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1.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(2): e1220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze forward masking in normally hearing young people, by using frequency-following responses. Methods: the synthetic syllable /da/ was used for the recordings of ten individuals, in the following conditions: /da/ with no masking, and /da/ after 4, 16, 32, and 64 milliseconds of masking. F-test (ANOVA) was applied for repeated measures with the Greenhouse-Geisser correction to compare testing conditions. For significant differences, multiple comparisons (between pairs of conditions) and Bonferroni correction were used. Data normality was verified by applying the Shapiro-Wilk test, and statistical significance was used at 5%. Results: wave latencies of all masking conditions were compared with those of no masking. A latency delay was observed in the transient region of the response (PV and A) in all masking conditions, except for 64 milliseconds. Latency delay also occurred for waves PW, PX, and PY, which corresponded to the sustained region of the response. Conclusion: forward masking was observed, by using frequency-following responses with /da/ syllable in four intervals (4, 16, 32, and 64 ms) of preceding masking. Forward masking was more evident in the transient region of the response than in the sustained one. This study highlights the importance of electrophysiological testing in temporal processing assessment.


Subject(s)
Pitch Perception/physiology , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Reaction Time , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophysiological Phenomena
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879270

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain is usually implanted as an open loop system using unchanged parameters. To avoid the under and over stimulation caused by lead migration, evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) is used as feedback signal to change the stimulating parameters. This study established a simulation model of ECAP recording to investigate the relationship between ECAP component and dorsal column (DC) fiber recruitment. Finite element model of SCS and multi-compartment model of sensory fiber were coupled to calculate the single fiber action potential (SFAP) caused by single fiber in different spinal cord regions. The synthetized ECAP, superimposition of SFAP, could be considered as an index of DC fiber excitation degree, because the position of crests and amplitude of ECAP corresponds to different fiber diameters. When 10% or less DC fibers were excited, the crests corresponded to fibers with large diameters. When 20% or more DC fibers were excited, ECAP showed a slow conduction crest, which corresponded to fibers with small diameters. The amplitude of this slow conduction crest increased as the stimulating intensity increased while the amplitude of the fast conduction crest almost remained unchanged. Therefore, the simulated ECAP signal in this paper could be used to evaluate the degree of excitation of DC fibers. This SCS-ECAP model may provide theoretical basis for future clinical application of close loop SCS base on ECAP.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Computer Simulation , Electric Stimulation , Evoked Potentials , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888197

ABSTRACT

The traditional paradigm of motor-imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is abstract, which cannot effectively guide users to modulate brain activity, thus limiting the activation degree of the sensorimotor cortex. It was found that the motor imagery task of Chinese characters writing was better accepted by users and helped guide them to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms. However, different Chinese characters have different writing complexity (number of strokes), and the effect of motor imagery tasks of Chinese characters with different writing complexity on the performance of motor-imagery-based BCI is still unclear. In this paper, a total of 12 healthy subjects were recruited for studying the effects of motor imagery tasks of Chinese characters with two different writing complexity (5 and 10 strokes) on the performance of motor-imagery-based BCI. The experimental results showed that, compared with Chinese characters with 5 strokes, motor imagery task of Chinese characters writing with 10 strokes obtained stronger sensorimotor rhythm and better recognition performance (


Subject(s)
Brain-Computer Interfaces , China , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials , Humans , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Imagination
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 35-41, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878233

ABSTRACT

Fentanyl as a synthetic opioid works by binding to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in brain areas to generate analgesia, sedation and reward related behaviors. As we know, cerebellum is not only involved in sensory perception, motor coordination, motor learning and precise control of autonomous movement, but also important for the mood regulation, cognition, learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that functional MORs are widely distributed in the cerebellum, and the role of MOR activation in cerebellum has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fentanyl on air-puff stimulus-evoked field potential response in the cerebellar molecular layer using in vivo electrophysiology in mice. The results showed that perfusion of 5 μmol/L fentanyl on the cerebellar surface significantly inhibited the amplitude, half width and area under the curve (AUC) of sensory stimulation-evoked inhibitory response P1 in the molecular layer. The half-inhibitory concentration (IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebellum , Evoked Potentials , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Interneurons , Mice , Physical Stimulation
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 119-126, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089359

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is sound perception in the absence of a sound source. Changes in parameters of latency and amplitude on the auditory event related potentials or long latency potentials waves have been cited in tinnitus patients when compared to a control group. Objective To perform an assessment of scientific evidence that verifies the possibility of alterations in latency or amplitude of the waves of event related potentials in individuals with tinnitus. Methods By using SciELO, Lilacs, ISI Web and PubMed, scientific databases, a review was performed. Articles published in English, Portuguese, French and Spanish that correlated tinnitus with changes in event related potentials were included in this review. Results Twelve articles were located, however only eight fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Conclusion The sample of selected studies demonstrate that the long latency auditory evoked potentials related to events between the control and tinnitus patients showed some changes in latency and or amplitude in tinnitus patients. There are changes in event-related potentials when comparing patients with tinnitus and the control group. These changes take place considering the severity of tinnitus, tinnitus site of lesion, and capacity for changes after interventions. The event related potentials can help to determine the neurotransmitter involved in tinnitus generation and evaluate tinnitus treatments.


Resumo Introdução O zumbido é a percepção de um som na ausência de uma fonte sonora. Mudanças nos parâmetros de latência e amplitude nas ondas dos potenciais evocados auditivos relacionados a eventos ou potenciais de longa latência foram citadas em pacientes com zumbido quando comparados a um grupo controle. Objetivo Realizar uma avaliação de evidências científicas que verifiquem a possibilidade de alterações na latência ou amplitude das ondas de potenciais evocados auditivos relacionados a eventos em indivíduos com zumbido. Método Foi feita uma revisão a partir dos bancos de dados científicos SciELO, Lilacs, ISI Web e PubMed. Artigos publicados em inglês, português, francês e espanhol que correlacionavam zumbido com alterações nos potenciais evocados auditivos relacionados a eventos foram incluídos. Resultados Foram localizados 12 artigos, porém apenas oito preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Conclusão A amostra de estudos selecionados demonstra que os potenciais evocados auditivos de longa latência relacionados a eventos entre os pacientes-controle e com zumbido apresentaram algumas alterações na latência e/ou amplitude nos pacientes com zumbido. Há mudanças nos potenciais relacionados a eventos ao comparar pacientes com zumbido e o grupo controle. Essas alterações consideram a gravidade do zumbido, o local da lesão do zumbido e a capacidade de alterações após as intervenções. Os potenciais evocados auditivos relacionados a eventos podem ajudar a determinar o neurotransmissor envolvido na geração do zumbido e avaliar os tratamentos para o zumbido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tinnitus/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology , Attention , Tinnitus/psychology , Event-Related Potentials, P300/physiology , Evidence-Based Medicine
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828131

ABSTRACT

Cognitive reappraisal is an important strategy for emotion regulation. Studies show that even healthy people may not be able to implement this strategy successfully, but the underlying neural mechanism behind the behavioral observation of success or failure of reappraisal is unclear. In this paper, 28 healthy college students participated in an experiment of emotional regulation with the cognitive reappraisal strategy. They were asked to complete the cognitive psychological questionnaires before the experiment. Their behavioral scores and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were collected simultaneously during the experiment. We divided all the subjects into two groups, according to the statistical test of valence scores. Then we analyzed their questionnaires, early event-related potential (ERP) components N200, P200, and late positive potential (LPP), and calculated the correlation between the valence score and the amplitude of LPP. The results showed that, in both groups, compared with negative-watching, the reappraisal induced larger N200 and P200 components and there were two modulation patterns ("increase" and "decrease") of the reappraisal effect on the amplitude of early LPP (300-1 000 ms after stimulus onset). Moreover, correlation analysis showed that significant positive correlation between two differences in the successful group, i.e., the greater difference in the valence scoresin between reappraisal and negative-watching, the greater difference in the amplitude of early LPP between reappraisal and negative-watching; but no such effect was found in the failure group. These results indicated that, whether reappraisal was successful or not, no significant effect on early ERP components was found; and there were different patterns of the reappraisal effect on early LPP. The difference between successful and failure groups was mainly reflected in early LPP, that is, the EEG characteristics and behavioral scores of successful group were significantly positively correlated. Furthermore, the small sample analysis showed that this correlation only existed in the pattern of "increase". In the future, more research of this modulation mode is necessary in order to find more stable EEG characteristics under successful cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Cognition , Electroencephalography , Emotional Regulation , Emotions , Evoked Potentials , Humans
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 788-798, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055509

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: People with vestibular loss present a deficit in the vestibular system, which is primarily responsible for promoting postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation while the head moves. There is no effective treatment for a bilateral loss of vestibular function. Recently, a vestibular implant was developed for people with bilateral loss of vestibular function to improve this function and, consequently, the quality of life of these patients. Objective: To identify in the scientific literature evidence that vestibular implants in people with vestibular deficit improves vestibular function. Methods: One hundred and forty six articles were found from five databases and 323 articles from the gray literature mentioning the relationship between vestibular implant and vestibular function in humans. The PICOS strategy (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) was used to define the eligibility criteria. The studies that met the inclusion criteria for this second step were included in a qualitative synthesis, and each type of study was analyzed according to the bias risk assessment of the Joanna Briggs Institute through the critical assessment checklist Joanna Briggs institute for quasi-experimental studies and the Joanna Briggs institute critical assessment checklist for case reports. Results: Of the 21 articles included in reading the full text, 10 studies were selected for the qualitative analysis in the present systematic review. All ten articles analyzed through the critical assessment checklist Joanna Briggs institute showed a low risk of bias. The total number of samples in the evaluated articles was 18 patients with vestibular implants. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings support the feasibility of vestibular implant for restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in a broad frequency range and illustrate new challenges for the development of this technology.


Resumo Introdução: Pessoas com perda vestibular apresentam um déficit no sistema vestibular, o qual é o principal responsável pelo controle postural, pela estabilização do olhar e orientação espacial enquanto a cabeça se movimenta. Não há tratamento efetivo para uma perda vestibular bilateral. Recentemente, foi desenvolvido um implante vestibular para pessoas com perda vestibular bilateral para melhorar essa função e, consequentemente, a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar na literatura científica evidências de que o implante vestibular melhora a função vestibular de pessoas com déficit vestibular. Método: Cento e quarenta e seis artigos foram encontrados em cinco bases de dados e 323 arti-gos da literatura cinzenta, mencionando a relação entre implante vestibular e função vestibular em humanos. A estratégia PICOS (População, Intervenção, Comparação e Desfechos) foi uti-lizada para definir os critérios de elegibilidade. Os estudos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão para esta segunda etapa foram incluídos em uma síntese qualitativa, e cada tipo de estudo foi analisado de acordo com a avaliação de risco de viés do Joanna Briggs Institute através da critical appraisal checklist for quasi-experimental studies e da critical appraisa lchecklist for case reports. Resultados: Dos 21 artigos incluídos cujos textos completos foram lidos, 10 foram selecionados para a análise qualitativa na presente revisão sistemática. Todos os dez artigos analisados ??através da critical appraisal checklist mostraram um baixo risco de viés. O número total de amostras nos artigos avaliados foi de 18 pacientes com implantes vestibulares. Conclusões: Em conjunto, esses achados apoiam a viabilidade do implante vestibular para a restauração do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular em uma ampla faixa de frequências e ilustram novos desafios para o desenvolvimento desta tecnologia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vestibular Diseases/surgery , Vestibule, Labyrinth/physiology , Cochlear Implantation , Quality of Life , Vestibular Function Tests , Vestibular Diseases/physiopathology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Evoked Potentials , Meniere Disease/physiopathology
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 51-56, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002605

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar los procesos atencionales a estímulos visuales que no requieren repuesta motora, se llevó a cabo un estudio con potenciales evocados a 17 niños con trastornos del déficit de atención/ hiperactividad (TDAH-I) con predominio inatento y a 15 controles de edades entre 7 y 11 años. Se analizó la latencia y localización de fuentes de los potenciales evocados visuales tempranos P100 y N100 durante la realización de una tarea oddball visual (20% rayas horizontales y 80% verticales) en que las rayas verticales no exigían respuesta motora. Los resultados indican que los niños con TDAH-I procesan la información visual que no requiere respuesta motora con un mayor aumento de la actividad cerebral y mediante la vía temporal ventral mientras que el grupo control lo hace mediante la vía parietal dorsal. Este proceso neurobiológico de procesamiento de la información visual vía temporal ventral de los niños con TDAH-I podría deberse a alteraciones en los procesos emocionales que influyen directamente en el reconocimiento visual o a un déficit en el control de los procesos atencionales por parte de la vía parietal dorsal.


To evaluate attentional processes to visual stimuli that do not require motor response, a study with evoked potentials was carried out on 17 children with attention deficit disorder predominantly inattentive (ADDH-I) and 15 controls between the ages of 7 and 11 years. The latency and localization of sources of the early visual evoked potentials P100 and N100 were analyzed during the performance of a visual oddball task (20% horizontal and 80% vertical lines) where the vertical lines did not require motor response. The results indicate that ADDH-I group process visual information that does not require motor response with a greater increase in brain activity and through the ventral temporal pathway, while the control group does so by means of the dorsal parietal stream. This neurobiological process of visual information processing by ventral temporal pathway of ADDH-I group could be due to alterations in emotional processes that directly influence visual recognition or as consequence of deficit in the control of attentional processes by the dorsal parietal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Parietal Lobe/physiology , Attention/physiology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741839

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The neural processing of children with overweight/obesity (CWO), may affect their eating behavior. We investigated the visual information processing of CWO under response control condition, by event-related potential (ERP) study, an electrophysiologic study for cognitive mechanism. METHODS: Seventeen CWO (mean age: 10.6±1.9), and 17 age-matched non-obese children (NOC), participated in the study. Neurocognitive function tests and visual ERP under Go/NoGo conditions, were implemented. Area amplitudes of major ERP components (P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3) from four scalp locations (frontal, central, parietal, and occipital), were analyzed. RESULTS: For Go and NoGo conditions, CWO had significantly greater occipital P1, fronto-central N1, and P2 amplitudes compared with NOC. P2 amplitude was significantly greater in CWO, than in NOC, at the frontal location. N2 amplitude was not significantly different, between CWO and NOC. For CWO and NOC, Go P3 amplitude was highest at the parietal location, and NoGo P3 amplitude was highest at the frontal location. In Go and NoGo conditions, P3 amplitude of CWO was significantly less than in NOC. CONCLUSION: The greater P1, N1, and P2 suggested hyper-vigilance to visual stimuli of CWO, but the smaller P3 suggested insufficient mental representation of them. Such altered visual processing, may affect the eating behavior of CWO.


Subject(s)
Electronic Data Processing , Child , Evoked Potentials , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Obesity , Rabeprazole , Scalp
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Auditory brainstem response (ABR) can be utilized to verify the hearing threshold and determine the existence of retrocochlear pathology in sudden deafness. However, little is known about the significance of ABR characteristics as a prognostic factor in sudden deafness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate which characteristics of ABR is associated with the prognosis of sudden deafness. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We studied patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden deafness from January 2017 to May 2018. ABR results of click stimuli at 90 dB nHL were analyzed by the latency of wave I, III, and V. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients (55 men and 58 women) participated in the study. Hearing recovery was observed in 94 cases (83.2%). The absolute latency of wave I, III, and V was prolonged in the affected ears when compared with the unaffected ears. Hearing improvement was only correlated to the interaural latency delay of wave I (Pearson's r=−0.278, p<0.05). Prolonged interaural latency delay was noted from complete toward slight hearing recovery group. When the hearing outcome was evaluated by the interaural latency delay of wave I at 0.2 ms, the result of under 0.2 ms was significantly better than that over 0.2 ms and no visible wave I. CONCLUSION: Prolonged interaural delay of wave I over 0.2 ms and no visible wave I in ABR showed worse hearing outcome in sudden deafness. This finding may provide ABR as a potential prognostic indicator in sudden deafness.


Subject(s)
Ear , Evoked Potentials , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing Loss, Sudden , Hearing , Humans , Male , Methods , Pathology , Prognosis
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765199

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) are useful measures of information processing that are believed to reflect the cognitive processing of the brain. Recently, these electrophysiological markers have been studied repeatedly to examine patients with schizophrenia. Among the ERPs components, P50, P300, mismatch negativity, loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials, and 40 Hz auditory steady state response are meaningful neurophysiological markers of schizophrenia. The employment of novel ERP paradigms designed to carefully characterize the early spectrum of perceptual and cognitive information processing allows investigators to identify the neurophysiological basis of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and examine the associated clinical and functional impairments. Lately, functional neural networks using resting state EEG have been studied extensively in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, qEEG, several ERP components, and functional neural networks that were considered useful neurophysiological markers of schizophrenia are reviewed and their clinical implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Electronic Data Processing , Brain , Electroencephalography , Employment , Evoked Potentials , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Humans , Research Personnel , Schizophrenia
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765197

ABSTRACT

Many event-related potentials (ERPs) studies have been performed in major depressive disorder. ERPs include P50, N170, loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), P300, and mismatch negativity (MMN). These ERPs have good time-resolution as noninvasive methods, so they can be used easily in clinical practice and research. For example, ERPs can be used to differentiate patients from healthy people, as well as for assessing the subtype and severity, investigating the psychopathology, and predicting the treatment response in mental disorders. This review focuses on P50, N170, LDAEP, P300, and MMN in major depressive disorders.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Evoked Potentials , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Humans , Mental Disorders , Psychopathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Altered event-related potential (ERP) performances have been noted in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and reflect neurocognitive dysfunction. Whether these ERP alterations and correlated dysfunctions exist in healthy parents with ADHD offspring is worth exploring. METHODS: Thirteen healthy parents with ADHD offspring and thirteen healthy controls matched for age, sex and years of education were recruited. The auditory oddball paradigm was used to evaluate the P300 wave complex of the ERP, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and continuous performance test were used to measure neurocognitive performance. RESULTS: Healthy parents with ADHD offspring had significantly longer auditory P300 latency at Fz than control group. However, no significant differences were found in cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: The presence of a subtle alteration in electro-neurophysiological activity without explicit neurocognitive dysfunction suggests potential candidate of biological marker for parents with ADHD offspring.


Subject(s)
Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Biomarkers , Cognition , Education , Evoked Potentials , Humans , Intelligence , Parents , Wisconsin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762652

ABSTRACT

Most studies concerning congenital mirror movements (CMMs) have been focused on the motor organization in the distal hand muscles exclusively. To the best of our knowledge, there is no data on motor organization pattern of lower extremities, and a scarcity of data on the significance of forearm and arm muscles in CMMs. Here, we describe the case of a 19-year-old boy presenting mirror movements. In these terms, a 10-year transcranial magnetic stimulation study demonstrated that the motor organization pattern of the arm muscles was different from that of distal hand and forearm muscles even in the same upper extremity, and that the lower extremities showed the same pathways as healthy children. Moreover, in this case, an ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for distal hand muscles increased in amplitude with age, even though the intensity of mirror movements decreased. In the arm muscles, however, it was concluded that the contralateral MEPs increased in amplitude with age.


Subject(s)
Arm , Child , Evoked Potentials , Evoked Potentials, Motor , Follow-Up Studies , Forearm , Hand , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscles , Pyramidal Tracts , Synkinesis , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Upper Extremity , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fecal incontinence (FI) is a prevalent condition among women. While biomechanical motor components have been thoroughly researched, anorectal sensory aspects are less known. We studied the pathophysiology of FI in community-dwelling women, specifically, the conduction through efferent/afferent neural pathways. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 175 women with FI and 19 healthy volunteers. The functional/structural study included anorectal manometry/endoanal ultrasound. Neurophysiological studies including pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) and sensory-evoked-potentials to anal/rectal stimulation (ASEP/RSEP) were conducted on all healthy volunteers and on 2 subgroups of 42 and 38 patients, respectively. RESULTS: The main conditions associated with FI were childbirth (79.00%) and coloproctological surgery (37.10%). Cleveland score was 11.39 ± 4.09. Anorectal manometry showed external anal sphincter and internal anal sphincter insufficiency in 82.85% and 44.00%, respectively. Sensitivity to rectal distension was impaired in 27.42%. Endoanal ultrasound showed tears in external anal sphincter (60.57%) and internal anal sphincter disruptions (34.80%). Abnormal anorectal sensory conduction was evidenced through ASEP and RSEP in 63.16% and 50.00% of patients, respectively, alongside reduced activation of brain cortex to anorectal stimulation. In contrast, PNTML was delayed in only 33.30%. Stools were loose/very loose in 56.70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathophysiology of FI in women is mainly associated with mechanical sphincter dysfunctions related to either muscle damage or, to a lesser extent, impaired efferent conduction at pudendal nerves. Impaired conduction through afferent anorectal pathways is also very prevalent in women with FI and may play an important role as a pathophysiological factor and as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Brain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials , Fecal Incontinence , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Manometry , Neural Pathways , Parturition , Pudendal Nerve , Tears , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated error-monitoring deficits in female college students with binge drinking (BD) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and the modified Flanker task. METHODS: Participants were categorized into BD (n=25) and non-BD (n=25) groups based on the scores of the Korean-version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K) and the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ). The modified Flanker task, consisting of congruent (target and flanker stimuli are the same) and incongruent (target and flanker stimuli are different) conditions, was used to evaluate error-monitoring abilities. RESULTS: The BD group exhibited significantly shorter response times and more error rates on the Flanker task, as well as reduced error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes compared with the non-BD group. Additionally, ERN amplitudes measured at FCz and Cz were significantly correlated with scores on the AUDIT-K and AUQ in the whole participants. The BD and non-BD groups did not show any significant differences in error positivity amplitudes. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that college students with BD have deficits in error-monitoring, and that reduced ERN amplitudes may serve as a biological marker or risk factor of alcohol use disorder.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Binge Drinking , Biomarkers , Evoked Potentials , Female , Humans , Reaction Time , Risk Factors , Young Adult
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cochlear dead region (CDR) is a region in the cochlear where hearing loss has occurred due to damage to the inner hair cells and/or neurons. Recently, a subjective test involving a pure-tone test in the presence of threshold-equalizing noise (TEN) was introduced to identify CDR. However, for uncooperative patients, such a subjective method would be unsuitable and objective methods would be needed instead to detect CDR. The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an evoked potential elicited by changes in the ongoing sound. In this study, we developed an objective method of identifying CDR by combining ACC response with a TEN test, namely the TEN-ACC test, and investigated its feasibility in normal-hearing listeners. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Ten normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent both behavioral TEN test and electrophysiological TEN-ACC test. The stimuli for the TEN-ACC test consisted of TEN and embedded pure tones with different frequencies/signals to noise ratios (SNRs). To identify the thresholds, the range SNR of stimulation was varied from 0 to 20 dB, in stages of 4 dB. RESULTS: The ACC responses of all subjects who participated in this study were well elicited by stimuli developed for the TEN-ACC test. We confirm that the pure-tones embedded in TEN elicited the objective ACC response. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the novel TEN-ACC test can be applied to evoke ACC in normal-hearing listeners. Future research should incorporate hearing-impaired listeners to determine the feasibility of the TEN-ACC test as an objective method to identify CDR.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Evoked Potentials , Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner , Hearing Loss , Humans , Methods , Neurons , Noise
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717776

ABSTRACT

Transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) is a valuable intraoperative monitoring technique during brain tumor surgery. However, TES can stimulate deep subcortical areas located far from the motor cortex. There is a concern about false-negative results from the use of TES-MEP during resection of those tumors adjacent to the primary motor cortex. Our study reports three cases of TES-MEP monitoring with false-negative results due to deep axonal stimulation during brain tumor resection. Although no significant change in TES-MEP was observed during surgery, study subjects experienced muscle weakness after surgery. Deep axonal stimulation of TES could give false-negative results. Therefore, a combined method of TES-MEP and direct cortical stimulation-motor evoked potential (DCS-MEP) or direct subcortical stimulation should be considered to overcome the limitation of TES-MEP.


Subject(s)
Axons , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Evoked Potentials , Methods , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Motor Cortex , Muscle Weakness , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740672

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate whether memory accuracy can be assessed by analyzing electrophysiological responses (i.e., electroencephalography [EEG]) for retrieval cues related to the witnessed scene. Specifically, we examined the different patterns of EEG signals recorded during witnessed (target) and unwitnessed (lure) stimuli using event-related potential (ERP) analysis. Moreover, using multivariate pattern analysis, we also assessed how accurately single-trial EEG signals can classify target and lure stimuli. Participants watched a staged-crime video (theft crime), and the EEG signals evoked by the objects shown in the video were analyzed (n=56). Compared to the target stimulus, the lure stimulus elicited larger negative ERPs in frontal brain regions 300 to 500 milliseconds after the retrieval cue was presented. Furthermore, the EEG signals observed 450 to 500 milliseconds after the retrieval cue was presented showed the best classification performance related to eyewitness memory, with the mean classification accuracy being 56%. These results suggest that the knowledge and techniques of cognitive neuroscience can be used to estimate eyewitness memory accuracy.


Subject(s)
Brain , Classification , Cognitive Neuroscience , Cues , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials , Machine Learning , Memory
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e27-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasal polyposis is a chronic disease presenting with nasal obstruction as the most frequent complaint. It has been documented that nasal polyposis results in deterioration of quality of life and disturbances of sleep. However, remarkable consequences of nasal polyposis such as psychological and cognitive outcomes are relatively poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there is an impairment of concentration and attention in nasal polyposis patients due to hypoxia caused by nasal obstruction. METHODS: This cross-sectional, case-control study was carried out on 30 male patients with nasal polyps and 30 healthy subjects serving as controls. Participant ages were 41.6 ± 10.2 years in the nasal polyps group and 41.3 ± 6.2 in the control group. All participants underwent systemic, neurological, and otorhinolaryngological examinations together with routine hematological and biochemical tests. Patients with nasal polyposis had bilateral complete obstruction of nasal cavity. P300 component of electroencephalography-derived event related potentials were used to monitor concentration and attention. Nasal polyposis and control groups were compared in terms of amplitude and latency of P300. RESULTS: There were significant differences between control and nasal polyposis groups in terms of latency of P300 (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results of the current study indicate that hypoxia due to complete nasal obstruction may result in impairment of attention and concentration in nasal polyposis patients. Assessment of patients with P300 latency subcomponent can be a useful diagnostic tool to detect cognitive and psychological consequences.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Cognition Disorders , Event-Related Potentials, P300 , Evoked Potentials , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Nasal Cavity , Nasal Obstruction , Nasal Polyps , Quality of Life
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