Results. The oil contains polyunsaturated (81.72%), monounsaturated (10.31%) and saturated (7.67%) fatty acids; being alpha-linolenic (47.35%) and linoleic (34.34%) the most abundant. The most abundant tocopherol and sterol were gammatocopherol and beta-siitosterol respectively, and in a small amount it was found: phenols, phospholipids, carotenoids and tocotrienols. The indices of refraction, saponification, iodine, peroxide and acidity were 1.48, 189 mg KOH / g, 190, 0.9 meq / kg, 1.11 KOH / g respectively. The density, unsaponifiable matter and moisture and volatile materials were 0.9276, 0.27%, 0.05% respectively. The arsenic and lead levels did not exceed the maximum permissible limits. The cyclophosphamide group showed a higher amount of abnormal sperm (P <0.01) with respect to the saline solution and NIMET groups; no significant difference was found between the saline solution and NIMET groups. Conclusions. Plukenetia volubilis oil, is rich in alphalinolenic and linoleic essential fatty acids, with an optimum omega 6 / omega 3 ratio, with significant amounts of tocopherols and phytosterols which provide oxidative stability and physical-chemical characteristics that corroborate its quality. In this evaluated design sacha inchi oil does not induce genotoxicity, we can say that its consumption is safe as food.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Genotoxicity , Plants, Medicinal , Sperm Head , Phytochemicals , Medicine, Traditional
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881828

ABSTRACT

The genus Alchornea compromises 55 accepted and other two unresolved species (Alchornea acerifera Croizat and Alchornea oblonga Müll. Arg.) which well various ecosystems over all the continents, with a special pantropical distribution. Numerous reports of ethnopharmacological uses of species belonging this genus exist mainly in Africa and Brazil, to treat different inflammatory and infectious diseases: arthritis, dysentery, infectious diseases, inflammation, intestinal disorders, fractures, leprosy, malaria, management of ringworm affections, muscle pain, rheumatism and ulcer. The genus Alchornea, contains different secondary metabolites and they have been reported such as: Alkaloids, terpenes and steroids, phenolic acid, saponins, principaly. The aim of the present review is to provide gathered and organized information with pharmacological, toxicological, traditional and phytochemical traits of plants from the Alchornea genus in order to define the biological potential of the genus and to define a state-of-art-platform stating the perspectives for further pharmacological/chemotaxonomical studies.


El género Alchornea comprende 55 especies aceptadas y otras dos especies por confirmar (Alchornea acerifera Croizat y Alchornea oblonga Müll. Arg.) qué habitan en diversos ecosistemas en todos los continentes, con una distribución pantropical especial. Existen numerosos reportes de usos ethnofarmacologicos de especies que pertenecen a este género en Africa y Brasil, en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciosas: la artritis, la disentería, los desórdenes intestinales, las fracturas, la lepra, la malaria, dolor del músculo, reumatismo y úlcera. En el género Alchornea, se han reportado diversos tipos de metabolitos secundarios tales como: alcaloides, terpenos y esteroides, ácidos fenolicos, saponinas, principalmente. El objetivo de esta revisión fue de compendiar y organizar la información farmacológica, toxicológica, de usos tradicionales y de fitocompuestos de plantas del género de Alchornea en el orden de definir el potencial biológico del género y establecer la plataforma del estado-de-arte con las perspectivas de los futuros estudios farmacológico/quimiotaxonómicos que se podrían realizar.


Subject(s)
Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e6361, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888935

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic degenerative diseases, and it is estimated to increase worldwide to around 415 million and to impact 642 million in 2040. Research shows that some plants are sources of bioactive compounds against diabetes. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oral toxicity and the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl. Diabetes was induced in Swiss mice with streptozotocin and the mice were treated with an aqueous extract of C. quercifolius leaves for a period of 30 days. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, catechins and triterpenoid, which did not show any mortality and behavioral alterations in mice treated with 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 14 days. Histopathological analysis of organs (kidney, pancreas, liver) from mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg extract revealed no architectural change. In the present study, we found a 29% reduction in glucose levels in animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight. These results are very promising because they showed that C. quercifolius had a hypoglycemic effect and did not present oral toxicity, thus being a new source of compounds for the control of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Liver/drug effects , Pancreas/drug effects , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Streptozocin , Toxicity Tests
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1171-1184, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958204

ABSTRACT

ResumenEntre los principales compuestos químicos sintetizados por las plantas, pero considerados no esenciales para su metabolismo básico, están los alcaloides, los polifenoles, los glucósidos cianogénicos y las saponinas que tienen diversas funciones en las plantas y reconocidas propiedades medicinales y farmacológicas. En esta investigación se determinaron las concentraciones de los mencionados metabolitos secundarios en los extractos de las hojas de las plantas medicinales Taraxacum officinale, Parthenium hysterophorus, Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius y Piper carpunya y se relacionaron con la toxicidad aguda contra Artemia salina. En cada bioensayo con A. salina se usaron los extractos alcohólicos de las hojas de las plantas seleccionadas a diferentes concentraciones, calculándose la proporción de organismos muertos y los CL50. Las concentraciones de alcaloides, fenoles totales, taninos, glucósidos cianogénicos y saponinas fueron determinadas mediante métodos espectrofotométricos. Este es el primer reporte de cuantificación de metabolitos secundarios en las plantas analizadas provenientes de Ecuador. T. officinale presentó las mayores concentraciones de fenoles (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) y taninos (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C aconitifolius de glucósidos cianogénicos (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) y P. hysterophorus de saponinas (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Las plantas evaluadas presentaron actividades hemolíticas dependiendo de las concentraciones de saponinas. Los valores de taninos determinados estuvieron entre 0.20 ± 0.01 y 11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g, por lo que no son adversos para su consumo. Aunque los valores de glucósidos cianogénicos son permisibles, es necesario monitorear la presencia de estos compuestos químicos en las plantas para minimizar problemas de salud. Los CL50 obtenidos oscilaron entre los valores 3.37 µg/mL, extremadamente letal o tóxica, para P. carpunya y 274.34 µg/mL, altamente tóxica, para T. officinale. De los análisis de correlaciones realizados a los resultados, se observó que los alcaloides favorecen de manera significativa (p<0.001) a la toxicidad aguda contra A. salina, mientras que a mayor contenido de polifenoles dicha toxicidad disminuye significativamente (p<0.001) el nivel de toxicidad de las plantas. Del análisis de componentes principales, se demuestra que las saponinas están en sinergia con los polifenoles para disminuir la toxicidad, pero tienen un efecto antagónico con los alcaloides y los glucósidos cianogénicos, lo cual evidencia que estos metabolitos secundarios presentan variabilidades en los mecanismos de acción contra A. salina, como compuestos citotóxicos. Estos resultados demuestran que las saponinas y los polifenoles pueden ser letales para A. salina a bajas concentraciones, evidenciando que este bioensayo permite evaluar extractos vegetales que contengan bajas concentraciones de compuestos con altas polaridades. La correspondencia significativamente positiva entre citoxicidad y concentración de los alcaloides, confirmada con el bioensayo de Artemia salina, puede ser útil para hallar fuentes promisorias de compuestos antitumorales y para evaluar los límites tolerables que no afecten otras células benignas. El contenido de metabolitos secundarios hallados en las plantas analizadas les atribuye un gran valor farmacológico.


Abstract:Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (p<0.001) acute toxicity against A. salina, while at a higher polyphenol concentration the level of plants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The results of principal component analysis showed that saponins apparently were in synergy with polyphenols to decrease cytotoxicity, but antagonize with alkaloids and cyanogenic glycosides, indicating that these secondary metabolites present variability in the mechanisms of action against A. salina, as cytotoxic compounds. These results also demonstrate that polyphenols and saponins can be lethal at low concentrations, demonstrating the potential of brine shrimp bioassay as a model to evaluate plant extracts containing low concentrations of chemical compounds with high polarities. The significant positive correlation between cytotoxicity and concentration of alkaloids confirmed by the bioassay of brine shrimp can be useful to identify promising sources of antitumor compounds, and to evaluate tolerable limits not affecting other benign cells. Contents of secondary metabolites found in the selected plants confer them great pharmacologic values. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1171-1184. Epub 2016 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Artemia/drug effects , Saponins/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Glycosides/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Assay , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/toxicity , Asteraceae/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Taraxacum/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Ecuador , Secondary Metabolism
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(4): 249-257, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907541

ABSTRACT

Los aceites esenciales son motivo de estudio debido a propiedades bioactivas, las cuales varían de acuerdo con su composición química. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron el estudio de la composición química volátil del aceite esencial (AE) de Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae) obtenido de plantas colectadas en el municipios Maria La Baja (Bolívar). Además, evaluar sus propiedades antioxidante y repelente. AEs fueron aislados mediante la técnica de hidrodestilación e identificados por cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los compuestos mayoritarios encontrados en C. trinitatis fueron sesquiterpenos: cariofileno (15,3 por ciento), dihidrocurcumeno (14,5 por ciento), cis y trans calameneno (4.0 y 13.7.0 por ciento, respectivamente), ipsilon-cadina-1,4-dieno (7.4 por ciento), alaskeno (6.4 por ciento), gerrmacreno A (5.8 por ciento), biciclogermacreno (5.3 por ciento); y monoterpenos como fenchona (4.4 por ciento) y eucaliptol (1,8-cineol) (2.4 por ciento). La actividad antioxidante de los AEs se determinó por el método del radical DPPH. El porcentaje de inhibición de DPPH del aceite esencial de C. trinitatis fue del 92.2 por ciento comparado con la del ácido ascórbico (96.4 por ciento). El AE presentó la mayor actividad repelente frente al gorgojo Tribolium castaneum, a una concentración de 0.1 μL/cm2 a 2 y 4 horas de exposición (86.0 y 92.0 por ciento, respectivamente).


Essential oils are being studied because bioactive properties, which vary according to their chemical composition. The objectives of this work were to study the volatile chemical composition of essential oil (EO) from Croton trinitatis Millsp (Euphorbiaceae), obtained from plants collected in Maria la Baja (Bolívar). Also, evaluate their antioxidant and repellent properties. EOs were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and identified by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The major compounds found in C. trinitatis were sesquiterpens: Caryophyllene (15,3 percent), dihydrocurcumene (14,5 percent), cis and trans calamenene (4.0 y 13.7.0 percent, respectively), upsilon-cadina-1,4-diene (7.4 percent), alaskene /6.4 percent), gerrmacrene A (5.8 percent), bicyclogermacrene (5.3 percent); and monoterpens as fenchone (4.4 percent) and eucalyptol (1,8-cineol) (2.4 percent). The antioxidant activity of the EOs were determined using the method of DPPH radical. The percentage of inhibition of DPPH from C. trinitatis was 92.2 percent compared with ascorbic acid (96,4 percent). The EO from Turbaco had the highest repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum, at a concentration of 0.2 uL/cm2 at 2 and 4 hours of exposure (86.0 and 92.0 percent, respectively).


Subject(s)
Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Insect Repellents/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 233-244, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The morphology and anatomy of the flower of Dalechampia alata, as well as the chemical nature of the exudates secreted in the inflorescence were studied using light microscope. This is the first report showing the presence of colleters in the genus Dalechampia. In the staminate flower occur a group of small secretory glands. The histochemical results indicate that the substance secreted from the glands is lipidic and resinuous in nature, while in the colleters it consists of polysaccharides and lipid-rich substances. The ovule of D. alata are anatropous, subglobose and bitegmic. It presents obturator, micropyle occluded by nucellar beak and meristematic activity in the ovary wall. The secretion produced in the stigmatic and transmitting tissue consists of polysaccharides.


Resumo A morfologia e anatomia das flores de Dalechampia alata, bem como a natureza química dos exsudatos secretados na inflorescência foram analisadas utilizando microscopia de luz. Este é o primeiro relato de coléteres para o gênero Dalechampia. Um grupo de pequenas glândulas secretoras ocorre nas flores estaminadas. Os resultados dos testes histoquímicos indicam que a substância secretada pelas glândulas apresenta natureza lipídica e resinosa, enquanto nos coléteres a secreção é constituída de polissacarídeos e lipídeos. O ovulo de D. alata é anátropo, subgloboso e bitegumentado. A presença de obturador, projeção do tecido nucelar pela micrópila e atividade meristemática na parede do ovário foram relatadas. A secreção do estigma e do tecido transmissor é constituída de polissacarídeos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Euphorbiaceae/anatomy & histology , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Inflorescence/anatomy & histology , Inflorescence/chemistry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(1): 18-28, ene. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907514

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de aislar y caracterizar parcialmente las enzimas ribonucleasas (RNasas) contenidas en el látex de Calotropis procera y Pedilanthus tithymaloides, se colectaron muestras de plantas adultas. Las proteínas solubles fueron extraídas con acetato de sodio y centrifugación a 16.000 x g durante 15 min y fraccionadas por cromatografía de intercambio iónico. Se estimó la masa molecular a través de ecuaciones de regresión lineal. Se realizaron pruebas de glicosilación. En ambas especies, las proteínas con actividad RNasa presentaron una masa molecular entre 28 y 30 kDa. No existe evidencia de proteínas glicosiladas en el látex de C. procera. En P. tithymaloides la RNasa es una proteína glicosilada.


In order to isolate and characterize partially ribonucleases (RNases) enzymes contained in the latex from Calotropis procera and Pedilanthus tithymaloides, samples were collected from mature plants. Soluble proteins were extracted with sodium acetate and centrifugation at 16,000 xg for 15 min and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. Molecular mass was estimated by linear regression equations. Glycosylation tests were conducted. In both species, proteins with RNase activity showed a molecular mass between 28 and 30 kDa. No evidence of glycosylated proteins in latex from C. procera. In P. tithymaloides, RNase may be a glycosylated protein.


Subject(s)
Calotropis/enzymology , Euphorbiaceae/enzymology , Latex/chemistry , Ribonucleases/isolation & purification , Ribonucleases/metabolism , Calotropis/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Glycosylation
8.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1388-1399
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164205

ABSTRACT

Aims: To determine the effect of cooking on proximate, phytochemical constituents and their changes in hematological parameters. Study Design: Determination of proximate and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the cooked and raw T. conophorum (CTC and RTC respectively) nut and the effect of the nut on the hematological indices on male albino rats fed with the cooked and raw diet formulations of the nut for 30 days period. Methodology: Rats were divided into six groups of five rats each. Each feed and walnut was weighed and mixed in the ratio of 1:1 before administration. Group A: Normal animal feed, Group B: Mixture of animal feed and cooked nut (ratio of 1:1). Group C: Mixture of animal feed and the raw nut (ratio of 1:1), Group D: 100% of the cooked nut, Group E: 100% of the raw nut while Group F: Mixture of raw nut and cooked (ratio of 1:1). Result: The result showed that crude protein, carbohydrate and crude fibre contents of RTC were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the CTC. While the percentage moisture, fat and ash content of the CTC were significantly higher than the RTC. The quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the alkaloid and flavonoid contents of RTC and CTC. Tannin, saponin, glycosides, hydrogen cyanide and steroid contents of RTC were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the CTC while terpenoid content of the CTC was significantly higher (P<0.05) than of the the RTC. The hemoglobin values showed no significant difference between the test groups and control group. The neutrophil values of group E and F were significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. Rats in group E had a significant decrease (P<0.05) in lymphocyte value as against the control. Total WBC levels in group B, C and F recorded a significant decrease (P<0.05) when compared with the control. Conclusion: The study suggests that processing cooking affects some nutrient constituents and some hematological parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood/analysis , Cooking , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Juglans/chemistry , Male , Nuts/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Rats
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1349-1355, Oct.-Dec. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741286

ABSTRACT

In the last times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a plant known popularly as Aveloz, and originally used in Africa, has been drawing attention for its use in the United States and Latin America, both for use as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. E. tirucalli L. is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and contains many diterpenoids and triterpenoids, in particular phorbol esters, apparently the main constituent of this plant, which are assumed to be responsible for their activities in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro antifungal activities of Euphorbia tirucalli (L.) against opportunistic yeasts were studied using microbroth dilution assay. The results showed that aqueous extract and latex preparation were effective against ten clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Latex and extract MIC range of 3.2 - > 411 µg/mL). Aiming the safe use in humans, the genotoxic effects of E. tirucalli were evaluated in human leukocytes cells. Our data show that both aqueous extract and latex preparation have no genotoxic effect in human leukocytes cells in vitro. Although the results cannot be extrapolated by itself for use in vivo, they suggest a good perspective for a therapeutic application in future. In conclusion, our results show that the aqueous extract and latex preparation from E. tirucalli L. are antifungal agents effectives against several strains of C. neoformans and do not provoke DNA damage in human leukocyte cells, considering the concentrations tested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Leukocytes/drug effects , Mutagens/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutagens/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/toxicity
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 420-425, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683334

ABSTRACT

Introduction Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of the dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Cnidosculos phyllacanthus, Ricinus communis, and Coutarea hexandra on the developmental periods of A.aegypti larvae and pupae. Crude extracts of C. phyllacanthus and C. hexandra and oil from R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were used. Methods Bioassays of the larvicidal and pupicidal effects of these products at different concentrations and times of exposure were evaluated. The lethal and sublethal effects were determined using different concentrations in larvicidal tests. Mortality data were evaluated by Probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values. Results The vegetable oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater efficiency for larval control with an LC50=0.28µl/mL and an LC90=1.48µl/mL and LC50=0.029µl/mL and a LC90=0.26µl/mL, respectively. In pupal tests toxic effects for all insects were verified after exposure to the products at significant LC50 and LC90 values for 24 and 48h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of C. phyllacanthus (oil) were more effective on the insects. Conclusions The vegetables oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater potential from the control of different developmental periods in the life cycle of this insect. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects , Pupa/drug effects , Time Factors
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(4): 1535-1542, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662227

ABSTRACT

On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae), collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli). Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae). The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and susceptibility of pathogenic microorganism evaluated.


Alrededor del mundo, la gente ha usado las plantas para tratar enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha hecho que se incremente el interés en la biodiversidad vegetal como fuente de principios antimicrobianos. En este trabajo, se evaluaron 75 extractos crudos de n-hexano, diclorometano y metanol, obtenidos a partir de la parte aérea de 25 especies de plantas proveniente de cuatro familias botánicas (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae y Solanaceae), colectadas en el Parque Regional Natural Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia); los cuales fueron evaluados por sus actividades antibacteriana y antifúngica a través del método de difusión en pozo. La actividad antibacteriana fue ensayada frente a las bacterias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus aureus y Bacillus subtilis, y las g-negativas Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adicionalmente, las mismas plantas fueron evaluadas frente a la levadura Candida albicans y los hongos Aspergillus fumigatus y Fusarium solani. En general, las plantas ensayadas mostraron mejor actividad antibacteriana que antifúngica; donde la familia Rubiaceae fue la que presentó mayor actividad antibacteriana, seguida por las familias Euphorbiaceae y Solanaceae. El extracto metanólico de Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) fue el que presentó mejor actividad antibacteriana al inhibir cuatro de las bacteria ensayadas (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus y E. coli); y los extractos de diclorometano de Acalypha diversifolia y Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae) fueron los que tuvieron la menor Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria en la actividad antifúngica. El hongo evaluado más susceptible fue F. Solani, el cual fue inhibido por el 60% y el 20% de los extractos de diclorometano y metanol, respectivamente. Se considera que la actividad biológica de estos extractos, se relaciona con los metabolitos secundarios que ellos contienen y las diferentes susceptibilidades de los microorganismos patogénicos evaluados.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Asteraceae/chemistry , Biodiversity , Colombia , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry
12.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(5): 259-263, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602361

ABSTRACT

Channa punctatus was exposed to four different concentrations of Rutin, Taraxerol and Apigenin. Changes in some hematological parameters of Channa punctatus were assessed to determine the influence of these compounds on test fish. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (80 percent of LC50 of 24h) of these compounds for one week. Control fish were also administered for one week. Thereafter, blood samples were obtained from the control and experimental fish. Blood was assayed for selected hematological parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count total plasma protein and plasma glucose concentration). The derived hematological indices of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were calculated. Sublethal concentrations of these compounds caused a dose dependent decrease in hemoglobin values coupled with a decrease in hematocrit values and red blood cell counts are an obvious indication of anemia. The total white blood cell counts and the differential white blood cell counts were decreased except for the lymphocytes, where there was a slight increase. Plasma protein and glucose were also lower in exposed fish when compared with control. The hematological indices MCH, MCHC, MCV were also lowered. The result from this study reveals high mortality rate and deleterious consequences on the health of fish subjected to acute exposure of Rutin, Taraxerol and Apigenin and therefore, should not be used directly in aquaculture without having the proper knowledge.


Channa punctatus foi exposta a quatro diferentes concentrações de Rutina, Taraxerol e Apigenina. Alterações de alguns parâmetros hematológicos da Channa punctatus foram acessados para determinar a influência destes compostos no peixe teste. Peixes foram expostos a concentrações sub-letais (80 por cento 0f LC50 em 24h) destes compostos por uma semana. Os peixes controles foram também expostos durante uma semana. A seguir, amostras de sangue foram obtidas do peixe controle e do experimental. O sangue foi estudado por parâmetros hematológicos selecionados (hematócrito, hemoglobina, contagem de células vermelhas e brancas, proteína plasmática total e concentração de glucose plasmática). Os índices hematológicos derivados da média da concentração corpuscular da hemoglobina (MCHC), a média de hemoglobina corpuscular (MCH) e a média de volume corpuscular (MCV), foram calculados. Concentrações sub-letais destes compostos causaram decréscimo dose-dependente dos valores da hemoglobina unidos a decréscimo de valores de hematócrito e das contagens de células sanguíneas vermelhas o que caracteriza indicação óbvia de anemia. As contagens totais de células brancas e a contagem diferencial destas células estavam diminuídas exceto pelos linfócitos que mostraram leve aumento. A proteína plasmática e a glicose estavam também baixas nos peixes expostos quando comparados com o controle. Os índices hematológicos MCH, MCHC, MCV estavam também diminuídos. Os resultados deste estudo revelam alto percentual de mortalidade e conseqüências deletérias à saúde de peixes submetidos à exposição aguda de Rutina, Talaxerol e Apigenina e portanto eles não devem ser usados diretamente em aquacultura sem conhecimento apropriado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apigenin/pharmacology , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Perciformes/blood , Rutin/pharmacology , Apigenin/isolation & purification , Erythrocyte Indices , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Oleanolic Acid/isolation & purification , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Rutin/isolation & purification
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(3): 228-232, mayo 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687012

ABSTRACT

Bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether soluble part of the ethanolic extract of Croton funckianus (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae) senescent leaves against Culex quinquefasciatus third instar larvae afforded a diterpenoid with Larvicidal activity called cassipourol. The structure of cassipourol was elucidated by 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR spectroscopy and by comparing their spectroscopic data with that reported in the literature.


El fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayos de la fracción soluble en éter de petróleo del extracto etanólico proveniente de las hojas senescentes de la especie Croton funckianus (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae) frente a larvas de tercer estadio del mosquito zancudo Culex quinquefasciatus condujo a la identificación de un nuevo diterpenoide con actividad larvicida denominado cassipourol. La estructura del cassipourol se elucido empleando espectroscopia RMN 1D (1H, 13C) y 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) y por comparación de sus datos espectroscópicos con los reportados en la literatura.


Subject(s)
Culex , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Larvicides , Larva , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(1): 169-174, Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578413

ABSTRACT

Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularly known as "cola-nota", is a medicinal plant that grows in tropical regions. The latex of this plant is used against various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, leprosy, tripanosomiasis, leukemia, and several malignant tumors. The mutagenic, antimutagenic, and cytotoxic effects of the latex of this plant were investigated by measuring the frequency of micronuclei in mice bone marrow cells. To evaluate mutagenicity, the animals were treated with four doses of latex (10, 30, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). To study the antimutagenic activity, the animals were simultaneously treated with latex and mitomycin C (4 mg/kg). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio. Our results showed a significant increase of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). Concerning antimutagenicity, the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg co-administered with mitomycin C showed significant decrease in MNPCE frequency compared to the positive control group (p < 0.05). However, no significant reduction in MNPCE frequency (p > 0.05) was detected at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Under our experimental conditions, the results obtained indicate strong mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of S. umbellatum latex except the dose of 10 mg/kg and moderate antimutagenic effect at lower doses.


Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularmente conhecida como "cola-nota", é uma planta medicinal que cresce em regiões tropicais. O látex desta planta tem sido utilizado no tratamento de várias doenças, como diabetes mellitus, hanseníase, tripanossomíases, leucemia e vários tumores malignos. Os efeitos mutagênico, antimutagênico e citotóxico do látex dessa planta foram investigados pela mensuração da frequência de micronúcleos em células de medula óssea de camundongos. Para avaliar a mutagenicidade, os animais foram tratados com quatro doses do látex (10, 30, 50 e 100 mg/kg). Para o estudo da atividade antimutagênica, os animais foram tratados com o látex e mitomicina C (4 mg/Kg) simultaneamente. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pela razão de eritrócitos policromáticos e normocromáticos. Nossos resultados mostraram um aumento significativo da frequência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMN) em relação ao grupo controle negativo (p < 0,05). Na avaliação da atividade antimutagênica do látex, as doses de 10 e 30 mg/kg coadministradas com mitomicina C mostraram uma diminuição significativa na frequência de EPCMN comparada com o grupo controle positivo (p < 0,05). Entretanto, não houve redução significativa na frequência de EPCMN (p > 0,05) detectada nas doses de 50 e 100 mg/kg. Nas nossas condições experimentais, os resultados obtidos indicaram forte atividade mutagênica e citotóxica do látex do S. umbellatum, com exceção na dose de 10 mg/kg e moderado efeito antimutagênico nas doses mais baixas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Latex/pharmacology , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Mutagens/pharmacology , Antimutagenic Agents/isolation & purification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagens/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(3): 346-357, jul.-set. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578974

ABSTRACT

A espécie Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como pião-roxo, entre tantos outros nomes, é um bom exemplo do tênue limiar que separa o efeito terapêutico do tóxico. Apesar de ser classicamente conhecida como planta tóxica possui usos na medicina popular. Alguns desses efeitos têm sido comprovados em estudos experimentais, como os de antimicrobiano, antineoplásico, cicatrizante e hipotensor, sendo possivelmente explicados pela presença de substâncias como alcalóides, terpenóides, flavonóides, lignanas e taninos. Esta revisão aborda aspectos importantes, com ênfase na toxicidade crônica dessa espécie, de modo a servir de fonte de informação aos interessados em avaliar a relação risco/benefício do uso terapêutico de Jatropha gossypiifolia L.


The species Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as bellyache bush, among several other names, is an important example of the tenuous threshold that separates the therapeutic from the toxic effect. Although traditionally known as a toxic plant, it has been used in folk medicine. Some of its effects have been proved by experimental studies as antimicrobial, antineoplastic, healing and hypotensive, likely explained by the presence of substances such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, lignans and tannins. This review deals with important aspects, focusing on the chronic toxicity of this species, in order to serve as an information source for those interested in evaluating the risk-benefit ratio of the therapeutic use of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.


Subject(s)
Jatropha , Jatropha/chemistry , Jatropha/toxicity , Euphorbiaceae , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/toxicity , Pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(1): 189-194, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539750

ABSTRACT

Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularly known as "cola-nota", is a medicinal plant that grows in tropical regions. Latex of this plant is used to treat various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Hansen´s disease, tripanosomiases, leukemia and several malignant tumors. In the present study, the angiogenic activity of S. umbellatum latex was evaluated using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Results showed significant increase of the vascular net (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control (H2O). The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained. In conclusion, our data indicate that S. umbellatum latex, under the conditions of this research, presented angiogenic effect.


Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularmente conhecida como "cola-nota", é uma planta medicinal que cresce em regiões tropicais. O látex desta planta tem sido utilizado no tratamento de várias doenças, como diabetes mellitus, hanseníase, tripanossomíases, leucemia e vários tumores malignos. No presente estudo, a atividade angiogênica do látex de S. umbellatum foi avaliada pelo ensaio da membrana corio-alantóide (MCA) de ovo embrionado de galinha. Os resultados mostraram aumento significativo da rede vascular (p < 0.05) em relação ao controle negativo (H2O). A análise histológica está em concordância com os resultados obtidos. Em conclusão, os dados indicaram que, nas condições experimentais deste estudo, o látex de S. umbellatum exibiu efeito angiogênico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Chorioallantoic Membrane/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Latex/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology
17.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 23 (3): 256-258
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98167

ABSTRACT

Previous phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Acalypha indica L. has indicated the presence of steroid, flavonoid and terpenoid types of compounds. Since these compounds are of pharmacological interest, coupled with the use of this plant in traditional medicine, prompted us to check A. indica L. for possible analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The methanolic extract of A. indica L. showed statistically significant [P<0.001] analgesic activity in mice in a dose-dependent manner. A sustained and significant [P<0.001] inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation of rat paw was observed with 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight. The methanolic extract of A. indica L. also demonstrated antiinflammatory effect in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum inhibition by the extract was observed at 250 mg/kg body weight after three hours of ingestion, which was comparable to that of the standard drug phenylbutazone at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Analgesics/pharmacology , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Mice , Rats
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(4): 1193-1200, dic. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637754

ABSTRACT

Margaritaria discoidea is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various body pains in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. The aqueous extract of its stem bark was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of indomethacin, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1193-1200. Epub 2009 December 01.


Margaritaria discoidea es una planta medicinal usada para el tratamiento de varios dolores corporales en la parte sur, central y oriental de África. Se investigaron las propiedades analgésicas y antiinflamatorias de la extracción acuosa de la corteza de su tallo en modelos animales. Los extractos de 50, 100 y 200mg/kg de peso corporal redujeron significativamente la formación del edema inducido por la carragenina y la histamina. En el modelo de contracción abdominal inducida por ácido acético, el extracto mostró un buen efecto analgésico caracterizado por la reducción en el número de contracciones en comparación con el grupo control. El extracto causó una disminución dependiente de la dosis del tiempo y la frecuencia de lamido en las ratas inyectadas con formalina al 2.5%, lo cual evidencia su efecto analgésico. Estos resultados fueron comparables con los de la indometacina, la droga de referencia usada en este estudio. La prueba de toxicidad aguda mostró que la planta podría ser segura para usos farmacológicos. Este estudio proporciona justificación para el uso folclórico de esta plata en varias comunidades, con el objetivo de tratar padecimientos tales como dolor de estómago, dolor e inflamaciones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Edema/drug therapy , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Edema/chemically induced , Pain Measurement , Rats, Wistar
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114847

ABSTRACT

The protective effect of the Synadenium carinatum latex lectin (ScLL), and the possibility of using it as an adjuvant in murine model of vaccination against American cutaneous leishmaniasis, were evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized with the lectin ScLL (10, 50, 100 microgram/animal) separately or in association with the soluble Leishmania amazonensis antigen (SLA). After a challenge infection with 10(6) promastigotes, the injury progression was monitored weekly by measuring the footpad swelling for 10 weeks. ScLL appeared to be capable of conferring partial protection to the animals, being most evident when ScLL was used in concentrations of 50 and 100 microgram/animal. Also the parasite load in the interior of macrophages showed significant reduction (61.7%) when compared to the control group. With regard to the cellular response, ScLL 50 and 100 microgram/animal stimulated the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction significantly (P < 0.05) higher than SLA or SLA plus ScLL 10 weeks after the challenge infection. The detection of high levels of IgG2a and the expression of mRNA cytokines, such as IFN-gamma, IL-12, and TNF-alpha (Th1 profiles), corroborated the protective role of this lectin against cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is the first report of the ScLL effect on leishmaniasis and shows a promising role for ScLL to be explored in other experimental models for treatment of leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Latex/chemistry , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Plant Lectins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Skin/pathology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(7): 783-785, Nov. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439464

ABSTRACT

The methanol extracts from five different plant families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae) collected at Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (Colombia), were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity through the modified Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The best inhibitory activities on this study were shown by the extracts of Solanum leucocarpum Dunal (IC50 = 204.59 mg/l) and Witheringia coccoloboides (Damm) (IC50 = 220.68 mg/l), both plants belonging to the Solanaceae family.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Colombia , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Melastomataceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Spectrophotometry , Solanaceae/chemistry
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