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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3169-3179, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981453

ABSTRACT

Oral solid dosage(OSD) occupies a key position in the market of Chinese patent medicines and new traditional Chinese medicines. Processing route is the foundation for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs. On the basis of prescriptions and preparation methods of 1 308 traditional Chinese medicine OSDs recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, we summarized the patterns of processing routes of both modern dosage forms(tablets, granules, and capsules) and traditional dosage forms(pills and powder) and constructed a manufacturing classification system(MCS) based on the processing routes. Based on the MCS, statistical analyses were conducted respectively on medicinal materials, pharmaceutical excipients, extraction solvents in the pretreatment process, crushed medicinal materials, methods of concentration and purification, and methods of drying and granulation, aiming to uncover the process features. The results showed that each dosage form can be prepared via different routes with different processing methods of decoction pieces and raw materials for dosage preparation. The raw materials for dosage form preparation of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs included total extract, semi-extract, and total crushed powder, which accounted for different proportions. The raw materials for traditional dosage forms are mainly decoction pieces powder. Semi-extracts are the main raw materials for tablets and capsules, which account for 64.8% and 56.3%, respectively. Total extracts are the main raw materials for granules, with a proportion of 77.8%. Compared with tablets and capsules, traditional Chinese medicine granules with dissolubility requirements had a larger proportion of water extraction process, a higher proportion of refining process(34.7%), and a lower proportion of crushed medicinal mate-rials in semi-extract granules. There are four ways to add volatile oil to the modern dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, some new technologies and processes have been used in concentration, filtration, and granulation processes of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs, and the application of pharmaceutical excipients is diversified. The results of this study are expected to provide reference for the processing route design and upgrading of OSDs for new traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1800-1807, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981397

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the use of active substances as excipients or as substitutes for other excipients in the design of modern drug delivery systems has received widespread attention, which has promoted the development of the theory of unification of medicines and excipients in the design of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) preparations. Adopting the theory of unification of medicines and excipients to design drug delivery systems can reduce the use of excipients and thus the cost of preparations, reduce drug toxicity, increase drug solubility and biocompatibility, enhance synergistic effect, and realize targeted delivery and simultaneous delivery of multiple components. However, the research on the application of this theory in the modern drug delivery system of TCM preparations is still insufficient, with few relevant articles. In addition, the TCM active substances that can be used as the excipients remain to be catalogued. In this paper, we review the types and applications of the drug delivery systems with TCM active substances as excipients and describe their common construction methods and mechanisms, aiming to provide references for the in-depth research on the modern drug delivery systems for TCM preparations.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Excipients , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nanomedicine , Pharmaceutical Preparations
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2086-2091, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981340

ABSTRACT

We explored the correlations between the color difference values [ΔL~*(lightness), Δa~*(red-green), Δb~*(yellow-blue)] and the content of four active components(including sesquiterpenoids and polyacetylenes) in the powder of Atractylodes lancea and A. chinensis, aiming to provide reference for the quality evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma and establish a qualitative model that can distinguish between A. lancea and A. chinensis based on the chromatic values. The tristimulus values(L~*, a~*, and b~*) of 23 batches of A. lancea and A. chinensis were measured by a color difference meter. The content of atractylenolide Ⅱ, β-eudesmol, atractylodin, and atractylone in the 23 batches of samples were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were performed to establish the qualitative models for distinguishing between A. lancea and A. chinensis. SPSS was employed to analyze the correlations between the tristimulus values and the content of the four index components. The results showed that the established PCA and PLS-DA models can divide the A. lancea and A. chinensis samples into two regions, and the tristimulus values of A. lancea and A. chinensis were positively correlated with the content of β-eudesmol and atractylodin. Therefore, the PCA and PLS-DA models can successfully identify A. lancea and A. chinensis, and the appearance color can be used to quickly predict the internal quality of Atractylodis Rhizoma. This study provides a reference for the quality evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma and the modern research on the color of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rhizome , Excipients
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3988-3996, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008594

ABSTRACT

Solubility is an important sensory quality attribute of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) granules. In this paper, 90 batches of granules(30 batches of TCM formula granules, 30 batches of Chinese patent medicine granules and 30 batches of Japanese Kampo granules) were used as the research objects. The turbidity sensor was used to characterize the turbidity curve of the granule dissolution process. The classification system of granule dissolution behaviors was constructed from three dimensions: dissolution degree, equilibrium time, and dissolution mechanism. According to the equilibrium time, the granule dissolution rates were divided into three categories : faster(<100 s), general(101-300 s) and slow(>301 s). According to the turbidity curve profile, the granule dissolution mechanisms were classified into dissolution-controlled type(α-type), dispersion-controlled type(β-type), and dispersion-controlled type followed by dissolution-controlled type(γ-type). The proportion of TCM formula granules, Chinese patent medicine granules and Japanese Kampo granules with complete dissolution or slight turbidity at the end of dissolution was 46.7%, 96.7%, and 10.0%. The proportion of TCM formula granules, Chinese patent medicine granules, and Japanese Kampo granules with faster dissolution rates(<100 s) was 23.3%, 26.7%, and 40.0%. The average dissolution rate of Japanese Kampo granules was faster than that of TCM formula granules, and it was slightly faster than the average dissolution rate of Chinese patent medicine granules. The dissolution mechanism of Chinese patent medicine granules was mainly α-type, while that of Japanese Kampo granules was mainly β-type, and the three types of dissolution mechanisms of TCM formula granules accounted for a relatively average. The purpose of improving the solubility and dispersion of granules can be achieved by combining the comprehensive application of various functional excipients with the small dosage of Japanese Kampo granules and the wide addition scope of excipients. In the process of transforming TCM compound prescriptions into formulas, there is still much room for innovation in formula excipients and process optimization.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Solubility , Nonprescription Drugs , Biological Products
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22505, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439507

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural products are considered an important source of the therapeutic arsenal currently available. Among these alternatives are the seeds of Ambrosia peruviana (altamisa), whose extract has shown an anti-inflammatory effect. The main objective of this work was to perform a preformulation study of Ambrosia peruviana seeds ethanolic extract, where the main factors that affect the physical, chemical, and pharmacological stability of the extract were evaluated, as well as a compatibility study by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis against different excipients. A dry extract was obtained by rotary evaporation of the seeds macerated with 96% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring its effect on NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, stimulated with LPS. The results showed that the dry extract maintained its stability over time when stored at a temperature of 4 and 25ºC, demonstrating its biological activity, the content of phenolic compounds, and its physicochemical parameters remain practically invariable. However, when exposed to high temperatures (60 ºC) it was affected. The thermal analysis revelated that the behavior of most of the selected excipients and the dry extract was maintained, which indicates that it did not present incompatibilities, therefore they can be candidates for formulating a microemulsion.


Subject(s)
Seeds/metabolism , Asteraceae/classification , Ambrosia/adverse effects , Biological Products , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Excipients/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20139, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403755

ABSTRACT

Abstract Compounding pharmacies play an important role not only in compounding personalized formulations, but also preparing drugs at the same concentration and dosage as those from commercial manufacturers. The excipients used in compounding are generally standardized for many drugs, however they do not consider the intrinsic properties, such as the poor water solubility, of each substance. The excipient performance of commercially available compounded furosemide capsules in 7 compounding pharmacies from Manaus was evaluated and compared them to the performance of the reference medicinal product (Lasix® tablets) and 2 batches of capsules made in-house (T2 and T4) with a standardized excipient. All batches were subjected to tests for weight variation, assay, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration and dissolution profile. Of the 7 different compound formulas acquired in the compounding pharmacies, only 2 passed all tests. Most formulas passed the tests for weight determination, disintegration time and assay, however batches from 2 establishments failed in regards to the uniformity of the content and 5 batches failed the dissolution test. The reference medicinal product was approved in all tests, as were the T2 capsules made in-house with drug-excipient ratio 1:2. These results confirm the importance of the excipient composition, especially for poorly soluble drugs.


Subject(s)
Tablets/adverse effects , Capsules/analysis , Excipients/analysis , Furosemide/analysis , Pharmacies/standards , Quality Control , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Good Manipulation Practices , Dosage , Dissolution
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20584, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403761

ABSTRACT

Abstract Personalized medicine is gaining importance in pharmacotherapeutics as it allows tailoring the drug treatment to achieve the best patient response. Orodispersible film (ODF) is easy to formulate in hospitals, produces dose flexibility to suit an individual needs, particularly for patients suffer from swallowing issues or prohibited to take fluids. Sertraline Hydrochloride (SRT) was solubilized in several cosolvents, then different SRT ODFs based on five hydrophilic polymers namely; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 LV (HPMC E5 LV), sodium alginate (NaAlg) and gelatin at two concentrations (2% and 4%) were developed and characterized. The outcomes were exposed to response surface analysis to obtain the desirability results to obtain the optimized formulation. Blended ODFs were developed from 4% PVA and 2% HEC in different blends and then potassium chloride (KCl) as a pore-forming agent was added to the best formulation to investigate its dissolution enhancement effect. F14 containing 4% PVA: 2% HEC 2:1 with 5% KCl showed best physicochemical properties of suitable pH (5.6), disintegration time (6 sec), good folding endurance which released 91 % SRT after 15 min. SRT ODF is an encouraging delivery system in the course of personalized medicine for the management of depression.


Subject(s)
Solvents , Sertraline/analysis , Precision Medicine , Excipients , Process Optimization
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191088, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394055

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the influence of nonionic surfactants on the effectiveness of preservatives used in emulsions containing high surfactant content. Mixtures of different concentrations were prepared between polyethoxylated (40) hydrogenated castor oil (PHCO) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (PSO), with methylparaben, phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and isobutylparaben (PMEPBI) blend, phenoxyethanol and benzoic acid (BP) blend, and phenoxyethanol and caprylyl glycol (PC) blend. Subsequently, the compatibility of the formulation ingredients and the effectiveness of the preservatives were evaluated by the challenge test. It was found that PHCO and PSO inactivated the antimicrobial action of methylparaben and PMEPBI. Paraben-free preservatives BP and PC had less influence on surfactants than systems containing parabens. When incorporated into microemulsions and nanoemulsions containing 40% and 20% surfactants, methylparaben and BP 0.2% and 0.5% were only effective against Aspergillus niger. The PMEPBI 0.2% was effective as a preservative in nanoemulsified formulations against A. niger, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrate that the efficacy of the preservative system in formulations containing nonionic surfactant excipients depends on the type of excipient, the components of the formulation, the preservative systems composition, the excipient to preservative ratio, and the availability in the formulation.


Subject(s)
Polysorbates/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Additives in Cosmetics , Excipients/pharmacology , Effectiveness , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cosmetic Stability
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 348-354, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of preparing gastric floating formulations by fused de-position modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology, to evaluate the in vitro properties of the prepared FDM 3D printed gastric floating formulations, and to compare the influence of different external shapes of the formulation with their in vitro properties.@*METHODS@#Verapamil hydrochloride and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the model drug and the excipient, respectively. The capsule-shaped and hemisphere-shaped gastric floating formulations were then prepared by FDM 3D printing. The infill percentages were 15%, the layer heights were 0.2 mm, and the roof or floor thicknesses were 0.8 mm for both the 3D printed formulations, while the number of shells was 3 and 4 for capsule-shaped and hemisphere-shaped formulation, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morpho-logy of the surface and cross section of the formulations. Gravimetric method was adopted to measure the weights of the formulations. Texture analyzer was employed to evaluate the hardness of the formulations. High performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the drug contents of the formulations. The in vitro floating and drug release behavior of the formulations were also characterized.@*RESULTS@#SEM showed that the appearance of the FDM 3D printed gastric floating formulations were both intact and free from defects with the filling structure which was consistent with the design. The weight variations of the two formulations were relatively low, indicating a high reproducibility of the 3D printing fabrication. Above 800.0 N of hardness was obtained in two mutually perpendicular directions for the two formulations. The drug contents of the two formulations approached to 100%, showing no drug loss during the 3D printing process. The two formulations floated in vitro without any lag time, and the in vitro floating time of the capsule-shaped and hemisphere-shaped formulation were (3.97±0.41) h and (4.48±0.21) h, respectively. The in vitro release of the two formulations was significantly slower than that of the commercially available immediate-release tablets.@*CONCLUSION@#The capsule-shaped and hemisphere-shaped verapamil hydrochloride gastric floating formulations were prepared by FDM 3D printing technology successfully. Only the floating time was found to be influenced by the external shape of the 3D printed formulations in this study.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Excipients , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Reproducibility of Results , Tablets
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6053-6061, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921763

ABSTRACT

Based on the defects in powder properties of the contents of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, this study screened out the main medicinal slice powders causing the poor powdery properties, and introduced the powder modification process to improve the powdery properties of these slice powders, the pharmaceutical properties of the capsule contents, and the content uniformity of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, so as to provide a demonstration for the application of powder modification technology to the preparation of Chinese medicinal solid preparations. Through the investigation on the powder properties of the contents of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, it was clarified that the pulverized particle size of the capsule contents had a good correlation with the pulverization time. According to the measurement results of the powder fluidity and wettability, the quality defects of the capsule contents were caused by the fine powders of Taraxaci Herba and Lungwortlike Herba. "Core-shell" composite particles were prepared from medicinal excipients magnesium stearate and fine powders of Taraxaci Herba and Lungwortlike Herba slices after ultra-fine pulverization to improve the powder properties of the problematic fine powders. Powder characterization data including fluidity and wettability were measured, followed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and infrared ray(IR) detection. It was determined that the optimal dosage of magnesium stearate was 2%, and the compositing time was 3 min. The composite particles were then used as content components of the Ziyin Yiwei Capsules. The powder characteristics between the original capsule and the modified composite capsule including the particle size, fluidity, wettability, uniformity of bulk density, and uniformity of chromatism as well as the content uniformity and in vitro dissolution were compared. The results showed that the powder characteristics and content uniformity of the prepared composite capsule were significantly improved, while the material basis of the preparation was not changed before and after modification. The preparation process was proved to be stable and feasible. The powder modification technology solved the pharmaceutical defects that were easy to appear in the preparation of traditional capsules, which has provided experimental evidence for the use of powder modification technology for improving the quality of Chinese medicinal solid preparations and promoting the secondary development and upgrading of traditional Chinese medicinal dosage forms such as capsules.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Excipients , Particle Size , Powders , Wettability
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4978-4985, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921635

ABSTRACT

In this paper, co-processed lactose SuperTab 40 LL was selected as fillers to study the preparation of musk sustained-release mini-tablets in the Xihuang multiple-unit drug release system. Musk sustained-release tablets containing different proportions of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC were prepared under various pressures, and then the compressibility and compactibility of these prescriptions were evaluated by Walker, Heckel and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. In addition, the fluidity of the prescriptions was evaluated by parameters of Kawakita equation. There was a comprehensive analysis of the effect of SuperTab 40 LL on musk sustained-release mini-tablets combined with the appearance of SuperTab 40 LL and their tensile strength. The results shown that SuperTab 40 LL had better compression process through the Heckel equation, and the direct compression process of drug powders with excipients can be analyzed by the Kawakita and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. As a new type of co-processed lactose, SuperTab 40 LL had a good fluidity and compactibility. SuperTab 40 LL may undergo particle crushing and plastic deformation during the compression process, which increased the contact area and bonding sites between the particles, and aggregated and shaped the mixed powder easy. Moreover, MCC showed a synergistic effect, and the combined application with SuperTab 40 ll could effectively improve the fluidity and compressibility of the musk sustained-release powder. When the ratio of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC was 2∶1, musk sustained-release mini-tablets had a high drug loading capacity and good compactibility in line with the design objectives.


Subject(s)
Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Compounding , Excipients , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Tablets
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4969-4977, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921634

ABSTRACT

The high shear wet granulation(HSWG) process of Chinese medicine has a complicated mechanism. There are many influencing factors that contribute to this process. In order to summarize the manufacturability of different kinds of materials in HSWG, this paper constructed a material library composed of 11 materials, including 4 Chinese medicine extracts and 7 pharmaceutical excipients. Each material was described by 22 physical parameters. Several binders were employed, and their density, viscosity and surface tension were characterized. Combining empirical constraints and the principle of randomization, 21 designed experiments and 8 verification experiments were arranged. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to establish a process model in prediction of the median granule size based on properties of raw materials and binders, and process parameters. The surface tension and density of binders, as well as the maximum pore saturation were identified as key variables. In the latent variable space of the HSWG process model, all materials could be divided into three categories, namely the Chinese medicine extracts, the diluents and the disintegrants. The granulation of Chinese medicine extracts required low viscosity and low amount of binder, and the resulted granule sizes were small. The diluent powders occupied a large physical space, and could be made into granules with different granule sizes by adjusting the properties of binders. The disintegrants tended to be made into large granules under the condition of aqueous binder. The combination use of material database and multivariate modeling method is conducive to innovate the knowledge discovery of the wet granulation process of Chinese medicine, and provides a basis for the formulation and process design based on material attributes.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3772-3779, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888098

ABSTRACT

To explore the correlation between concentrate viscosity and molding quality of personalized traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) condensed water pill, this study established a concentrate viscosity characterization method with rotational rheometry. Seven model prescriptions were respectively concentrated to different degrees and the viscosity of each concentrate was determined. The pre-sence of 'viscosity jump' in the middle stage of 'flag hanging' of all the model prescriptions implied that there might be an ideal viscosity range in the preparation of condensed water pill. The further study of 22 model prescriptions demonstrated that the optimum viscosity range of concentrate was 5-15 Pa·s(25 ℃) for approximately 82% of the prescriptions. About 18% of the prescriptions had a wide range, which might be caused by the high proportions of mineral and crustacean drugs in the crushing part and sugar and fibrous drugs in the decocting part. This study clarified the optimum viscosity range for concentrates of personalized TCM condensed water pills and achieved a preparation technology without any excipient, laying a foundation for the on-line control of the preparation.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Viscosity , Water
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3764-3771, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888097

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of the classification of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) materials with the suitable binder concentration and dosage in the preparation of personalized water-paste pills and establish a model for predicting the binder concentration and dosage. Five representative TCM materials were selected, followed by mixture uniform design. The water-paste pills were prepared by extrusion and spheronization with hypromellose E5(HPMC E5) as the binder. The quality of intermediates and final products was evaluated, and the resulting data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The prediction models for binder concentration and dosage were established as follows: binder concentration: Y_1=0.378 6 + 0.570 1X_A + 2.271 2X_B-0.894 5X_C-0.458 2X_D-1.145 4X_E(when Y_1 < 0, 10% HPMC E5 was required; when Y_1 > 0, 20% HPMC E5 was required), with the accuracy reaching up to 100%; binder dosage: Y_2=32.38 + 0.25X_A + 1.85X_B-0.013X_B~2-0.002 5X_C~2(R~2=0.932 6, P < 0.001). The results showed that the binder concentration and dosage were correlated positively with the proportion of fiber material but negatively with the proportions of sugar material and brittle material. Then the validation experiments were conducted with the prediction models and all the prescriptions could be successfully prepared at one time. These demonstrated that following the classification of TCM materials and the calculation of their proportions in the prescription, the established mathematical model could be adopted for predicting the binder concentration and dosage required in the preparation of personalized water-paste pills, which contributed to reducing the pre-formulation research and guiding the actual production of personalized water-paste pills.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Hypromellose Derivatives , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Water
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3356-3363, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887985

ABSTRACT

With Sangtang Yin granule as model drug,and based on the strategy of " unification of medicines and excipients",the feasibility of preparing high drug loading granules with traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) raw powder as carrier was explored. The powder yield,particle size and particle size distribution,fillibility,flowability,hygroscopicity,reconstituability and other key physical properties relating to preparations of 8 herbs( Dioscoreae Rhizoma,Euryales Semen,Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma,Coicis semen,Poria,Puerariae Lobatae Radix,Puerariae Thomsonii Radix and Coicis Semen by stir-frying with bran) were studied after being smashed,and the feasibility of taking them as excipients of TCM granules was evaluated by co-spray drying,dry granulation and other preparation techniques. According to the results of the physical properties of raw powders,raw powders of Dioscoreae Rhizoma,Euryales Semen and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix had a high powder yield,uniform particle size distribution,good fillibility,poor hygroscopicity and good reconstitutability,with the feature of assisting granule forming. Compared with the prescription of spray dry powder Sangtang Yin without any excipient,the co-sprayed powder had a high yield,good fillibility and compressibility. The yield of dry granules prepared by co-spraying dry powder was increased by more than 10%,and the particles had a uniform color,good fluidity and dissolubility with the drug-loading rate up to 100%. Based on the physical characteristics of TCM raw powder combined with the analysis of the preparation process,Dioscoreae Rhizoma and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix raw powder were selected as the carriers of granule preparations,and Sangtang Yin granule without any excipient was successfully prepared. The findings provide a feasible idea for the preparation of TCM granules with a high drug loading capacity.


Subject(s)
Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Pueraria , Rhizome
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3988-3996, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828357

ABSTRACT

This paper explores Mongolian medicine processing methods and the use regularity of excipient by text mining techniques. Relevant books of Mongolian medicine processing were consulted to collect data on Mongolian medicine processing methods and excipient, and select data based on processing methods and excipient noun frequency statistics. Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used for statistical analysis and mining for the usage regularity of different types of Mongolian medicinal materials in different periods. And Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used for visual presentation. The topological analysis showed the top five processing methods were net production, development, frying, calcining and cooking, and the top five processing excipient were fresh milk, wine, urine, cream and mineral borax. Frequency analysis showed that the plant medicinal materials were mostly recorded in the 18~(th) and 21~(st) centuries, especially in the 21 st century; the processing methods mostly contained water processing, repair processing and other methods. The mineral medicinal materials were mostly recorded in the 18~(th), 19~(th) and 21~(st) centuries; most of the processing methods were the fire processing method. The animal medicinal materials were recorded in the 18~(th), 19~(th) and 21~(st) century; the fire processing method occupied a major position, and the repair processing and the grinding processing were markedly increased in the 21~(st) century. In the use of excipient, liquid excipient were mostly used in plant medicines. Solid excipient were most commonly used in the 18~(th) century. Animal excipient were mostly used during the processing in the 18~(th) century. The use of liquid excipient gradually increased in the 19~(th) and 21~(st) centuries. This study summarizes the traditional processing methods of Mongolian medicine and the usage regularity of excipient, defines the characteristics of Mongolian medicine processing methods and excipient, and the characteristics of the combination of medicinal materials and excipient, so as to provide reference for the clinical use of Mongolian medicine.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Excipients , Medicine, Mongolian Traditional , Records , Software
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 274-284, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008335

ABSTRACT

In this paper, five representative Chinese herbal decoction pieces of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were selected to prepare the corresponding fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder. The physical properties of 20 kinds of powders, such as related parameters of particle size, density, stability and flowability, were evaluated comprehensively. The compression curves of powder porosity and tensile strength changing with pressure were plotted, and the Heckel equation and the Kawakita equation were used to describe the powder compression behavior. The results showed that compared with the fine powder of pieces, the compressibility of the semi-extract powder and the extract powder was significantly improved. Compared with the extract powder, the particle size and relative uniformity of the semi-extract powder were increased, indicating that the uniformity of the powder was improved. Besides, the semi-extract powder could reduce the hygroscopicity of the powder. Particularly, the semi-extract powder of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba and vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma could maintain the porous structure of the tablet even under a high tableting pressure, which was beneficial to tablet disintegration. For some traditional Chinese medicines(such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos), the semi-extract powder could reduce the viscosity, which avoided the sticking in the die compression. The semi-extract powder and the physical mixture powder prepared by the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces had similar physical properties and compression behaviors. Principal component analysis(PCA) was carried out on the 17 physical attributes and 5 compression parameters of the powder. It was found that the first principal component mainly reflected the differences among the material sources, while the second principal component could reflect the differences among fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder originating from the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces. In this paper, the mechanism of "unification of drugs and excipients" of Chinese medicine semi-extract powder was explained in terms of physical properties and compression behavior of powders, which provided reference for the formulation design and process development of Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
19.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 671-675, abr.-maio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482019

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar diferentes aditivos naturais na formulação do sorvete de maracujá e avaliar a influência do congelamento lento (-18ºC) e rápido (-80ºC). Foram preparadas 3 formulações do sorvete, variando apenas o aditivo (F1: Superliga Neutra, F2: Gelatina e F3: Ágar). Estas amostras foram avaliadas com relação a composição nutricional e propriedades físicas e químicas. O congelamento rápido conferiu as 3 formulações uma uniformidade na velocidade de derretimento (p>0,05). A formulação F2 foi a que apresentou melhor resultado quando avaliado a resistência ao derretimento, overrun e composição centesimal. Embora todas as formulações tenham apresentado resultados positivos, a F2 associado ao ultracongelamento apresentou o melhor perfil de sorvete.


Subject(s)
Food Composition , Freezing , Excipients , Chemical Phenomena , Ice Cream , Food, Formulated , Thickeners , Passiflora
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5143-5150, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008377

ABSTRACT

The fried method with suet oil,which can strengthen the effect of Epimedium in warming kidney and enhancing Yang,has been widely used in the processing of Epimedium in traditional Chinese medicine. Based on the formation mechanism of Epimedium flavonoids self-assembled micelles in vivo,the synergistic mechanism of processing excipient suet oil was investigated in this paper from the perspective of pharmaceutics. Baohuoside Ⅰ,as representative component of processed Epimedium,was selected as model drug.Average size and zeta potential were measured and the morphology of micelles was observed under transmission electron microscopy. Caco-2 monolayer cell model,rat intestinal perfusion model and in vivo serum drug concentration method were established to investigate the effect of suet oil on the formation and absorption of the baohuosideⅠ bile salt self-assembled micelles. Baohuoside Ⅰ can form selfassembled micelles under the action of sodium deoxycholate. While,adding suet oil into the baohuoside Ⅰ-bile salt micelles( BSDOC) can make it form a more stable system with a smaller average size,higher Zeta potential,lower polydispersity index( PDI) value,significantly improved encapsulation efficiency and drug loading,indicating that suet oil could significantly improve the micelle formation in vivo. In addition,the permeability coefficient of baohuoside Ⅰ in Caco-2 monolayer cells and the four intestinal organs( duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon) was increased and the oral bioavailability was also improved after adding the suet oil to BS-DOC.All the results demonstrated that the suet oil can promote the formation and absorption of baohuoside Ⅰ self-assembled micelles,so as to enhance its synergistic effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Caco-2 Cells , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Epimedium/chemistry , Excipients/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption , Micelles , Oils/chemistry
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