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Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 443-452, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350818


ABSTRACT Introduction: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to be an efficient method of improving exercise tolerance and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in several diseases. The effects of IMT on patients with sickle cell anemia (SCD) are relatively unknown. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of IMT on adult SCD patients, regarding respiratory muscle strength (RMS) variables, lung function, exercise tolerance, blood lactation concentration, limitation imposed by dyspnea during daily activities and impact of fatigue on the quality of life. Methods: This was a randomized single-blind study, with an IMT design comprising true load (TG) and sham load (SG) groups. Initial assessment included spirometry, volumetric capnography (VCap) and measurement of RMS by maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PImax and PEmax). The Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and modified fatigue impact scale were also applied and blood lactate concentration was measured before and after the 6-minute walk test. After this initial assessment, the patient used the IMT device at home daily, returning every 6 weeks for RMS reassessment. Both groups used the same device and were unaware of which group they were in. After a period totaling 18 weeks, patients underwent the final evaluation, as initially performed. Results: Twenty-five patients in total participated until the end of the study (median age 42 years). There were no significant differences between TG and SG based on age, sex, body mass index or severity of genotype. At the end of the training, both groups showed a significant increase in PEmax and PImax, improvement in Vcap and in exercise tolerance and dyspnea reduction while performing daily life activities. The same was observed in patients grouped according to disease severity (HbSS and HbSβ0 vs HbSC and HbSβ+), without differences between groups. Conclusion: Home-based inspiratory muscle training benefits outpatients with SCD, including the sham load group. Trial registration:; registration number: RBR-6g8n92.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Breathing Exercises , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Inspiratory Capacity , Exercise Tolerance , Capnography , Maximal Respiratory Pressures
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 308-315, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345290


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis (LC) causes several musculoskeletal changes. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the peripheral and inspiratory muscle endurance are reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with LC (LC group; 61±14 years) and 18 age-matched subjects (control group; 56±17 years) had accepted to participate in this cross-sectional observational study. To assess peripheral muscle endurance, all volunteers performed a rhythmic handgrip exercise at 45% of their maximum voluntary contraction. A metronome was used to control the contraction-relaxation cycles at 60/min. The inspiratory muscle endurance was assessed using PowerBreath®. Participants underwent inspiratory muscle exercise at 60% of their maximal inspiratory muscle strength. The time until failure characterized the muscle endurance for both handgrip and inspiratory muscle exercises. Additionally, the quality of life of the participants was assessed. RESULTS: The muscle endurance was lower in the LC group when compared to the control group for both handgrip (67 vs 130 s, P<0.001) and inspiratory muscle exercises (40 vs 114 s, P<0.001). The peripheral muscle endurance was directly correlated with the total quality of life score (r=0.439, P=0.01) and to the following domains: fatigue (r=0.378 e P=0.030), activity (r=0.583, P=0.001), systemic symptoms (r=0.316, P=0.073) and preoccupation (r=0.370, P=0.034). The inspiratory muscle endurance was inversely correlated with the total quality of life score (r=0.573, P=0.001) and the following domains: fatigue (r=0.503, P=0.002), activity (r=0.464, P=0.004), systemic symptoms (r=0.472, P=0.004), abdominal symptoms (r=0.461, P=0.005), emotional function (r=0.387, P=0.02) and preoccupation (r=0.519, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Both peripheral and inspiratory muscle endurance were lower in LC patients when compared to the control group.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A cirrose hepática (CH) causa várias alterações musculoesqueléticas. OBJETIVO: Testar a hipótese de que as resistências dos músculos periféricos e inspiratórios estão reduzidas em pacientes com CH. MÉTODOS: Vinte e um pacientes com CH (grupo CH; 61±14 anos) e 18 indivíduos pareados por idade (grupo controle; 56±17 anos) aceitaram participar deste estudo observacional transversal. Para avaliar a resistência muscular periférica, todos os voluntários realizaram um exercício de preensão manual rítmica a 45% de sua contração voluntária máxima. Um metrônomo foi usado para controlar os ciclos de contração-relaxamento a 60/min. A resistência muscular inspiratória foi avaliada com o PowerBreath®. Os participantes foram submetidos a exercícios musculares inspiratórios a 60% de sua força muscular inspiratória máxima. O tempo até a falha caracterizou a resistência muscular para os exercícios de preensão manual e de músculos inspiratórios. Além disso, foi avaliada a qualidade de vida dos participantes. RESULTADOS: A resistência muscular foi menor no grupo CH quando comparada ao grupo controle tanto para os exercícios de preensão manual (67 vs 130 s, P<0,001) quanto para os músculos inspiratórios (40 vs 114 s, P<0,001). A resistência muscular periférica foi diretamente correlacionada com o escore total de qualidade de vida (r=0,439, P=0,01) e com os seguintes domínios: fadiga (r=0,030, P=0,378), atividade (r=0,378 e P=0,030), sintomas sistêmicos (r=0,316, P=0,073) e preocupação (r=0,370, P=0,034). A resistência muscular inspiratória foi inversamente correlacionada com o escore total de qualidade de vida (r=0,573, P=0,001) e com os seguintes domínios: fadiga (r=0,503, P=0,002), atividade (r=0,464, P=0,004), sintomas sistêmicos (r=0,472, P=0,004), sintomas abdominais (r=0,461, P=0,005), função emocional (r=0,387, P=0,02) e preocupação (r=0,519, P=0,001). CONCLUSÃO: As resistências musculares periférica e inspiratória foram menores nos pacientes com CH quando comparados ao grupo controle.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Quality of Life , Hand Strength , Respiratory Muscles , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Dyspnea , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 89-93, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249656


ABSTRACT Objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity that can cause cardiorespiratory dysfunction, contributing to decreases in tolerance for aerobic exercise (TAE) and in functionality. The objective is to assess the TAE and lung capacity of patients who underwent corrective AIS surgery in the pre- (PRE) and postoperative (POST) periods. Methods: Sixty individuals, PRE (n=30, age: 18.5±2.4 years) and POST (n=30, age: 24.5±4.5 years), participated in the study. The forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio, as well as the maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure were verified. The TAE was assessed by the distance travelled in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), together with blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation measured at the beginning and at the end of the test. Results: A mild restrictive pattern in lung function and reduced expiratory muscle strength were observed in both groups, but with no difference between the PRE and POST groups. No difference was found between the PRE (534±67.1 m) and POST (541± 69.5 m) groups for the distance travelled in the 6MWT, though both were below the predicted percentage (82.8±10.0% and 84.8±10.9%, respectively). Hemodynamic and respiratory changes caused by the 6MWT were observed, except for the peripheral oxygen saturation. Conclusion: The results suggest that even after surgical correction, patients with AIS continue to have low TAE. Level of evidence III; Therapeutics Study - Investigation of Treatment Results / Case-control study.

RESUMO Objetivo: A escoliose idiopática do adolescente (EIA) é uma deformidade da coluna que pode ocasionar disfunções cardiorrespiratórias, contribuindo para a diminuição da tolerância ao exercício aeróbio (TEA) e da funcionalidade. O objetivo é avaliar a TEA e a capacidade pulmonar em pacientes no pré (PRÉ) e pós-operatório (PÓS) de correção da EIA. Métodos: Participaram 60 indivíduos PRÉ (n = 30, idade: 18,5 ± 2,4 anos) e PÓS (n = 30, idade: 24,5 ± 4,5 anos). A capacidade vital forçada (CVF), o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1) e a razão VEF1/CVF, assim como as pressões inspiratória e expiratória máximas, foram verificados. A TEA foi avaliada pela distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6), acompanhado de medidas de pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e saturação periférica de oxigênio no início e no final do teste. Resultados: Um padrão restritivo leve na função pulmonar e força da musculatura expiratória reduzida foram observados em ambos os grupos, mas sem diferença entre PRÉ e PÓS. Não foi encontrada diferença entre PRÉ (534 ± 67,1 m) e PÓS (541 ± 69,5 m) para a distância percorrida no TC6, abaixo do predito para ambos os grupos (82,8 ± 10,0% e 84,8 ± 10,9%, respectivamente). Foram observadas alterações hemodinâmicas e respiratórias provocadas pelo TC6, exceto para a saturação periférica de oxigênio. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que mesmo após a correção cirúrgica os pacientes com EIA continuam apresentando baixa TEA. Nível de evidência III; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos Resultados do Tratamento / Estudo de caso-controle.

RESUMEN Objetivo: La escoliosis idiopática del adolescente (EIA) es una deformidad de la columna que puede causar disfunciones cardiorrespiratorias, contribuyendo para la disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio aeróbico (TEA) y de la funcionalidad. El objetivo es evaluar la TEA y la capacidad pulmonar en pacientes en el pre (PRE) y postoperatorio (POS) de corrección de la EIA. Métodos: Participaron 60 individuos PRE (n=30, edad: 18,5±2,4 años) y POS (n=30, edad: 24,5±4,5 años). Fueron verificadas la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) y la razón VEF1/CVF, así como las presiones inspiratoria y espiratoria máximas. La TEA fue evaluada por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata de 6 minutos (TC6), acompañado de mediciones de presión arterial, frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y saturación de oxígeno al inicio y al final del test. Resultados: Fueron observados un patrón restrictivo leve y fuerza muscular espiratoria reducida en ambos grupos, pero sin diferencia entre PRE y POS. No fue encontrada diferencia entre PRE (534 ± 67,1 m) y POS (541 ± 69,5 m) para la distancia recorrida en el TC6, por debajo de los predicho para ambos grupos (82,8 ± 10,0% y 84,8 ± 10,9%, respectivamente). Se observaron alteraciones hemodinámicas y respiratorias provocadas por el TC6, excepto para la saturación periférica de oxígeno. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que incluso después de la corrección quirúrgica, los pacientes con EIA continúan presentando baja TEA. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudios Terapéuticos - Investigación de los Resultados del Tratamiento / Estudio de caso-control.

Humans , Respiratory Function Tests , Scoliosis , Exercise Tolerance , Walk Test
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 178-185, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248782


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad y el efecto del entrenamiento por intervalos de moderada y alta intensidad (EIMI, EIAI) y compararlo con el entrenamiento de intensidad moderada continua (EIMC) en pacientes de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) muy alto. Método: Estudio cuasi experimental de 81 pacientes que ingresaron al programas de rehabilitación cardíaca y prevención secundaria (PRHCPS); en la estratificación de riesgo, todos los pacientes presentaron ≥ 2 factores de RCV alto. Entrenamiento concurrente: aeróbico supervisado: 2 semanas de entrenamiento de base de EIMC; luego el grupo EIMC con la misma prescripción, EIMI a 3 intervalos de 3' al 70 a 80% de FCR con pausas activas de 3' al 60 a 70% de FCR; EIAI, 3 intervalos de 3' a 80 a 90% de FCR con pausas activas de 3' al 70 a 80% de FCR, entrenamiento de fuerza con tres sesiones semanales de ejercicios isotónicos y una de calistenia e intervención multidisciplinaria. Resultados: 81 pacientes asignados en tres grupos: 61 a EIMC, 13 a EIMI y 7 a EIAI, sin diferencias significativas en las variables epidemiológicas. Hubo ganancias porcentuales en MET-carga de 45%, 60% y 86% (p = 0.17) y carga-vatios de 51, 44 y 48 en EIMC, EIMI, EIAI, respectivamente (p = 0.54). A pesar de no existir diferencias estocásticamente significativas intergrupales, sí se registró una ganancia mayor en MET-carga en el grupo de EIAI. No se observó desenlace adverso en ningún tipo de entrenamiento. Conclusiones: En cardiópatas de riesgo cardiovascular muy alto, el entrenamiento interválico EIMI/EIAI supervisado es seguro, con tendencia a mayor ganancia en tolerancia al esfuerzo (MET-carga) con el EIAI en comparación con el EIMC.

Abstract Objective: Evaluate safety and effects of training at moderate and high intensity intervals (MIIT, HIIT) compared to continuous moderate intensity training (MICT) in heart disease patient with very high cardiovascular risk (CVR). Method: Quasi-experimental study of 81 patients in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program, after risk stratification, all patients presented at least 2 factors with high CVR. All patients were provided supervised concurrent training: aerobic: initially 2 weeks MICT. subsequently MICT group with same prescription, MIIT 3 intervals of 3 ‘to 70-80% FCR with active pause exercise of 3' to 60 a 70% FCR, HIIT 3 intervals of 3'a 80-90% FCR with active pause exercise of 3 ‘70 a 80% FCR, resistance training 3 weekly sessions isotonic exercises and 1 calisthenics and multidisciplinary intervention. Results: 81 patients assigned to: 61 MICT group, 13 MIIT and 7 HIIT, no significant differences were observed. Percentage gains were obtained in METs-load 45%, 60% and 86% (p = 0.17) and watts 51, 44 and 48 in MICT, MIIT, HIIT respectively (p = 0.54). Although there are no statistical significant intergroup differences if there is a greater improvement in MET-load in the HIIT group. There was no adverse outcome in any training. Conclusions: In very high cardiovascular risk heart disease patient, supervised interval training (MIIT/HIIT) is safe, with a tendency to greater improvement in exercise tolerance (METs-load) with HIIT compared to MICT.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise Tolerance , Resistance Training/methods , Heart Diseases , Physical Fitness/physiology , Risk Factors , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 212-217, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280066


ABSTRACT Introduction: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technique that is used in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and the monitoring of physical activity. Objective: To determine the influence of sexual, anthropometric and ergospirometric factors on muscle oxygenation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius, obtained by NIRS during a stress test. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study (10 women). Two Humon Hex® devices were placed on the dominant side of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles to measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2). The stress test was performed on a treadmill with electrocardiographic control and measurement of oxygen consumption. SmO2 was obtained at rest and after maximum effort during the stress test. In addition, the height, weight, skinfold and waist contour were measured. Bioimpedance was used to obtain the percentages of fat mass and muscle mass, which were used to calculate the relative fat mass (RFM). Results: The SmO2 of both muscles at rest is higher in males than in females. At maximum effort, the SmO2 of the quadriceps is similar in both groups. The SmO2 of both muscles is positively related to height, body mass, percentage of mass muscle and waist contour, and negatively with percentage of mass fat, RFM and skinfold thickness. The negative correlation between fat percentage and oxygen saturation is more evident in females. It was observed that the variables that quantify maximum effort are not related to the SmO2 values, except for the correlation between HR max and SmO2 of the gastrocnemius muscle in males. Conclusion: The SmO2 of recreational athletes is influenced by the location of the device and the fat mass of the subjects. The biggest differences between the sexes are in the gastrocnemius muscle. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test .

RESUMEN Introducción: La espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) es una técnica no invasiva usada en la evaluación de la oxigenación tisular y en la monitorización de la actividad física. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia de factores sexuales, antropométricos y ergoespirométricos sobre la oxigenación muscular de cuádriceps y del gastrocnemio, obtenidos por NIRS durante un test de esfuerzo. Métodos: Participaron en este estudio 20 individuos saludables (10 mujeres). Se colocaron dos dispositivos Humon Hex® en el lado dominante de los músculos cuádriceps y gastrocnemio para medir la saturación de oxígeno muscular (SmO2). El test de esfuerzo fue realizado en una cinta ergométrica con control electrocardiográfico y medición del consumo de oxígeno. La SmO2 fue obtenida en reposo y después de esfuerzo máximo durante el test. Además, fueron medidos altura, peso, pliegues cutáneos y contorno de la cintura. Fue usada bioimpedancia para obtener los porcentuales de masa grasa y masa muscular, que fueron usados para calcular la masa grasa relativa (MGR). Resultados: La SmO2 de ambos músculos en reposo es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. En el esfuerzo máximo la SmO2 del cuádriceps es semejante en los dos grupos. La SmO2 de ambos músculos es positivamente relacionada con altura, masa corporal, porcentual de masa muscular y contorno de la cintura y negativamente relacionada con el porcentaje de masa grasa, MGR y espesor de los pliegues cutáneos. La correlación negativa entre el porcentual de grasa y la saturación de oxígeno es más evidente en las mujeres. Se observó que variables que cuantifican el esfuerzo máximo no está relacionadas con los valores SmO2, excepto por la correlación entre FCmáx y SmO2 del músculo gastrocnemio en sexo masculino. Conclusión: La SmO2 de los atletas recreativos es influenciada por la localización del dispositivo y por la masa grasa de los individuos. Las mayores diferencias entre los sexos están en el músculo gastrocnemio. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico .

RESUMO Introdução: A espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo (NIRS) é uma técnica não invasiva usada na avaliação da oxigenação tecidual e no monitoramento da atividade física. Objetivos: Determinar a influência de fatores sexuais, antropométricos e ergoespirométricos sobre a oxigenação muscular do quadríceps e do gastrocnêmio obtidos por NIRS durante um teste de esforço. Métodos: Participaram deste estudo 20 indivíduos saudáveis (10 mulheres). Dois dispositivos Humon Hex® foram colocados no lado dominante dos músculos quadríceps e gastrocnêmio para medir a saturação de oxigênio muscular (SmO2). O teste de esforço foi realizado em uma esteira com controle eletrocardiográfico e mensuração do consumo de oxigênio. A SmO2foi obtida em repouso e depois de esforço máximo durante o teste. Além disso, foram medidos estatura, peso, dobras cutâneas e contorno da cintura. A bioimpedância foi usada para obter os percentuais de massa gorda e massa muscular, que foram usados para calcular a massa gorda relativa (MGR). Resultados: A SmO2de ambos os músculos em repouso é maior em homens do que em mulheres. No esforço máximo, a SmO2do quadríceps é semelhante nos dois os grupos. A SmO2de ambos os músculos é positivamente relacionada com estatura, massa corporal, percentual de massa muscular e contorno da cintura e negativamente relacionada com a porcentagem de massa gorda, MGR e espessura das dobras cutâneas. A correlação negativa entre o percentual de gordura e a saturação de oxigênio é mais evidente nas mulheres. Observou-se que variáveis que quantificam o esforço máximo não estão relacionadas com os valores SmO2, exceto pela correlação entre FCmáx e SmO2do músculo gastrocnêmio no sexo masculino. Conclusão: A SmO2dos atletas recreativos é influenciada pela localização do dispositivo e pela massa gorda dos indivíduos. As maiores diferenças entre os sexos estão no músculo gastrocnêmio. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico .

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Quadriceps Muscle/metabolism , Body Composition , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Exercise Test
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 86-93, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155807


Abstract Introduction: Heart transplantation (HTx) is the gold standard procedure for selected individuals with refractory heart failure. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is safe and allows patients to exercise in high intensity for longer time when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The primary aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis about the effect of HIIT compared to MICT on exercise capacity, peak heart rate, and heart rate reserve in HTx recipients. Secondarily, we pooled data comparing MICT and no exercise training in these patients. Methods: This systematic review followed the standardization of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement and the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. We presented the treatment effects of HIIT on the outcomes of interest as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects, generic inverse variance method. Results: HIIT improved peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2) (MD = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 3.1; P<0.0001), peak heart rate (MD = 3.4; 95% CI 0.8, 5.9; P=0.009), and heart rate reserve (MD = 4.8; 95% CI -0.05, 9.6; P=0.05) compared to MICT. Improvements on peakVO2 (MD = 3.5; 95% CI 2.3, 4.7; P<0.00001) and peak heart rate (MD = 5.6; 95% CI 1.6, 9.6; P=0.006) were found comparing HIIT and no exercise training. Conclusion: Current available evidence suggests that HIIT leads to improvements on peakVO2, peak heart rate, and heart rate reserve compared to MICT in HTx recipients. However, the superiority of HIIT should be tested in isocaloric protocols.

Humans , Heart Transplantation , High-Intensity Interval Training , Exercise , Exercise Tolerance , Heart Rate
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 259-265, fev. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152999


Resumo Fundamento A dispneia por esforço é uma queixa comum de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC). A ICFEP é comum na DPOC e é um fator de risco independente para a progressão e exacerbação da doença. A detecção precoce, portanto, tem grande relevância clínica. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a frequência de ICFEP mascarada em pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular manifesta, e analisar a correlação entre ICFEP mascarada e os parâmetros do teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE). Métodos Aplicamos o TCPE em 104 pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular evidente. A ecocardiografia foi realizada antes e no pico do TCPE. Os valores de corte para disfunção diastólica ventricular esquerda e direita induzida por estresse (DDVE/DDVD) foram E/e' >15; E/e' >6, respectivamente. A análise de correlação foi feita entre os parâmetros do TCPE e o estresse E/d'. Valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados 64% dos pacientes tinham DDVE induzida por estresse; 78% tinham DDVD induzida por estresse. Ambos os grupos com estresse DDVE e DDVD obtiveram carga menor, V'O2 e pulso de O2 mais baixos, além de apresentarem redução na eficiência ventilatória (maiores inclinações de VE/VCO2). Nenhum dos parâmetros do TCPE foram correlacionados com E/e' DDVE/DDVD induzida por estresse. Conclusão Há uma alta prevalência de disfunção diastólica induzida por estresse em pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular evidente. Nenhum dos parâmetros do TCPE se correlaciona com E/e' induzida por estresse. Isso demanda a realização de Ecocardiografia sob estresse por exercício (EES) e TCPE para detecção precoce e manejo adequado da ICFEP mascarada nesta população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):259-265)

Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). HFpEF is common in COPD and is an independent risk factor for disease progression and exacerbation. Early detection, therefore, has great clinical relevance. Objectives The aim of the study is to detect the frequency of masked HFpEF in non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease, and to analyze the correlation between masked HFpEF and the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters. Methods We applied the CPET in 104 non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography was performed before and at peak CPET. Cut-off values for stress-induced left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD/ RVDD) were E/e'>15; E/e'>6, respectively. Correlation analysis was done between CPET parameters and stress E/e'. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results 64% of the patients had stress-induced LVDD; 78% had stress-induced RVDD. Both groups with stress LVDD and RVDD achieved lower load, lower V'O2 and O2-pulse, besides showing reduced ventilatory efficiency (higher VE/VCO2 slopes). None of the CPET parameters were correlated to stress-induced left or right E/e'. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of stress-induced diastolic dysfunction in non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease. None of the CPET parameters correlates to stress-induced E/e'. This demands the performance of Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) and CPET for the early detection and proper management of masked HFpEF in this population. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):259-265)

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Exercise Tolerance , Echocardiography, Stress
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(6): 565-570, Jan 6, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283659


Introdução: A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) é caracterizada pela obstrução das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono, o que causa efeitos sistêmicos durante a vigília. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade funcional, a força da musculatura respiratória e o pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE) de pacientes com SAOS. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado na cidade de Patos de Minas/MG no ano de 2019, no qual foram incluídos 14 indivíduos que possuíam SAOS moderada e grave. Primeiramente os pacientes responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico elaborado pelos autores. Em seguida, foi realizada a manovacuometria, a mensuração do PFE e o teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M). Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes eram homens (71,4%), obesos (78,6%) e hipertensos (57,1%). Como resultados dos testes obtivemos - PImáx obtida vs predita = 86,4 vs 102,8 (p = 0,004), PEmáx obtida vs predita = 98,5 vs 113,5 (p = 0,05), PFE obtido vs predito = 381,3 vs 495,8 (p < 0,001) e TC6M obtido vs predito = 485,3m vs 536,6m (p = 0,03). Conclusão: Nessa amostra de indivíduos com SAOS grave e moderada houve redução da força muscular respiratória, do PFE, e da capacidade funcional. (AU)

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by upper airway obstruction during sleep, which causes systemic effects during wakefulness. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess functional capacity, respiratory muscle strength and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in patients with OSAS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study held in the city of Patos de Minas/MG in the year of 2019, that included 14 individuals who had severe and moderate sleep apnea. First, the patients answered to a sociodemographic questionnaire prepared by the authors. Then, manovacuometry, PEF and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed. Results: Most patients were men (71.4%), obese (78.6%) and hypertensive (57.1%). As results of the tests we obtained - MIP obtained vs predicted = 86.4 vs 102.8 (p = 0.004), MPE obtained vs predicted = 98.5 vs 113.5 (p = 0.05), PEF obtained vs predicted = 381.3 vs 495.8 (p <0.001) and 6MWT obtained vs predicted = 485.3m vs 536.6m (p = 0.03). Conclusion: In this sample of individuals with severe and moderate OSAS, we observed a reduction in respiratory muscle strength, PEF, and functional capacity. (AU)

Humans , Respiratory Muscles , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Exercise Tolerance , Muscle Strength
Clinics ; 76: 2550, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1278931


OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of home-and center-based exercise training programs on functional capacity, inspiratory muscle strength, daily physical activity level, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) over a 12-week period. METHODS: This study included 23 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction 31±6%) randomized to a home-based (n=11) or center-based (n=12) program. Patients underwent 12 weeks of aerobic training (60%-70% heart rate reserve): walking for the home-based and supervised cycling for the center-based group, both combined with resistance training (50% of 1 maximum repetition). At baseline and after 12 weeks of training, we assessed cardiopulmonary test variables, 6-min walk test distance (6 MWD), steps/day with accelerometry, and QoL (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire). Maximal inspiratory pressure and handgrip strength were measured at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. NCT03615157. RESULTS: There were no adverse events during training in either group. The home- and center-based training groups obtained similar improvements in peak oxygen uptake, maximal ventilation, and 6 MWD. However, there were significant between-group differences: center-based training was more effective in improving maximal inspiratory pressure (p=0.042), number of steps/day (p=0.001), and QoL (p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based training is safe and can be an alternative to improve the exercise capacity of patients with stable CHF. However, center-based training was superior in improving inspiratory muscle strength, QoL, and daily physical activity.

Humans , Quality of Life , Heart Failure/therapy , Stroke Volume , Pilot Projects , Ventricular Function, Left , Exercise Tolerance , Hand Strength , Exercise Therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887497


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the regulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on small airway function and exercise tolerance in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).@*METHODS@#A total of 62 patients with stable COPD were randomized into an observation group (31 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 5 cases dropped off). On the base of routine medication and aerobic exercise, the patients of the two groups all received EA at Danzhong (CV 17), Rugen (ST 18), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25) and Yingchuang (ST 16). In the observation group, filiform needles were used and inserted perpendicularly, 3 mm in depth. In the control group, the placebo needling method was performed, in which the needle was not inserted through skin at each point. In both groups, electric stimulation with low-frequency electronic pulse instrument was exerted, with continuous wave, 2 Hz in frequency, lasting 30 min each time in the two groups. The treatment was given once every other day, 3 times a week, for 14 treatments totally. Before and after treatment, the following indexes were compared in patients between the two groups, i.e. the lung function indexes (forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], the ratio of FEV1 to FVC [FEV1/FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV], the percentage of maximal expiratory flow [MEF] at 25% of FVC exhaled [MEF25], MEF50 and MEF75 in predicted value), cardiopulmonary exercise test indexs (metabolic equivalent [METS], oxygen uptake per kg body weight [VO@*RESULTS@#After treatment, FVC%, MVV%, MEF75%, MEF50%, VO@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture can improve the respiratory function and exercise tolerance in COPD patients through removing small airway obstruction and increasing ventilation.

Electroacupuncture , Exercise Tolerance , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiratory Function Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922390


OBJECTIVES@#To systematically evaluate the effect of exercise rehabilitation on exercise capacity and quality of life in children with bronchial asthma.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Weipu Data, and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of exercise rehabilitation on children with bronchial asthma published up to February 2021. RevMan 5.3 was used to perform a Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 14 studies were included, with 990 subjects in total. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the conventional treatment group, the exercise rehabilitation group had significantly better exercise capacity (distance covered in the 6-minute walk test: @*CONCLUSIONS@#Current evidence shows that exercise rehabilitation has a positive effect in improving exercise capacity and quality of life in children with bronchial asthma. Due to limited number and quality of studies included in the analysis, further research is needed.

Asthma , Child , China , Exercise Therapy , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Quality of Life
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10514, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285648


Exercise intolerance is the hallmark consequence of advanced chronic heart failure (HF). The six-minute step test (6MST) has been considered an option for the six-minute walk test because it is safe, inexpensive, and can be applied in small places. However, its reliability and concurrent validity has still not been investigated in participants with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinically stable HFrEF participants were included. Reliability and error measurement were calculated by comparing the first with the second 6MST result. Forty-eight hours after participants underwent the 6MST, they were invited to perform a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlation between number of steps and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) at CPET. Twenty-seven participants with HFrEF (60±8 years old and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±6%) undertook a mean of 94±30 steps in the 6MST. Intra-rater reliability was excellent for 6MST (ICC=0.9), with mean error of 4.85 steps and superior and inferior limits of agreement of 30.6 and -20.9 steps, respectively. In addition, strong correlations between number of steps and CPET workload (r=0.76, P<0.01) and peak V̇O2 (r=0.71, P<0.01) were observed. From simple linear regression the following predictive equations were obtained with 6MST results: V̇O2 peak (mL/min) = 350.22 + (7.333 × number of steps), with R2=0.51, and peak workload (W) = 4.044 + (0.772 × number of steps), with R2=0.58. The 6MST was a reliable and valid tool to assess functional capacity in HFrEF participants and may moderately predict peak workload and oxygen uptake of a CPET.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise Test , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Oxygen Consumption , Stroke Volume , Reproducibility of Results , Exercise Tolerance , Walk Test
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20210089, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340136


ABSTRACT Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been described as one of the components of the treatment of chronic lung conditions such as obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. Although the number of studies showing results of IMT in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is scarce when compared with studies in patients with COPD, evidence points to benefits of IMT in this population. This scoping review aimed to explore the role and the rationale of IMT in patients with ILD and to gather recent evidence on the effects of IMT in this population. The studies included in this review showed improvements in respiratory muscle function, quality of life, exercise capacity and dyspnea after ILD patients participated in programs that included stand-alone IMT or combined with pulmonary rehabilitation. There is still a gap in the literature to allow a clear conclusion on the indications of IMT as part of ILD treatment because of poor research design and small numbers of participants. Therefore, although IMT seems to have a positive effect in patients with ILD, current evidence prevents us from drawing a definite conclusion. Further studies need to be conducted using better research methodology to demonstrate and confirm the positive effects of IMT.

RESUMO O treinamento muscular inspiratório (TMI) já foi descrito como um dos componentes do tratamento de doenças pulmonares crônicas obstrutivas e restritivas. Embora os estudos que mostram os resultados do TMI em pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial (DPI) sejam escassos em comparação com os estudos em pacientes com DPOC, as evidências indicam que o TMI traz benefícios para essa população. O objetivo desta revisão de escopo foi explorar o papel e a lógica do TMI em pacientes com DPI e reunir evidências recentes sobre os efeitos do TMI nessa população. Os estudos incluídos nesta revisão mostraram melhora na função muscular respiratória, qualidade de vida, capacidade de exercício e dispneia depois que pacientes com DPI participaram de programas com TMI apenas ou em conjunto com reabilitação pulmonar. Ainda há uma lacuna na literatura que impede que se chegue a uma conclusão clara a respeito da indicação do TMI como parte do tratamento de DPI em virtude da baixa qualidade do desenho dos estudos e do pequeno número de participantes. Portanto, embora os efeitos do TMI em pacientes com DPI sejam aparentemente positivos, as evidências atuais não permitem que se chegue a uma conclusão definitiva. São necessários mais estudos com metodologia de pesquisa melhor para demonstrar e confirmar os efeitos positivos do TMI.

Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Respiratory Muscles , Breathing Exercises , Exercise Tolerance
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20210076, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286957


ABSTRACT Objective: High prevalences of muscle weakness and impaired physical performance in hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19-associated pneumonia have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether the level of exercise capacity after discharge would affect long-term functional outcomes in these patients. Methods: From three to five weeks after discharge from acute care hospitals (T0), patients underwent a six-minute walk test (6MWT) and were divided into two groups according to the distance walked in percentage of predicted values: <75% group and ≥75% group. At T0 and three months later (T1), patients completed the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, and pulmonary function and respiratory muscle function were assessed. In addition, a repeat 6MWT was also performed at T1. Results: At T0, 6MWD values and Short Physical Performance Battery scores were lower in the <75% group than in the ≥75% group. No differences were found in the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale scores, pulmonary function variables, respiratory muscle function variables, length of hospital stay, or previous treatment. At T1, both groups improved their exercise capacity, but only the subjects in the <75% group showed significant improvements in dyspnea and lower extremity function. Exercise capacity and functional status values returned to predicted values in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusions: Four weeks after discharge, COVID-19 survivors with exercise limitation showed no significant differences in physiological or clinical characteristics or in perceived health status when compared with patients without exercise limitation. Three months later, those patients recovered their exercise capacity.

RESUMO Objetivo: Há relatos de altas prevalências de fraqueza muscular e de comprometimento do desempenho físico em pacientes hospitalizados em recuperação de pneumonia associada à COVID-19. Nosso objetivo foi determinar se o nível de capacidade de exercício após a alta altera os desfechos funcionais em longo prazo nesses pacientes. Métodos: Três a cinco semanas após a alta dos cuidados agudos (T0), os pacientes foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a distância percorrida no TC6 (DTC6) em percentual do previsto: grupo <75% e grupo ≥75%. Em T0 e três meses depois (T1), os pacientes responderam à Short Physical Performance Battery e à Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, e foram avaliadas a função pulmonar e a função muscular respiratória. Além disso, o TC6 foi repetido em T1. Resultados: Em T0, a DTC6 e as pontuações na Short Physical Performance Battery foram menores no grupo <75% do que no grupo ≥75%. Não foram encontradas diferenças nas pontuações na Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, nas variáveis de função pulmonar e função muscular respiratória, no tempo de internação hospitalar ou no tratamento anterior. Em T1, ambos os grupos melhoraram a capacidade de exercício, mas apenas os indivíduos do grupo <75% apresentaram melhoras significativas na dispneia e na função dos membros inferiores. Os valores de capacidade de exercício e estado funcional retornaram aos valores previstos em todos os pacientes de ambos os grupos. Conclusões: Quatro semanas após a alta, os sobreviventes da COVID-19 com limitação ao exercício não apresentaram diferenças significativas nas características fisiológicas e clínicas ou na percepção do estado de saúde em comparação aos pacientes sem limitação ao exercício. Três meses depois, esses pacientes recuperaram sua capacidade de exercício.

Humans , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Respiration , Exercise Test , SARS-CoV-2
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200134, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154699


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the validity of field walking tests to identify exercise-induced hypoxemia and to compare cardiorespiratory responses and perceived effort between laboratory-based and field-based exercise tests in subjects with bronchiectasis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 72 non-oxygen-dependent participants (28 men; mean age = 48.3 ± 14.5 years; and mean FEV1 = 54.1 ± 23.4% of the predicted value). The participants underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a treadmill and constant work-rate exercise testing (CWRET) on the same day (1 h apart). In another visit, they underwent incremental shuttle walk testing (ISWT) and endurance shuttle walk testing (ESWT; 1 h apart). Desaturation was defined as a reduction in SpO2 ≥ 4% from rest to peak exercise. Results: CPET results were compared with ISWT results, as were CWRET results with ESWT results. There was no difference in the magnitude of desaturation between CPET and ISWT (−7.7 ± 6.3% vs. −6.6 ± 5.6%; p = 0.10) and between CWRET and ESWT (−6.8 ± 5.8% vs. −7.2 ± 6.3%; p = 0.50). The incremental tests showed an agreement in the magnitude of desaturation in the desaturation and no desaturation groups (42 and 14 participants, respectively; p < 0.01), as did the endurance tests (39 and 16 participants; p < 0.01). The magnitude of desaturation was similar among the participants who did or did not reach at least 85% of the maximum predicted HR. Conclusions: Field exercise tests showed good precision to detect desaturation. Field tests might be an alternative to laboratory tests when the clinical question is to investigate exercise-induced desaturation in subjects with bronchiectasis.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a validade dos testes de caminhada de campo para identificar dessaturação durante o exercício, comparando os testes de exercício laboratoriais e clínicos de campo quanto às respostas cardiorrespiratórias e percepção de esforço em indivíduos com bronquiectasia não fibrocística. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 72 participantes não dependentes de oxigênio (28 homens; média de idade: 48,3 ± 14,5 anos; média do VEF1: 54,1 ± 23,4% do previsto). Os participantes foram submetidos ao teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP) incremental em esteira e ao constant work-rate exercise testing (CWRET, teste de exercício com carga constante) em esteira, com intervalo de 1 h. Em outra visita, foram submetidos ao incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, teste de caminhada incremental) e ao endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT, teste de caminhada de resistência), com intervalo de 1 h. A definição de dessaturação foi uma redução da SpO2 ≥ 4% do repouso ao pico do exercício. Resultados: O TECP e o ISWT resultaram em dessaturação de magnitude comparável (−7,7 ± 6,3% vs. −6,6 ± 5,6%; p = 0,10), assim como o fizeram o CWRET e o ESWT (−6,8 ± 5,8% vs. −7,2 ± 6,3%; p = 0,50). Houve concordância entre o TECP e o ISWT quanto ao número de participantes que apresentaram e não apresentaram dessaturação, respectivamente (42 e 14; p < 0,01), bem como entre o CWRET e o ESWT (39 e 16; p < 0,01). A magnitude da dessaturação foi semelhante nos participantes que atingiram ≥ 85% da FC máxima prevista ou não. Conclusões: Os testes de exercício de campo apresentaram boa precisão para detectar dessaturação. Os testes de campo podem ser uma alternativa aos testes de laboratório quando o objetivo é investigar a dessaturação durante o exercício em indivíduos com bronquiectasia.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Bronchiectasis , Exercise Test , Oxygen Consumption , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Walking , Exercise Tolerance , Laboratories