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1.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 14-19, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352557

ABSTRACT

Ha surgido una nueva variante de preocupación de SARS-CoV-2, cuyos efectos en la evolución de la pandemia parecen inciertos. Sin embargo, ha comenzado a surgir evidencia con respecto al comportamiento viral en cuanto a su transmisibilidad, unión a receptor de la célula hospedadora y escape del sistema inmune. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de los datos existentes en la literatura respecto a los aspectos microbiológicos y epidemiológicos que pueden ayudarnos a comprender las futuras investigaciones en esta variante.(AU)


A new variant of concern for SARS-CoV-2 has emerged, the effects of which on the evolution of the pandemic appear uncertain. However, evidence has begun to emerge regarding viral behavior in terms of its transmissibility, receptor binding on the host cell, and escape from the immune system. We present an updated review of the existing data in the literature regarding the microbiological and epidemiological aspects that can help us understand future research on this variant.(AU)


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4187-4200, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921498

ABSTRACT

The amino acid sequence of ancestral enzymes from extinct organisms can be deduced through in silico approach termed ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR). ASR usually has six steps, which are the collection of nucleic acid/amino acid sequences of modern enzymes, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, computational deduction of ancestral enzyme sequence, gene cloning, and characterization of enzyme properties. This method is widely used to study the adaptation and evolution mechanism of molecules to the changing environmental conditions on planetary time scale. As enzymes play key roles in biocatalysis, this method has become a powerful method for studying the relationship among the sequence, structure, and function of enzymes. Notably, most of the ancestral enzymes show better temperature stability and mutation stability, making them ideal protein scaffolds for further directed evolution. This article summarizes the computer algorithms, applications, and commonly used computer software of ASR, and discusses the potential application in directed evolution of enzymes.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Evolution, Molecular , Phylogeny , Proteins/genetics , Sequence Alignment
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880705

ABSTRACT

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification that regulates many biological processes, such as DNA damage repair. During DNA repair, ADP-ribosylation needs to be reversed by ADP-ribosylhydrolases. A group of ADP-ribosylhydrolases have a catalytic domain, namely the macrodomain, which is conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to humans. Not all macrodomains remove ADP-ribosylation. One set of macrodomains loses enzymatic activity and only binds to ADP-ribose (ADPR). Here, we summarize the biological functions of these macrodomains in DNA damage repair and compare the structure of enzymatically active and inactive macrodomains. Moreover, small molecular inhibitors have been developed that target macrodomains to suppress DNA damage repair and tumor growth. Macrodomain proteins are also expressed in pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, these domains may not be directly involved in DNA damage repair in the hosts or pathogens. Instead, they play key roles in pathogen replication. Thus, by targeting macrodomains it may be possible to treat pathogen-induced diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Repair/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , N-Glycosyl Hydrolases/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880488

ABSTRACT

Lycophytes and seed plants constitute the typical vascular plants. Lycophytes have been thought to have no paleo-polyploidization although the event is known to be critical for the fast expansion of seed plants. Here, genomic analyses including the homologous gene dot plot analysis detected multiple paleo-polyploidization events, with one occurring approximately 13-15 million years ago (MYA) and another about 125-142 MYA, during the evolution of the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, a model lycophyte. In addition, comparative analysis of reconstructed ancestral genomes of lycophytes and angiosperms suggested that lycophytes were affected by more paleo-polyploidization events than seed plants. Results from the present genomic analyses indicate that paleo-polyploidization has contributed to the successful establishment of both lineages-lycophytes and seed plants-of vascular plants.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Polyploidy , Selaginellaceae/genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880486

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) and Scutellaria barbata (S. barbata) are common medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family. Both produce specific flavonoid compounds, including baicalein, scutellarein, norwogonin, and wogonin, as well as their glycosides, which exhibit antioxidant and antitumor activities. Here, we report chromosome-level genome assemblies of S. baicalensis and S. barbata with quantitative chromosomal variation (2n = 18 and 2n = 26, respectively). The divergence of S. baicalensis and S. barbata occurred far earlier than previously reported, and a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event was identified. The insertion of long terminal repeat elements after speciation might be responsible for the observed chromosomal expansion and rearrangement. Comparative genome analysis of the congeneric species revealed the species-specific evolution of chrysin and apigenin biosynthetic genes, such as the S. baicalensis-specific tandem duplication of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase, and the S. barbata-specific duplication of genes encoding 4-CoA ligase. In addition, the paralogous duplication, colinearity, and expression diversity of CYP82D subfamily members revealed the functional divergence of genes encoding flavone hydroxylase between S. baicalensis and S. barbata. Analyzing these Scutellaria genomes reveals the common and species-specific evolution of flavone biosynthetic genes. Thus, these findings would facilitate the development of molecular breeding and studies of biosynthesis and regulation of bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Flavonoids/biosynthesis , Genome, Plant , Plant Extracts/genetics , Scutellaria/metabolism , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880484

ABSTRACT

The dynamic activity of transposable elements (TEs) contributes to the vast diversity of genome size and architecture among plants. Here, we examined the genomic distribution and transposition activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and three of its relatives, Arabidopsis lyrata (Aly), Eutrema salsugineum (Esa), and Schrenkiella parvula (Spa), in Brassicaceae. Our analyses revealed the distinct evolutionary dynamics of Gypsyretrotransposons, which reflects the different patterns of genome size changes of the four species over the past million years. The rate of Gypsy transposition in Aly is approximately five times more rapid than that of Ath and Esa, suggesting an expanding Aly genome. Gypsy insertions in Esa are strictly confined to pericentromeric heterochromatin and associated with dramatic centromere expansion. In contrast, Gypsy insertions in Spa have been largely suppressed over the last million years, likely as a result of a combination of an inherent molecular mechanism of preferential DNA removal and purifying selection at Gypsy elements. Additionally, species-specific clades of Gypsy elements shaped the distinct genome architectures of Aly and Esa.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Retroelements , Species Specificity
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828173

ABSTRACT

Recently a COVID-19 pneumonia pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV has broken out over the world. In order to better control the spread of the pandemic, there's an urgent need to extensively study the virus' origin and the mechanisms for its infectivity and pathogenicity. Spike protein is a special structural protein on the surface of coronavirus. It contains important information about the evolution of the virus and plays critical roles in the processes of cellular recognition and entry. In the past decades, spike protein has always been one of the most important objects in research works on coronaviruses closely related to human life. In this review we introduce these research works related to spike proteins, hoping it will provide reasonable ideas for the control of the current pandemic, as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1422-1430, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826834

ABSTRACT

HSP21 gene is a key gene to respond high temperature stress in plant and plays an important role in preventing protein denaturation, protecting cell structure and maintaining normal growth and development. Therefore, cloning HSP21 gene is the basis for revealing the molecular mechanism of resistance to high temperature stress in cassava. To obtain cassava HSP21 homologous gene and analyze the properties of predicted protein, electronic cloning technology was used to assemble and derivate new gene in this study, and bioinformatics analysis method was used to analyze the primary to highest structure, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, signal peptide, protein homology and phylogenetic evolution of expressed protein. HSP21 gene was 969 bp, its open reading frame was 705 bp, and the predicted protein contains 234 amino acids. The predicted protein is a non-transmembrane protein that is alkaline and hydrophilic, and is mainly localized in the chloroplast. Through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was found that the cassava HSP21 protein has high homology with other plants such as Hevea brasiliensis, Ricinus communis, and Jatropha curcas. The results could provide reference for the study of cloning and transformation of this gene.


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts , Cloning, Molecular , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Evolution, Molecular , Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Manihot , Genetics , Phylogeny
10.
Biol. Res ; 53: 23, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) genes are a class of plant specific transcription factors (TFs), which play important roles in plant development, growth and abiotic stress responses. The wheat ASRs have not been described in genome-wide yet. METHODS: We predicted the transmembrane regions and subcellular localization using the TMHMM server, and Plant-mPLoc server and CELLO v2.5, respectively. Then the phylogeny tree was built by MEGA7. The exon-intron structures, conserved motifs and TFs binding sites were analyzed by GSDS, MEME program and PlantRegMap, respectively. RESULTS: In wheat, 33ASR genes were identified through a genome-wide survey and classified into six groups. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the TaASR proteins in the same group tightly clustered together, compared with those from other species. Duplication analysis indicated that the TaASR gene family has expanded mainly through tandem and segmental duplication events. Similar gene structures and conserved protein motifs of TaASRs in wheat were identified in the same groups. ASR genes contained various TF binding cites associated with the stress responses in the promoter region. Gene expression was generally associated with the expected group-specific expression pattern in five tissues, including grain, leaf, root, spike and stem, indicating the broad conservation of ASR genes function during wheat evolution. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that several ASRs were up-regulated in response to NaCl and PEG stress. CONCLUSION: We identified ASR genes in wheat and found that gene duplication events are the main driving force for ASR gene evolution in wheat. The expression of wheat ASR genes was modulated in responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including drought/osmotic and salt stress. The results provided important information for further identifications of the functions of wheat ASR genes and candidate genes for high abiotic stress tolerant wheat breeding.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Abscisic Acid/analysis , Genome, Plant/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Droughts , Phylogeny , Transcription Factors/genetics , Triticum/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To trace a rare case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with a four-way Philadelphia chromosome variant by cytogenetic analysis in order to provide a basis for the selection of treatment.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow morphology, chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) were used for the diagnosis and staging of the disease. Point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ABL1 gene were detected by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was initially diagnosed as CML in chronic phase (CML-CP) with a chromosomal karyotype of 46,XX,t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25), while FISH revealed presence of a variant Philadelphia chromosome translocation. Clonal evolution has occurred after 38 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, when cytogenetic analysis revealed coexisting t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25) and t(5;9;22;6;17)(q13;q34;q11;q25;q11). After 57 months of TKIs treatment, only the t(5;9;22;6;17) clone was detected. Three months later, hyperdiploidy with additional abnormalities were detected in addition to t(5;9;22;6;17). Three mutations, including p.Tyr253Phe, p.Thr315Ile and p.Gly250Glu, were identified in the tyrosine kinase domain of the ABL1 gene during the course of disease. The patient did not attain cytogenetic and molecular response to TKIs.@*CONCLUSION@#The four-way variant translocation may be genetically unstable. Clonal evolution and genetic mutations are likely to occur during TKIs treatment, resulting in poor response to drug therapy. This observation, however, needs to be confirmed by large-scale studies.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Philadelphia Chromosome , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 50(4): 315-320, 20190410. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995958

ABSTRACT

A síndrome mielodisplásica (SMD) é uma doença de diagnóstico complexo e, com bases nas contribuições encontradas na literatura, reunimos as principais ferramentas diagnósticas disponíveis na atualidade e sua aplicação, bem como o avanço nos métodos de diagnóstico, contribuindo para melhor compreensão da doença e futuras pesquisas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar as características da SMD, e apontar os exames realizados para o diagnóstico e seu avanço laboratorial, expondo as novas tecnologias para diagnóstico. Para realizar uma revisão bibliográfica, foi realizado um levantamento de artigos científicos publicados a partir de banco de dados confiáveis como PubMed, Bireme e SciELO, de 2000 a 2016. Foram utilizados os seguintes termos para a pesquisa: síndrome mielodisplásica, displasia e diagnóstico. Incluindo-se publicações no idioma Inglês e Português. A SMD, por se tratar de uma doença clonal ou não clonal, deve ser avaliada desde uma análise de sangue periférico, no qual observa-se uma alteração, e com o isso realizar uma investigação baseando-se em dados clínicos, histopatológicos, citogenéticos e na evolução do paciente. Sendo assim, requer profissionais altamente capacitados e que acompanhem a evolução dos critérios para o diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Diseases , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Evolution, Molecular
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758906

ABSTRACT

The 4a and 4b proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been described for their antagonism on host innate immunity. However, unlike clustering patterns of the complete gene sequences of human and camel MERS-CoVs, the 4a and 4b protein coding regions did not constitute species-specific phylogenetic groups. Moreover, given the estimated evolutionary rates of the complete, 4a, and 4b gene sequences, the 4a and 4b proteins might be less affected by species-specific innate immune pressures. These results suggest that the 4a and 4b proteins of MERS-CoV may function against host innate immunity in a manner independent of host species and/or evolutionary clustering patterns.


Subject(s)
Camelus , Clinical Coding , Coronavirus Infections , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Zoonoses
14.
Biol. Res ; 52: 25, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The morphological diversity of flower organs is closely related to functional divergence within the MADS-box gene family. Bryophytes and seedless vascular plants have MADS-box genes but do not have ABCDE or AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes. ABCDE and AGL6 genes belong to the subgroup of MADS-box genes. Previous works suggest that the B gene was the first ABCDE and AGL6 genes to emerge in plant but there are no mentions about the probable origin time of ACDE and AGL6 genes. Here, we collected ABCDE and AGL6 gene 381 protein sequences and 361 coding sequences from gymnosperms and angiosperms and reconstructed a complete Bayesian phylogeny of these genes. In this study, we want to clarify the probable origin time of ABCDE and AGL6 genes is a great help for understanding the role of the formation of the flower, which can decipher the forming order of MADS-box genes in the future. RESULTS: These genes appeared to have been under purifying selection and their evolutionary rates are not significantly different from each other. Using the Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST) tool, we estimated that: the mutation rate of the ABCDE and AGL6 genes was 2.617 × 10-3 substitutions/site/million years, and that B genes originated 339 million years ago (MYA), CD genes originated 322 MYA, and A genes shared the most recent common ancestor with E/AGL6 296 MYA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogeny of ABCDE and AGL6 genes subfamilies differed. The APETALA1 (AP1 or A gene) subfamily clustered into one group. The APETALA3/PISTILLATA (AP3/PI or B genes) subfamily clustered into two groups: the AP3 and PI clades. The AGAMOUS/SHATTERPROOF/SEEDSTICK (AG/SHP/STK or CD genes) subfamily clustered into a single group. The SEPALLATA (SEP or E gene) subfamily in angiosperms clustered into two groups: the SEP1/2/4 and SEP3 clades. The AGL6 subfamily clustered into a single group. Moreover, ABCDE and AGL6 genes appeared in the following order: AP3/PI → AG/SHP/STK → AGL6/SEP/AP1. In this study, we collected candidate sequences from gymnosperms and angiosperms. This study highlights important events in the evolutionary history of the ABCDE and AGL6 gene families and clarifies their evolutionary path.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Magnoliopsida/genetics , MADS Domain Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Cycadopsida/genetics , Period Circadian Proteins/genetics , Genes, Plant , Genome, Plant , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Evolution, Molecular
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 703-713, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils.


Subject(s)
Bradyrhizobium/isolation & purification , Bradyrhizobium/genetics , Agricultural Inoculants/isolation & purification , Agricultural Inoculants/genetics , Vigna/microbiology , Phylogeny , Symbiosis , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Evolution, Molecular , Bradyrhizobium/classification , Bradyrhizobium/physiology , Genomics , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology , Agricultural Inoculants/classification , Agricultural Inoculants/physiology , Vigna/physiology
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 336-346, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Disease Outbreaks , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/classification , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/genetics , Genotype , Horses , Hospitals, Animal , Neuraminidase/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 712-718, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772375

ABSTRACT

Tumor heterogeneity is one of the characteristics of malignant tumors, which can cause differences in tumor growth rate, invasion, migration, drug sensitivity and prognosis. Discoveries and development upon on tumor-driver genes and targeted therapy paved the way on dealing with cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the existence of tumor heterogeneity makes malignant tumor more hardly to overcome. It is generally present and far more complicated during the process of cancer recurrence, development and evolution. Thus, it has becoming key areas in precision medicine regarding to designing optimal therapeutic approaches targeting the mechanisms and phenotypes of tumor heterogeneity, based on novel detecting techniques and new concepts and theory. This review summarized the current references on tumor heterogeneity, in order to better understand the function and mechanisms, and eventually manage tumor heterogeneity through various methods.
.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Mutation , Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Genetics , Pathology , Therapeutics
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 663-679, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886935

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bioluminescence - visible and cold light emission by living organisms - is a worldwide phenomenon, reported in terrestrial and marine environments since ancient times. Light emission from microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals may have arisen as an evolutionary response against oxygen toxicity and was appropriated for sexual attraction, predation, aposematism, and camouflage. Light emission results from the oxidation of a substrate, luciferin, by molecular oxygen, catalyzed by a luciferase, producing oxyluciferin in the excited singlet state, which decays to the ground state by fluorescence emission. Brazilian Atlantic forests and Cerrados are rich in luminescent beetles, which produce the same luciferin but slightly mutated luciferases, which result in distinct color emissions from green to red depending on the species. This review focuses on chemical and biological aspects of Brazilian luminescent beetles (Coleoptera) belonging to the Lampyridae (fireflies), Elateridae (click-beetles), and Phengodidae (railroad-worms) families. The ATP-dependent mechanism of bioluminescence, the role of luciferase tuning the color of light emission, the "luminous termite mounds" in Central Brazil, the cooperative roles of luciferase and superoxide dismutase against oxygen toxicity, and the hypothesis on the evolutionary origin of luciferases are highlighted. Finally, we point out analytical uses of beetle bioluminescence for biological, clinical, environmental, and industrial samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coleoptera/physiology , Coleoptera/chemistry , Luminescence , Luciferases/metabolism , Behavior, Animal , Brazil , Forests , Evolution, Molecular , Luciferases/chemistry
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