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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 140-148, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153128

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine visual impairment due to optic pathway tumors in children unable to perform recognition acuity tests. Methods: Grating visual acuity scores, in logMAR, were obtained by sweep visually evoked potentials (SVEP) in children with optic pathway tumors. The binocular grating visual acuity deficit was calculated by comparison with age-based norms and then assigned to categories of visual impairment as mild (from 0.10 to 0.39 logMAR), moderate (from 0.40 to 0.79 logMAR), or severe (≥0.80 logMAR). Interocular differences were calculated by subtraction and considered increased if >0.10 logMAR. Results: The participants were 25 children (13 boys; mean ± SD age, 35.1 ± 25.9 months; median age, 32.0 months) with optic pathway tumors (24 gliomas and 1 embryonal tumor), mostly located at the hypothalamic-chiasmatic transition (n=21; 84.0%) with visual abnormalities reported by parents (n=17; 68.0%). The mean grating acuity deficit was 0.60 ± 0.36 logMAR (median, 0.56 logMAR). Visual impairment was detected in all cases and was classified as mild in 10 (40.0%), moderate in 8 (32.0%), and severe in 7 (28.0%) children, along with increased interocular differences (>0.1 logMAR) (n=16; 64.0%). The remarkable ophthalmological abnormalities were nystagmus (n=17; 68.0%), optic disc cupping and/or pallor (n=13; 52.0%), strabismus (n=12; 48.0%), and poor visual behavior (n=9; 36.0%). Conclusion: In children with optic pathway tumors who were unable to perform recognition acuity tests, it was possible to quantify visual impairment by sweep-visually evoked potentials and to evaluate interocular differences in acuity. The severity of age-based grating visual acuity deficit and interocular differences was in accordance with ophthalmological abnormalities and neuroimaging results. Grating visual acuity deficit is useful for characterizing visual status in children with optic pathway tumors and for supporting neuro-oncologic management.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o grau de deficiência visual em crianças com tumores da via óptica incapazes de informar a acuidade visual de reconhecimento. Método: A acuidade visual de grades, em logMAR, foi estimada por potenciais visuais evocados de varredura em crianças com tumores das vias ópticas. O déficit da acuidade visual de grades binocular foi calculado em relação ao valor mediano normativo esperado para a idade e a deficiência visual, classificada como leve (0,10 a 0,39 logMAR), moderada (0,40 a 0,79 logMAR) ou grave (≥0,80 logMAR). Diferenças inter-oculares foram calculadas por subtração e consideradas aumentadas se >0,10 logMAR. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 25 crianças (13 meninos; média de idade ± DP=35,1± 25,9 meses; mediana=32,0 meses) com tumores da via óptica (24 gliomas e 1 tumor embrionário) localizados particularmente na transição hipotalâmico-quiasmática (n=21; 84,0%) e com anormalidades visuais detectadas pelos pais (n=17; 68,0%). A média do déficit da acuidade de grades foi 0,60 ± 0,36 logMAR (mediana=0,56 logMAR). Observou-se deficiência visual leve em 10 (40,0%), moderada em 8 (32,0%) e grave em 7 (28,0%), além de aumento da diferença interocular da acuidade visual (n=16; 64,0%). As principais alterações oftalmológicas encontradas foram: nistagmo (n=17; 68,0%), aumento da escavação do disco óptico e/ou palidez (n=13; 52,0%), estrabismo (n=12; 48,0%) e comportamento visual pobre (n=9; 36,0%). Conclusão: Em crianças com tumor da via óptica e incapazes de responder aos testes de acuidade visual de reconhecimento, foi possível quantificar deficiência visual por meio dos potenciais visuais evocados de varredura e avaliar a diferença interocular da acuidade visual de grades. A gravidade do déficit da acuidade visual de grades relacionado à idade e a diferença interocular da acuidade visual de grades foram congruentes com alterações oftalmológicas e neuroimagem. O déficit da acuidade visual de grades foi útil à caracterização do estado visual em crianças com tumores da via óptica e ao embasamento da assistência neuro-oncológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Visual Pathways/pathology , Visual Acuity , Optic Nerve Glioma/pathology , Vision Disorders/etiology , Evoked Potentials, Visual
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of five-element acupuncture on the cognitive function repair of migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder.@*METHODS@#The migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder (19 cases, 5 cases dropped off) were taken as the observation group, and received five-element acupuncture twice a week for 8 weeks. Healthy subjects (19 cases) were selected by demographic data matching as the control group. The cognitive function was evaluated with the event related potential (ERP) technique, and the latency and amplitude of visual evoked potential P300 were adopted as the observation indexes. The headache days (every 4 weeks), headache intensity [visual analogue scale(VAS) score], and headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score were used as the observation indexes for curative effect.@*RESULTS@#Before the treatment, latency of target stimulus at Fz [ (417.5±34.3) ms] in the observation group was extended compared with the healthy subjects of the control group [(388.6±42.1) ms, @*CONCLUSION@#There are some cognitive impairments in migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder. Five-element acupuncture not only relieves headache, anxiety and depression effectively, but also improves the activation level of the frontal lobe. It significantly repairs the impaired cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Cognition , Depression/therapy , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe clinical effect of acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation on cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children aged 3-10 years and influence on the pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 cases of children aged 3-10 years with CVI were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The children in the control group received conventional visual stimulation therapy, 1 month as a course of treatment. On the basis of the control group, the children in the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Jingming (BL 1), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Sibai (ST 2), etc. 3 times a week, and the treatment was given 4 weeks continuously as a course. Both groups received 3 courses of treatment. The visual acuity and P-VEP improvement were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the incubation period (P100-L) of the two groups was shorter than before treatment, and the amplitude (P100-A) was higher than before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation can improve the incubation period (P100-L) and amplitude (P100-A) of P-VEP in children with CVI, and improve the best corrected visual acuity in children, the clinical effect is better than the conventional visual stimulation alone.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Vision Disorders/therapy
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(4): e744, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093732

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El potencial evocado visual es una técnica que permite la evaluación de la integridad funcional de la vía visual; su aplicación en niños pequeños resulta de gran dificultad. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde el punto de vista fisiológico el potencial evocado visual en niños menores de 5 años. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, donde se registran respuestas visuales obtenidas con diodos (montados en gafas) en 112 niños sanos (65 varones, 47 hembras) con rango de edad entre 3 meses y 5 años. Se calcularon los valores medios y desviación estándar de latencias y amplitudes de cada componente de la respuesta y se estimaron sus dinámicas madurativas en función de la edad. Se utilizó un análisis de componentes principales para explicar la variabilidad morfológica (complejo N1-P1-N2) y, se calculó una ecuación discriminante (con indicadores de replicación y relación señal/ruido), para evaluar la contribución en su mejor detección. Resultados: La morfología típica encontrada resultó consistente, replicable y mostró un nivel de detección visual > 90 por ciento (para cada componente), con 85 por ciento de acierto global (clasificaciones correctas) mediante la ecuación discriminante. El complejo N1-P1-N2, consigue explicar > 70 por ciento de la varianza de esta respuesta. Se demostró un acortamiento significativo de latencia con la edad (regresión, p≤ 0,05) para los componentes N1, P1 (marginal, N2). Los valores de amplitud resultaron de mayor dispersión y su tendencia al incremento no alcanzó significación. Conclusiones: El registro del potencial evocado visual mediante diodos/gafas demuestra la obtención de respuestas fisiológicas consistentes y replicables (alta detectabilidad) con una variabilidad morfológica controlable(AU)


Introduction: The Visual Evoked Potentials is a neurophysiological technique to provide an objective assessment of the functional integrity of the visual pathway. However, the young children population is a particularly difficult (uncooperative) group to obtain visual responses. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe electrophysiological characteristics of the visual response in children. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Transient visual evoked potentials with goggles were recorded from 112 healthy children (65 males, 47 females) aged between 3 months to 5 years old. The mean (and standard deviations) for latencies and amplitudes of each component was calculated and both statistical significance in function of age was analyzed (linear regression model). Principal component analysis is use to explain the visual waveform variability. A discriminant equation (with indicators of reliability and noise/signal ratio) is calculate to evaluate contribution in detectability. Results: The typical waveform of (N1, P1, N2, components) is consistent and reliable and showed a visual detection level >90 percent (for each component) and 85 percent of global success (good classifications) with the discriminant equation. N1-P1-N2 complex is able to explain >70 percent of the visual response variance. A significant reduction of N1, P1 (N2, marginal) latencies with increasing age is demonstrated (linear regression, p≤0.05). There was no significant difference for age-dependent increased pattern of amplitude data (high variability). Conclusions: The visual evoked potentials/goggles obtained in infants and young children are consistent and reliable physiological responses (high detectability) with recognizable morphological variability(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Eyeglasses/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 51-56, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002605

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar los procesos atencionales a estímulos visuales que no requieren repuesta motora, se llevó a cabo un estudio con potenciales evocados a 17 niños con trastornos del déficit de atención/ hiperactividad (TDAH-I) con predominio inatento y a 15 controles de edades entre 7 y 11 años. Se analizó la latencia y localización de fuentes de los potenciales evocados visuales tempranos P100 y N100 durante la realización de una tarea oddball visual (20% rayas horizontales y 80% verticales) en que las rayas verticales no exigían respuesta motora. Los resultados indican que los niños con TDAH-I procesan la información visual que no requiere respuesta motora con un mayor aumento de la actividad cerebral y mediante la vía temporal ventral mientras que el grupo control lo hace mediante la vía parietal dorsal. Este proceso neurobiológico de procesamiento de la información visual vía temporal ventral de los niños con TDAH-I podría deberse a alteraciones en los procesos emocionales que influyen directamente en el reconocimiento visual o a un déficit en el control de los procesos atencionales por parte de la vía parietal dorsal.


To evaluate attentional processes to visual stimuli that do not require motor response, a study with evoked potentials was carried out on 17 children with attention deficit disorder predominantly inattentive (ADDH-I) and 15 controls between the ages of 7 and 11 years. The latency and localization of sources of the early visual evoked potentials P100 and N100 were analyzed during the performance of a visual oddball task (20% horizontal and 80% vertical lines) where the vertical lines did not require motor response. The results indicate that ADDH-I group process visual information that does not require motor response with a greater increase in brain activity and through the ventral temporal pathway, while the control group does so by means of the dorsal parietal stream. This neurobiological process of visual information processing by ventral temporal pathway of ADDH-I group could be due to alterations in emotional processes that directly influence visual recognition or as consequence of deficit in the control of attentional processes by the dorsal parietal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Parietal Lobe/physiology , Attention/physiology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
6.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(1): e162, Jan.-Mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093383

ABSTRACT

A descriptive and traverse study was performed in patients with diagnosis of optic neuritis, that attended to the neuro ophthalmology service of the ophthalmological center, at the Santiago General Hospital Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso , from the province of Santiago de Cuba, with less than a week of evolution of the disease, and visual acuity greater than 0.3, cooperatives and without refractive opacities, or neuro ophthalmologic diseases, during the period from December 2017 to November 2018. Ophthalmological clinical evaluations and electrophysiological studies of visual evoked potentials to pattern reversal, at diagnosis and eight weeks of evolution were carried out. Objective: To identify the relationship possible between the electrophysiological parameters obtained by visual evoked potentials with the ophthalmological clinical evaluation. Results: alterations predominantly of the parameters of latency and duration of the visual evoked potentials, in relation to the impairment of the clinical evaluations explored. Conclusions: The visual evoked potentials are an effective tool in diagnosis, and complement the clinical evaluation of patients with optic neuritis(AU)


Subject(s)
Visual Acuity , Optic Neuritis , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774151

ABSTRACT

Attention can concentrate our mental resources on processing certain interesting objects, which is an important mental behavior and cognitive process. Recognizing attentional states have great significance in improving human's performance and reducing errors. However, it still lacks a direct and standardized way to monitor a person's attentional states. Based on the fact that visual attention can modulate the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), we designed a go/no-go experimental paradigm with 10 Hz steady state visual stimulation in background to investigate the separability of SSVEP features modulated by different visual attentional states. The experiment recorded the EEG signals of 15 postgraduate volunteers under high and low visual attentional states. High and low visual attentional states are determined by behavioral responses. We analyzed the differences of SSVEP signals between the high and low attentional levels, and applied classification algorithms to recognize such differences. Results showed that the discriminant canonical pattern matching (DCPM) algorithm performed better compared with the linear discrimination analysis (LDA) algorithm and the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) algorithm, which achieved up to 76% in accuracy. Our results show that the SSVEP features modulated by different visual attentional states are separable, which provides a new way to monitor visual attentional states.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Attention , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Photic Stimulation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been frequently reported that non-negligible numbers of individuals have steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses of low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) to specific stimulation frequencies, which makes detection of the SSVEP difficult especially in brain–computer interface applications. We investigated whether SSVEP can be modulated by anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex. METHODS: Each participant participated in two 20-min experiments—an actual tDCS experiment and a sham tDCS experiment—that were conducted on different days. Two representative electroencephalogram (EEG) features used for the SSVEP detection, SNR and amplitude, were tested for pre- and post-tDCS conditions to observe the effect of the anodal tDCS. RESULTS: The EEG features were significantly enhanced by the anodal tDCS for the electrodes with low pre-tDCS SNR values, whereas the effect was not significant for electrodes with relatively higher SNR values. CONCLUSION: Anodal tDCS of the visual cortex may be effective in enhancing the SNR and amplitude of the SSVEP response especially for individuals with low-SNR SSVEP.


Subject(s)
Electrodes , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Visual Cortex
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718213

ABSTRACT

Preliminary studies have claimed that short term fasting would negatively affect school performance and cognition. In contrast some other studies have reported not important decline in cognition and executive function as a result of fasting. Also limited attention was generally devoted to dietetic regimens, nutritional status and body weight. Yet neuroscience and neuro-cognitive aspects of acute hunger on the electroencephalogram and differences between obese and non-obese cases is not well understood. Hence, we decided to design and perform a case study in a more controlled situation similar to reality. Therefore, we performed several examinations including subjective tests (for eating status) and objective tests (cognitive tests such as Stroop effect and Sternberg search and electroencephalogram measures such as steady-state visual evoked potential and auditory steady-state responses) for an obese and a non-obese academic case before and after a simple breakfast. The results showed that the breakfast effects on the neuro-cognitive functions depend on either obesity status, nutritional status of the case or the type of cognitive task (visual or auditory). This paper would open a new insight to answer some important questions about the neuro-cognitive implications of fasting and feeding in obese and non-obese human cases.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Breakfast , Cognition , Eating , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Executive Function , Fasting , Humans , Hunger , Neurosciences , Nutritional Status , Obesity , Stroop Test
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can be used to detect optic neuritis (ON). However, the comparative sensitivities of OCT and VEPs for detecting ON in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are unclear, and so we assessed these sensitivities. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 73 patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive NMOSD, and 101 eyes with ON. The clinical characteristics, visual acuity (VA), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and VEPs of the patients were evaluated. RESULTS: OCT and VEPs were abnormal in 68% and 73% of eyes with a history of ON, respectively, and in 2% and 9% of eyes without ON. Test sensitivities were influenced by the number of ON episodes: the OCT RNFL thickness and VEPs were abnormal in 50% and 67% of the eyes with first-ever ON episode, respectively (p=0.041), with the combination of both tests detecting abnormalities in up to 75% of the eyes. The sensitivities of the OCT RNFL thickness and VEPs increased to 95% and 83%, respectively, after the second or subsequent ON episode (p=0.06), with the combination of both tests detecting abnormalities in 95% of cases. The OCT RNFL thickness and VEP latency/amplitude were correlated with EDSS scores and VA. CONCLUSIONS: VEPs were superior for detecting subclinical or first-ever ON, while OCT was better for detecting eyes with multiple ON episodes. The correlations of OCT and VEPs with clinical disability measures indicate that these tests are potential markers of the disease burden in NMOSD.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Nerve Fibers , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Pathways
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with developmental disorder according to visual evoked potential (VEP) results. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed children who visited our Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine with a chief complaint of developmental disability from January 2001 to July 2015. Of the 549 medical records reviewed, 322 children younger than 42 months who underwent both Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development second edition (BSID-II) and VEP studies were enrolled. We compared the development of 182 children with normal VEP latency and 140 children with delayed VEP latency results using the BSID-II results. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The delayed VEP latency group showed a significant delay in BSID-II index scores and developmental quotients compared with the normal VEP latency group. In addition, a comparative analysis of developmental quotients of mental and psychomotor domains according to age (younger than 12 months, 12–23 months, and 24–42 months) revealed significantly lower values in children with delayed VEP latency compared to children with normal VEP latency, younger than 12 months and from 12 to 23 months. CONCLUSION: Children with delayed VEP latency showed more developmental delay than children with normal VEP latency. It is suggested that VEP can be easily applied to children with suspected developmental delay when physicians have concerns about visual impairment. Furthermore, it is proposed that VEP results could provide an insight into children's development and serve as early indicators for consultation with an ophthalmologist for the existing problem.


Subject(s)
Child , Developmental Disabilities , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Infant , Medical Records , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Vision Disorders , Weights and Measures
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2164-2171, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690249

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by asymmetric muscular deficit of facial, shoulder-girdle muscles, and descending to lower limb muscles, but it exists in several extramuscular manifestations or overlapping syndromes. Herein, we report a "complex disease plus" patient with FSHD1, accompanied by peripheral neuropathy and myoclonic epilepsy.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Standard clinical assessments, particular auxiliary examination, histological analysis, and molecular analysis were performed through the new Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Form, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based Southern blot, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), whole exome sequencing (WES), and targeted methylation sequencing.</p><p><b>Results</b>The patient presented with mild facial weakness, humeral poly-hill sign, scapular winging, peroneal weakness, drop foot, pes cavus, and myoclonic epilepsy. Furthermore, electrophysiology revealed severely demyelinated and axonal injury. The muscle and nerve biopsy revealed broadly fiber Type II grouping atrophy and myelinated nerve fibers that significantly decreased with thin myelinated fibers and onion bulbs changes. Generalized sharp and sharp-slow wave complexes on electroencephalography support the diagnosis toward myoclonic epilepsy. In addition, molecular testing demonstrated a co-segregated 20-kb 4q35-EcoRI fragment and permissive allele A, which corresponded with D4Z4 hypomethylation status in the family. Both the patient's mother and brother only presented the typical FSHD but lacked overlapping syndromes. However, no mutations for hereditary peripheral neuropathy and myoclonic epilepsy were discovered by MLPA and WES.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The present study described a "tripe trouble" with FSHD, peripheral neuropathy, and myoclonic epilepsy, adding the spectrum of overlapping syndromes and contributing to the credible diagnosis of atypical phenotype. It would provide a direct clue on medical care and genetic counseling.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(1): 20-27, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic vascular complications are associated with elevated concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). These substances can be originated endogenously by hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress, but also by dietary intake. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these complications can be prevented by lowering AGEs levels by dietary or pharmacological interventions, however its clinical benefits are still not clear enough because this would require long periods of treatment. Specific neuro-ophthalmologic tests like Multifocal Electroretinogram (MFERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) can detect retinal and myelinic nerve early changes, and thus could represent good methods to study the results of certain interventions in shorter lapses. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effects of a pharmacological intervention designed to lower AGEs levels, on these variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 7 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), with more than 5 and less than 10 years of disease, without clinically evident micro and macrovascular disease, without renal failure, hypothyroidism nor vitamin B12 deficiency, whose AGEs dietary intake was moderately elevated or high (according to dietary recalls). Upon admission, a clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained for routine labs, plus ultrasensitive C Reactive Protein (usCRP) as an inflammatory marker, and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) as representative of AGEs. Then a complete ophthalmologic evaluation was performed, including fundus, MFERG and VEP. After the initial evaluation, placebo capsules were prescribed (12 daily capsules, 4 with each main meal) during 3 months, repeating the same initial evaluation at completion of this period. Then the active treatment followed, with capsules containing cholestyramine (4 capsules containing 500 mg each, totaling 6 g per day). Patients were cited each month, to register adverse events and repeating the same evaluation after this second 3 months period. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 2 male patients, mean age was 55.1 ± 3.8 years, and diabetes was managed with metformin plus other oral agents or o insulin (4 cases). In addition, 4 patients received lipid lowering and 4 antihypertensive drugs. Metabolic control and lipid levels were variable (ranges of HbA1c 6.2-8.4%, LDL cholesterol 45-141 mg/dL, triglycerides 70-220 mg/dL). AGEs levels represented by CML were highly variable (median 31.7, range min-max 3.4-58.9 ug/uL). Basal usCRP was also variable (median 405.9, range min-max 265.6-490.7 mg/L). The treatment was well tolerated, except for mild constipation associated with cholestiramine intake. No significant changes in electroretinography or evoked potentials were observed when comparing the initial placebo period with cholestyramine treatment. A significant increase in triglyceride levels and decrease of vitamin D levels after cholestyramine treatment was observed. No changes were detected in serum concentrations of CML, usCRP or glycemic control, after treatment. The latter variables were not correlated with neurophthalmologic studies. DISCUSSION: In this preliminary study we did not observe changes in MFERG nor VEP after 6 g/day cholestyramine treatment, which did not induce lowering of CML levels. This could be attributed to the many limitations of a pilot study, such as a small sample size, short duration of treatment, reduced doses. However this design allowed to evaluate the patients´ tolerance to the drug and rule out adverse effects, in order to plan further studies using the necessary doses to obtain lowering of AGEs


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Retina , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Glycation End Products, Advanced/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Electroretinography , Pilot Projects , Glycation End Products, Advanced/blood , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Lysine/analogs & derivatives , Lysine/drug effects , Lysine/blood
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 355-358, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895418

ABSTRACT

O potencial evocado visual (PEV) é técnica eletrodiagnóstica que permite avaliação das vias visuais. O PEV de 20 cães e 20 ovinos adultos, de ambos os sexos, foram obtidos para estudo normativo. Foram utilizados eletrodos de agulha monopolar posicionados em O1 e O2 (ativos), em Fpz (referência comum) e em Cz (terra). O estímulo foi na forma de flash a 1Hz. Dezessete cães e 17 ovinos foram incluídos no estudo, pois apresentaram potenciais auditivos com boa qualidade técnica. Os resultados da avaliação dos dois olhos foram agrupados, totalizando 34 exames em cada espécie. O achado mais consistente em todos os exames foi uma deflexão eletropositiva, com latência média de 55,4ms em cães (P55) e 63,75ms em ovinos (P63). Outras duas ondas eletronegativas também foram identificadas: N31 e N75 em cães; e N42 e N86 em ovinos. A metodologia utilizada neste estudo permitiu obtenção de potenciais visuais com pequena variabilidade, sendo útil para avaliação de animais com suspeita de alteração nas vias visuais centrais.(AU)


The visual evoked potential (VEP) is an electro-diagnostic technique that allows assessment of visual pathways. The VEP from 20 adult dogs and 20 adult sheep of both gender was obtained for normative study. Monopolar electrode needles were placed in O1 and O2 (active), Fpz (common reference) and Cz (ground). The stimuli were flash at 1Hz. Seventeen dogs and 17 sheep were included in the study because they had auditory potentials with good technical quality. The results from both eyes were grouped, totaling 34 results in each species. The most consistent result in all tests was an electropositive deflection, with a mean latency 55.4ms in dogs (P55) and 63.75ms in sheep (P63). Two negative deflections were also identified: N31 and N75 in dogs, and N42 and N86 in sheep. The methodology used in this study allowed to obtain potential similar to those described in other studies, with little variability, and is useful for evaluation of animals with suspected changes in the central visual pathways.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Sheep/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/veterinary , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological/veterinary
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether the simultaneous recording of photopic electroretinography (ERG) and flash visual evoked potential (VEP) can predict the postoperative outcome in diabetic cases where massive vitreous hemorrhage precludes fundus observation. METHODS: The photopic ERG and flash VEP were recorded simultaneously on 20 eyes of 20 normal subjects, and 23 eyes of 23 patients who were diagnosed with Grade IV vitreous hemorrhage d/t diabetic retinopathy. Of the 23 patients, fellow eyes were diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and they underwent pars plana vitrectomy after the test. Three groups were analyzed the responses of photopic ERG and flash VEP. Best corrected visual acuity was also checked before and after the surgery. After the 8 weeks after the vitrectomy, two groups were formed, based on the outcome of surgery and these two groups were analyzed the preoperative response of photopic ERG and flash VEP. RESULTS: When comparing the groups between proliferative diabetic retinopathy and normal eyes, Grade IV vitreous hemorrhage and fellow eyes, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in a wave amplitude, a wave implicit time, b wave amplitude, b wave implicit time of photopic ERG and P2 peak time of flash VEP. In addition, a wave amplitude of photopic ERG showed the best predictive ability (area under receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curve value of 0.88) when comparing improved visual acuity group to the unimproved visual acuity group. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous recordings of photopic ERG and flash VEP showed the decreased function of retina and optic pathway on eyes with vitreous hemorrhage precluding inspection of the fundus. In addition, preoperative photopic ERG and flash VEP can safely predict the outcome of vitrectomy in dense vitreous hemorrhage of diabetics.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Retinopathy , Electroretinography , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Retina , ROC Curve , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Hemorrhage
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129460

ABSTRACT

The visual system of newborn infants is not like that of adults. Both ocular and neural structures essential for vision will undergo anatomical and physiological changes as maturation process. The maturation of all visual systems occurs relatively rapidly in normal children. So, early examination of visual acuity is critical for normal visual funciton achievement. Visual acuity in preverbal children can be assessed using several techniques, such as fixation and following behavior under both monocular and binocular conditions, the optokinetic nystagmus technique, preferential looking, visual evoked potential, and recognition acuity using a vision chart. Most clinicians consider the standard technique of recognition acuity to be the gold standard for visual acuity assessments, 20/20 vision should be achieved by 7 years of age. Significant refractive error, a high degree of hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism may result in not only blurred vision, but also strabismus and amblyopia. Therefore, early vision screening is very valuable. Subjective and objective refractive techniques are standard for detecting significant refractive errors in children and are available under either non-cycloplegic or cycloplegic conditions. Amblyopia is the most common cause of vision loss in children and young adults, defining as a reduction of best-corrected visual acuity due to the interruption of normal visual development during the so-called sensitive period. If the problem is not identified until the sensitive period is complete, the vision loss is permanent. Visual impairment in childhood affects all aspects of the child's development. Earlier treatment is associated with better outcomes. Of course, patient compliance and parental support are the most important factors contributing to treatment success.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amblyopia , Astigmatism , Child , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Hyperopia , Infant, Newborn , Myopia , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Parents , Patient Compliance , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Telescopes , Vision Disorders , Vision Screening , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129445

ABSTRACT

The visual system of newborn infants is not like that of adults. Both ocular and neural structures essential for vision will undergo anatomical and physiological changes as maturation process. The maturation of all visual systems occurs relatively rapidly in normal children. So, early examination of visual acuity is critical for normal visual funciton achievement. Visual acuity in preverbal children can be assessed using several techniques, such as fixation and following behavior under both monocular and binocular conditions, the optokinetic nystagmus technique, preferential looking, visual evoked potential, and recognition acuity using a vision chart. Most clinicians consider the standard technique of recognition acuity to be the gold standard for visual acuity assessments, 20/20 vision should be achieved by 7 years of age. Significant refractive error, a high degree of hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism may result in not only blurred vision, but also strabismus and amblyopia. Therefore, early vision screening is very valuable. Subjective and objective refractive techniques are standard for detecting significant refractive errors in children and are available under either non-cycloplegic or cycloplegic conditions. Amblyopia is the most common cause of vision loss in children and young adults, defining as a reduction of best-corrected visual acuity due to the interruption of normal visual development during the so-called sensitive period. If the problem is not identified until the sensitive period is complete, the vision loss is permanent. Visual impairment in childhood affects all aspects of the child's development. Earlier treatment is associated with better outcomes. Of course, patient compliance and parental support are the most important factors contributing to treatment success.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amblyopia , Astigmatism , Child , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Hyperopia , Infant, Newborn , Myopia , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Parents , Patient Compliance , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Telescopes , Vision Disorders , Vision Screening , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34200

ABSTRACT

In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region. Intraoperative flash VEP monitoring allows detection of dysfunction arising anywhere in the optic pathway, from the retina to the visual cortex. Particularly important steps to obtain reproducible intraoperative flash VEP waveforms under general anesthesia are total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, use of retinal flash stimulation devices using high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and a combination of electroretinography to confirm that the flash stimulus has reached the retina. Relatively major postoperative visual impairment can be detected by intraoperative decreases in the flash VEP amplitude.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Electroretinography , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Geniculate Bodies , Humans , Intraoperative Period , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Neurosurgical Procedures , Occipital Lobe , Optic Chiasm , Optic Nerve , Optic Tract , Propofol , Retina , Retinaldehyde , Vision Disorders , Visual Cortex
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14456

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of steroid treatment (intravenous injection, oral) in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS: From January, 2005 to December, 2016, 41 patients who were diagnosed with NAION and observed for more than 6 months were included in this study. The treatment was decided based on patient's choice after explaining the advantages and disadvantages of steroid therapy. The patients were divided into three groups (intravenous steroid injection, oral steroid, no treatment). Initial visual acuity, final visual acuity, degree of visual field defect, fluorescein angiography, visual evoked potential and brain magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by chart review. RESULTS: The chief complaints of the 41 NAION patients at the first visit were decreased visual acuity (n = 24), visual field defect (n = 10), no symptoms (n = 4), diplopia (n = 2), and floaters (n = 1). The distribution of the patients according to steroid administration method was 15 patients with intravenous steroid injection, 14 patients with oral steroid and 12 patients with no treatment. The improvement in visual acuity was greatest in intravenous steroid injection (87%), oral steroid (43%) and no treatment (33%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective comparison of treatment effects after explaining the advantages and disadvantages of steroid therapy in patients with NAION, the intravenous steroid injection group showed 87% improvement in visual acuity and an odds ratio of 5.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–28.88, p-value 0.04), while the oral steroid group showed 43% improvement and an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 0.30–7.43, p-value 0.62). The steroid treatment group showed better visual acuity improvement than the no treatment group, and the intravenous steroid injection group showed 5.5 times greater improvement in visual acuity compared to the no treatment group.


Subject(s)
Brain , Diplopia , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Odds Ratio , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 294-298, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity and transient pattern reversal (PR) visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the fellow eyes of children with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children diagnosed with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia were recruited for electrophysiological assessment by VEPs. Monocular grating and optotype acuity were measured using sweep-VEPs and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, respectively. During the same visit, transient PR-VEPs of each eye were recorded using stimuli subtending with a visual angle of 60', 15', and 7.5'. Parameters of amplitude (in μV) and latency (in ms) were determined from VEP recordings. Results: A group of 40 strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopic children (22 females: 55%, mean age= 8.7 ± 2.2 years, median= 8 years) was examined. A control group of 19 healthy children (13 females: 68.4%, mean age= 8.2 ± 2.6 years, median= 8 years) was also included. The fellow eyes of all amblyopes had significantly worse optotype acuity (p=0.021) than the control group, regardless of whether they were strabismic (p=0.040) or anisometropic (p=0.048). Overall, grating acuity was significantly worse in the fellow eyes of amblyopes (p=0.016) than in healthy controls. Statistically prolonged latency for visual angles of 15' and 7.5' (p=0.018 and 0.002, respectively) was found in the strabismic group when compared with the control group. For the smaller visual stimulus (7.5'), statistically prolonged latency was found among all fellow eyes of amblyopic children (p<0.001). Conclusions: The fellow eyes of amblyopic children showed worse optotype and grating acuity, with subtle abnormalities in the PR-VEP detected as prolonged latencies for smaller size stimuli when compared with eyes of healthy children. These findings show the deleterious effects of amblyopia in several distinct visual functions, mainly those related to spatial vision.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a acuidade visual e os potenciais visuais evocados transientes por reversão de padrões no olho contralateral de crianças com ambliopia estrabísmica e/ou anisometrópica. Métodos: Foram avaliados os potenciais visuais evocados de crianças com ambliopia estrabísmica e/ou anisometrópica. As acuidades visuais monoculares de grades e de optotipos foram mensuradas utilizando o PVE de varredura e a tabela EDTRS, respectivamente. Na mesma visita, foram registrados os PVERP transients de cada olho usando estímulos de ângulo visual de 60'; 15' e 7,5'. Parâmetros de amplitude (em microvolts) e latência (em milissegundos) foram determinados para os registros dos potenciais visuais evocados. Resultados: Um grupo de 40 crianças amblíopes estrábicas e/ou anisometrópicas (22 meninas - 55%, media idade= 8,7 ± 2,2, mediana= 8) foi examinado. Um grupo de 19 crianças saudáveis (13 meninas 68,4%, media idade= 8,2 ± 2,6, mediana= 8) de controle também foi incluído. A acuidade visual por optotipos foi significativamente pior (p=0,021) nos olhos contralaterais de todos os amblíopes, quando comparado com o grupo controle, independentemente se estrábico (p=0,040) ou anisometrópico (p=0,048). No geral, a acuidade visual por grades foi significativamente pior nos olhos contralaterais dos amblíopes (p=0,016), quando comparados com o grupo controle. Foi encontrada latência estatisticamente prolongada para ângulos visuais de 15' (p=0,018) e 7,5' (p=0,002) no grupo estrábico, quando comparado com o grupo controle. Para o menor estímulo visual (7,5') foi encontrada latência estatisticamente prolongada nos olhos contralaterais de todas crianças amblíopes (p<0,001). Conclusões: Os olhos contralaterais de crianças amblíopes mostraram pior acuidade visual de optotipo e de resolução de grades, com alterações sutis nos PVERP, detectadas pelas latências prolongadas para estímulos de menor tamanho, quando comparados com os olhos de crianças saudáveis. Estes resultados mostram os efeitos deletérios da ambliopia em várias funções visuais distintas, principalmente relacionadas à visão espacial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Visual Acuity/physiology , Amblyopia/physiopathology , Strabismus/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Eye/physiopathology , Photic Stimulation , Reference Values , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
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