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1.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 4-4, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010717

ABSTRACT

Oral diseases, such as periodontitis, salivary gland diseases, and oral cancers, significantly challenge health conditions due to their detrimental effects on patient's digestive functions, pronunciation, and esthetic demands. Delayed diagnosis and non-targeted treatment profoundly influence patients' prognosis and quality of life. The exploration of innovative approaches for early detection and precise treatment represents a promising frontier in oral medicine. Exosomes, which are characterized as nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles, are secreted by virtually all types of cells. As the research continues, the complex roles of these intracellular-derived extracellular vesicles in biological processes have gradually unfolded. Exosomes have attracted attention as valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tools for their ability to transfer abundant biological cargos and their intricate involvement in multiple cellular functions. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent applications of exosomes within the field of oral diseases, focusing on inflammation-related bone diseases and oral squamous cell carcinomas. We characterize the exosome alterations and demonstrate their potential applications as biomarkers for early diagnosis, highlighting their roles as indicators in multiple oral diseases. We also summarize the promising applications of exosomes in targeted therapy and proposed future directions for the use of exosomes in clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes , Quality of Life , Extracellular Vesicles , Biomarkers , Cell Communication , Mouth Neoplasms
2.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 71-84, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role and molecular mechanism of exosomal miR-224-5p in colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#The miR-224-5p expression in CRC patient tissues and cell-derived exosomes was measured by laser capture microdissection and qRT-PCR, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the target gene of miR-224-5p. The protein expressions of p53 and unc-51 like kinase 2 (ULK2) in CRC cells were detected by western blot. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 and EdU assay.@*RESULTS@#The miR-224-5p expression was upregulated in CRC tissues and increased progressively with the rise of CRC stage. CRC cells secreted extracellular miR-224-5p mainly in an exosome-dependent manner, and then miR-224-5p could be transferred to surrounding tumor cells to regulate cell proliferation in the form of autocrine or paracrine. Moreover, ULK2 was characterized as a direct target of miR-224-5p and was downregulated in CRC tissues. Interestingly, ULK2 inhibited CRC cell proliferation in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, exosome-derived miR-224-5p partially reversed the proliferation regulation of ULK2 on CRC cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings demonstrate that exosome-transmitted miR-224-5p promotes p53-dependent cell proliferation by targeting ULK2 in CRC, which may offer promising targets for CRC prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Exosomes , Tumor Microenvironment , Immune System , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms
4.
Biol. Res ; 57: 3-3, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) poses a major threat to both physical and mental health; however, there is still a lack of effective drugs to treat the disease. Recently, novel biological therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their products, namely, exosomes, are showing promising therapeutic potential due to their low immunogenicity, few ethical concerns, and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived exosomes remain unclear. RESULTS: Exosomes derived from MSCs reduced hearing and hair cell loss caused by neomycin-induced damage in models in vivo and in vitro. In addition, MSC-derived exosomes modulated autophagy in hair cells to exert a protective effect. Mechanistically, exogenously administered exosomes were internalized by hair cells and subsequently upregulated endocytic gene expression and endosome formation, ultimately leading to autophagy activation. This increased autophagic activity promoted cell survival, decreased the mitochondrial oxidative stress level and the apoptosis rate in hair cells, and ameliorated neomycin-induced ototoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings reveal the otoprotective capacity of exogenous exosome-mediated autophagy activation in hair cells in an endocytosis-dependent manner, suggesting possibilities for deafness treatment.


Subject(s)
Neomycin/metabolism , Neomycin/toxicity , Exosomes/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory
5.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 911-921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012298

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform intrauterine adhesion modeling, and to investigate the repair effect of hypoxic treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and their derived exosomes (BMSC-exo) on endometrial injury. Methods: BMSC and their exosomes BMSC-exo extracted from rats' femur were cultured under conventional oxygen condition (21%O2) or hypoxia condition (1%O2). Intrauterine adhesion modeling was performed on 40 healthy female SD rats by intrauterine injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide after curettage. On the 28th day of modeling, 40 rat models were randomly divided into five groups, and interventions were performed: (1) NC group: 0.2 ml phosphate buffered solution was injected into each uterine cavity; (2) BMSC group: 0.2 ml BMSC (1×106/ml) with conventional oxygen culture was injected intrauterine; (3) L-BMSC group: 0.2 ml of hypoxic cultured BMSC (1×106/ml) was injected intrauterine; (4) BMSC-exo group: 0.2 ml of BMSC-exo cultured with conventional oxygen at a concentration of 500 μg/ml was injected into the uterine cavity; (5) L-BMSC-exo group: 0.2 ml hypoxic cultured BMSC-exo (500 μg/ml) was injected intrauterine. On the 14th and 28th day of treatment, four rats in each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after anesthesia, and endometrial tissues were collected. Then HE and Masson staining were used to observe and calculate the number of glands and fibrosis area in the endometrium. The expressions of angiogenesis related cytokines [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and CD31], and fibrosis-related proteins [collagen-Ⅰ, collagen-Ⅲ, smooth muscle actin α (α-SMA), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)] in endometrial tissues were detected by western blot. Results: (1) HE and Masson staining showed that the number of endometrial glands in L-BMSC group, BMSC-exo group and L-BMSC-exo group increased and the fibrosis area decreased compared with NC group on the 14th and 28th day of treatment (all P<0.05). Noteworthily, the changes of L-BMSC-exo group were more significant than those of BMSC-exo group (all P<0.05), and the changes of BMSC-exo group were greater than those of BMSC group (all P<0.05). (2) Western blot analysis showed that, compared with NC group, the expressions of collagen-Ⅲ and TGF-β1 in BMSC group, L-BMSC group, BMSC-exo group and L-BMSC-exo group decreased on the 14th and 28th day of treatment (all P<0.05). As the treatment time went on, the expressions of fibrosis-related proteins were different. Compared with BMSC group, the expressions of collagen-Ⅲ, α-SMA and TGF-β1 in the BMSC-exo group and L-BMSC group decreased on the 28th day (all P<0.05). Moreover, the expressions of collagen-Ⅲ and TGF-β1 in L-BMSC-exo group were lower than those in BMSC-exo group on the 28th day (all P<0.05). And the expressions of collagen-Ⅰ, α-SMA and TGF-β1 in L-BMSC-exo group were lower than those in L-BMSC group on the 28th day (all P<0.05). (3) The results of western blot analysis of VEGFA and CD31 showed that, the expressions of VEGFA and CD31 in BMSC group, L-BMSC group, BMSC-exo group and L-BMSC-exo group increased on the 14th and 28th day of treatment compared with NC group (all P<0.05). Treatment for 28 days, the expressions of VEGFA and CD31 in BMSC-exo group and CD31 in L-BMSC group were higher than those in BMSC group (all P<0.05). Moreover, the expressions of VEGFA and CD31 in L-BMSC-exo group were higher than those in BMSC-exo group and L-BMSC group on the 28th day (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Treatment of BMSC and their exosomes BMSC-exo with hypoxia could promote endometrial gland hyperplasia, inhibit tissue fibrosis, and further repair the damaged endometrium in rats with intrauterine adhesion. Importantly, hypoxic treatment of BMSC-exo is the most effective in intrauterine adhesion rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Female , Humans , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Exosomes/metabolism , Uterine Diseases/therapy , Collagen , Hypoxia/therapy , Fibrosis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Oxygen
6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1327-1330, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010948

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infectious diseases are a class of diseases with specific pathogens. Current studies have shown the important application and signal transduction mechanism of exosomes in bacterial infectious diseases, but the studies are still limited. Therefore, the relationship between exosomes and bacterial infectious diseases should be further explored to provide new diagnosis and treatment ideas for clinicians. This paper reviews the mechanism and prospect of exosomes in bacterial infectious diseases caused by different pathogens. It summarizes the biological characteristics of exosomes. The mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases, the primary pathways through which exosomes regulate various pathogens, and the modification of exosomes for anti-infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Communicable Diseases
7.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 999-1003, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010899

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by infection that lead to dysregulation of the host response. Sepsis and septic shock with a high mortality threaten human health at present, which are important medical and health problems. Early diagnosis and treatment decision-making for sepsis and septic shock still need to be improved. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 30-150 nm formed by the fusion of multi-vesicle bodies and cell membranes. Exosomes can effectively transport a variety of bioactive substances such as proteins, lipids, RNA, DNA, and participate in the regulation of inflammatory response, immune response, infection and other pathophysiological processes. In recent years, exosomes have become one of the important methods for the diagnosis and treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases. This article will focus on the basic and clinical research of sepsis, and focus on the research progress of exosomes in the diagnosis and targeted therapy of sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Septic/therapy , Exosomes/metabolism , Sepsis/therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , RNA/metabolism
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 827-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008137

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease involving multiple immune cells and structural cells.It is characterized by airflow limitation,airway hyperresponsiveness,and airway remodeling,with complex pathogenesis.In recent years,the research on exosomes has developed rapidly.Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by a variety of cells and are naturally found in various biological fluids,with stability and biocompatibility.Exosomes from different cells are involved in pathophysiological processes such as airway inflammation,remodeling,and hyperresponsiveness through specific mechanisms and play a regulatory role in multiple links in bronchial asthma.This review focuses on the role of exosomes from different cells in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes/pathology , Asthma , Lung/pathology , Inflammation , Chronic Disease
9.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 1136-1151, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Exosomal long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the key to diagnosing and treating various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of plasma exosomal lncRNAs in white matter hyperintensities (WMH).@*METHODS@#We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the differential expression (DE) profiles of lncRNAs in plasma exosomes from WMH patients and controls. The sequencing results were verified in a validation cohort using qRT-PCR. The diagnostic potential of candidate exosomal lncRNAs was proven by binary logistic analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The diagnostic value of DE exo-lncRNAs was determined by the area under the curve (AUC). The WMH group was then divided into subgroups according to the Fazekas scale and white matter lesion site, and the correlation of DE exo-lncRNAs in the subgroup was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#In our results, four DE exo-lncRNAs were identified, and ROC curve analysis revealed that exo-lnc_011797 and exo-lnc_004326 exhibited diagnostic efficacy for WMH. Furthermore, WMH subgroup analysis showed exo-lnc_011797 expression was significantly increased in Fazekas 3 patients and was significantly elevated in patients with paraventricular matter hyperintensities.@*CONCLUSION@#Plasma exosomal lncRNAs have potential diagnostic value in WMH. Moreover, exo-lnc_011797 is considered to be a predictor of the severity and location of WMH.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , White Matter , Area Under Curve , Exosomes/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2596-2608, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by sicca syndrome and/or systemic manifestations. The treatment is still challenging. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic role and mechanism of exosomes obtained from the supernatant of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-exos) in sialadenitis caused by SS.@*METHODS@#SHED-exos were administered to the submandibular glands (SMGs) of 14-week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of the clinical phase of SS, by local injection or intraductal infusion. The saliva flow rate was measured after pilocarpine intraperitoneal injection in 21-week-old NOD mice. Protein expression was examined by western blot analysis. Exosomal microRNA (miRNAs) were identified by microarray analysis. Paracellular permeability was evaluated by transepithelial electrical resistance measurement.@*RESULTS@#SHED-exos were injected into the SMG of NOD mice and increased saliva secretion. The injected SHED-exos were taken up by glandular epithelial cells, and further increased paracellular permeability mediated by zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1). A total of 180 exosomal miRNAs were identified from SHED-exos, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway might play an important role. SHED-exos treatment down-regulated phospho-Akt (p-Akt)/Akt, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK-3β)/GSK-3β, and Slug expressions and up-regulated ZO-1 expression in SMGs and SMG-C6 cells. Both the increased ZO-1 expression and paracellular permeability induced by SHED-exos were abolished by insulin-like growth factor 1, a PI3K agonist. Slug bound to the ZO-1 promoter and suppressed its expression. For safer and more effective clinical application, SHED-exos were intraductally infused into the SMGs of NOD mice, and saliva secretion was increased and accompanied by decreased levels of p-Akt/Akt, p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β, and Slug and increased ZO-1 expression.@*CONCLUSION@#Local application of SHED-exos in SMGs can ameliorate Sjögren syndrome-induced hyposalivation by increasing the paracellular permeability of glandular epithelial cells through Akt/GSK-3β/Slug pathway-mediated ZO-1 expression.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Sjogren's Syndrome/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Mice, Inbred NOD , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Xerostomia , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , MicroRNAs/genetics
11.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 374-381, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981248

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of human platelet-rich plasma-derived exosomes(PRP-exos)on the proliferation of Schwann cell(SC)cultured in vitro. Methods PRP-exos were extracted by polymerization-precipitation combined with ultracentrifugation.The morphology of PRP-exos was observed by transmission electron microscopy,and the concentration and particle size distribution of PRP-exos were determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis.Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of the marker proteins CD63,CD81,and CD9 on exosome surface and the platelet membrane glycoprotein CD41.The SCs of rats were isolated and cultured,and the expression of the SC marker S100β was detected by immunofluorescence staining.The fluorescently labeled PRP-exos were co-cultured with SCs in vitro for observation of their interaction.EdU assay was employed to detect the effect of PRP-exos on SC proliferation,and CCK-8 assay to detect the effects of PRP-exos at different concentrations(0,10,20,40,80,and 160 μg/ml)on SC proliferation. Results The extracted PRP-exos appeared as uniform saucer-shaped vesicles with the average particle size of(122.8±38.7)nm and the concentration of 3.5×1012 particles/ml.CD63,CD81,CD9,and CD41 were highly expressed on PRP-exos surface(P<0.001,P=0.025,P=0.004,and P=0.032).The isolated SCs expressed S100β,and PRP-exos could be taken up by SCs.PRP-exos of 40,80,and 160 μg/ml promoted the proliferation of SCs,and that of 40 μg/ml showed the best performance(all P<0.01). Conclusions High concentrations of PRP-exos can be extracted from PRP.PRP-exos can be taken up by SCs and promote the proliferation of SCs cultured in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Exosomes/metabolism , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Schwann Cells , Coculture Techniques , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1477-1501, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981149

ABSTRACT

Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) generally have a bad prognosis and short overall survival after being treated with surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to the histological heterogeneity, strong invasive ability and rapid postoperative recurrence of GBM. The components of GBM cell-derived exosome (GBM-exo) can regulate the proliferation and migration of GBM cell via cytokines, miRNAs, DNA molecules and proteins, promote the angiogenesis via angiogenic proteins and non-coding RNAs, mediate tumor immune evasion by targeting immune checkpoints with regulatory factors, proteins and drugs, and reduce drug resistance of GBM cells through non-coding RNAs. GBM-exo is expected to be an important target for the personalized treatment of GBM and a marker for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of disease. This review summarizes the preparation methods, biological characteristics, functions and molecular mechanisms of GBM-exo on cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune evasion and drug resistance of GBM to facilitate developing new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of GBM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Prognosis , Cell Proliferation , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1351-1362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981142

ABSTRACT

In recent years, mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-derived exosomes have attracted much attention in the field of tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are signaling molecules for communication among cells. They are characterized by natural targeting and low immunogenicity, and are mostly absorbed by cells through the paracrine pathway of mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, they participate in the regulation and promotion of cell or tissue regeneration. As a scaffold material in regenerative medicine, hydrogel has good biocompatibility and degradability. Combining the two compounds can not only improve the retention time of exosomes at the lesion site, but also improve the dose of exosomes reaching the lesion site by in situ injection, and the therapeutic effect in the lesion area is significant and continuous. This paper summarizes the research results of the interaction of exocrine and hydrogel composite materials to promote tissue repair and regeneration, in order to facilitate research in the field of tissue regeneration in the future.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Wound Healing , Regenerative Medicine , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 241-247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981001

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of vascular walls with a complex etiology. In recent years, the incidence of atherosclerosis continues to increase with obesity and diabetes as major risk factors. As an important metabolic organ in the body, adipose tissue also has a powerful endocrine function. In the case of obesity and diabetes, various cytokines and exosomes derived from adipose tissue mediate organ-organ/cell-cell crosstalk, and are involved in the occurrence and development of various diseases. As an important intercellular communicator, exosomes regulate the pathological process of various cardiovascular diseases and are closely related to atherosclerosis. In this paper, we reviewed the mechanism of adipose-derived exosomes in atherosclerosis with focus on endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory response, lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, hoping to provide reference for the research, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes/metabolism , Atherosclerosis , Obesity/complications , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Insulin Resistance
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 766-776, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect of hydrogel loaded with exosomes from Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) on wound healing.@*METHODS@#Exosomes were extracted from WJMSC, and the morphology and size of WJMSC-derived exosomes (WEX) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle size analyzer, respectively. The surface markers CD9, CD81, and Calnexin of WEX were detected by Western blotting. Exosome-loaded alginate hydrogel (WEX-gel) was prepared; its morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope, and its rheological behavior was examined by a rheometer. The in vitro drug release performance of WEX-gel was investigated by BCA method. RAW264.7 cells were treated with alginate hydrogel, WEX and WEX-gel, respectively; and the expression of CD86 and CD206 in macrophages was detected by flow cytometry. A full-thickness skin wound model was established in mice; the model mice were randomly divided into blank control group, WEX control group and WEX-gel group, and PBS, WEX and WEX-gel were applied to the wound area of mice, respectively. On day 3, the skin tissue of mice was excised, and the antibacterial effect of WEX hydrogel was evaluated by plate counting. On day 15, the mice were euthanized and the percentage of residual wounds was calculated. The histological changes of the skin wound were observed after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson stainings. The expression of CD86, CD206, CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the skin wound tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Exosomes were successfully extracted from WJMSC. WEX-gel presented a regular three-dimensional network structure, good rheology and controlled drug release performance. WEX-gel promoted the polarization of RAW264.7 cells from the M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype in vitro. The residual wound percentage in blank control group, WEX control group and WEX-gel group were (27.5±3.4)%, (15.3±1.2)% and (7.6±1.1)%, respectively (P<0.05). The antibacterial property of WEX-gel is better than that of WEX (P<0.05). The dermis thickness, the number of new hair follicles, and the rate of collagen deposition in the WEX-gel group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (all P<0.05). The expression of CD206, CD31 and VEGF in skin wound tissue was higher and the expression of CD86 was lower in WEX-gel group than those in other two groups (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#WEX-gel can significantly promote wound healing in mice by regulating the polarization of macrophages.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wharton Jelly , Exosomes , Hydrogels , Wound Healing/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Alginates
16.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 429-438, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009905

ABSTRACT

Tumor-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor micro-environment. The exosome-derived non-coding RNAs are transmitted in the tumor microenvironment in three ways, communication between tumor cells, normal cells affecting tumor cells, and tumor cells affecting normal cells. Through these three ways, exosomal non-coding RNAs are involved in the regulation of tumor progression, affecting tumor angiogenesis, tumor invasiveness, drug resistance, stemness, tumor metabolic repro-gramming and immune escape, resulting in dual roles in promoting or inhibiting tumor development. Exosomes have a membranous structure and their contents are resistant to degradation by extracellular proteases and remain highly stable in body fluids, thus exosome-derived non-coding RNAs are expected to serve as diagnostic and prognostic indicators for a variety of cancers. In addition, exosomes can be used to deliver non-coding RNAs for targeted therapy, or to knock down or modify tumor-promoting non-coding RNAs for tumor therapy. This article reviews the function and communication mechanism of exosomal non-coding RNAs in the tumor microenvironment, including their pathways of action, effects, potential values for tumor biomarkers and treatment targets. This article also points out the issues that need to be further studied in order to promote the progress of extracellular non-coding RNAs in cancer research and their application in tumor diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes , Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor , Body Fluids , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1169-1176, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the research progress in biotherapy of rotator cuff injury in recent years, in order to provide help for clinical decision-making of rotator cuff injury treatment.@*METHODS@#The literature related to biotherapy of rotator cuff injury at home and abroad in recent years was widely reviewed, and the mechanism and efficacy of biotherapy for rotator cuff injury were summarized from the aspects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), growth factors, stem cells, and exosomes.@*RESULTS@#In order to relieve patients' pain, improve upper limb function, and improve quality of life, the treatment of rotator cuff injury experienced an important change from conservative treatment to open surgery to arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair plus a variety of biotherapy methods have become the mainstream of clinical treatment. All kinds of biotherapy methods have ideal mid- and long-term effectiveness in the repair of rotator cuff injury. The biotherapy method to promote the healing of rotator cuff injury is controversial and needs to be further studied.@*CONCLUSION@#All kinds of biotherapy methods show a good effect on the repair of rotator cuff injury. It will be an important research direction to further develop new biotherapy technology and verify its effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rotator Cuff Injuries/therapy , Quality of Life , Arthroplasty , Exosomes , Neurosurgical Procedures
18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 770-777, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008898

ABSTRACT

This research aims to investigate the encapsulation and controlled release effect of the newly developed self-assembling peptide R-LIFE-1 on exosomes. The gelling ability and morphological structure of the chiral self-assembling peptide (CSAP) hydrogel were examined using advanced imaging techniques, including atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The biocompatibility of the CSAP hydrogel was assessed through optical microscopy and fluorescent staining. Exosomes were isolated via ultrafiltration, and their quality was evaluated using Western blot analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The controlled release effect of the CSAP hydrogel on exosomes was quantitatively analyzed using laser confocal microscopy and a BCA assay kit. The results revealed that the self-assembling peptide R-LIFE-1 exhibited spontaneous assembly in the presence of various ions, leading to the formation of nanofibers. These nanofibers were cross-linked, giving rise to a robust nanofiber network structure, which further underwent cross-linking to generate a laminated membrane structure. The nanofibers possessed a large surface area, allowing them to encapsulate a substantial number of water molecules, thereby forming a hydrogel material with high water content. This hydrogel served as a stable spatial scaffold and loading matrix for the three-dimensional culture of cells, as well as the encapsulation and controlled release of exosomes. Importantly, R-LIFE-1 demonstrated excellent biocompatibility, preserving the growth of cells and the biological activity of exosomes. It rapidly formed a three-dimensional network scaffold, enabling the stable loading of cells and exosomes, while exhibiting favorable biocompatibility and reduced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the findings of this study support the notion that R-LIFE-1 holds significant promise as an ideal tissue engineering material for tissue repair applications.


Subject(s)
Exosomes , Delayed-Action Preparations , Hydrogels , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Peptides
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5977-5984, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008795

ABSTRACT

Plant-derived exosome-like nanoparticles(PELNs) are a class of membranous vesicles with diameters approximately ranging from 30 to 300 nm, isolated from plant tissues. They contain components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. PELNs play an important role in the metabolism of plant substances and immune defense, and can also cross-regulate the physiological activities of fungi and animal cells, showing significant potential applications. In recent years, research on PELNs has significantly increased, highlighting three main issues:(1) the mixed sources of plant materials for PELNs;(2) the lack of a unified system for isolating and characterizing PELNs;(3) the urgent need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-regulation of biological functions by PELNs. This article focused on these concerns. It began by summarizing the biological origin and composition of PELNs, discussing the techniques for isolating and characterizing PELNs, and analyzing their biomedical applications and potential future research directions., aiming to promote the establishment of standardized research protocols for PELNs and provide theoretical references for in-depth exploration of the mechanisms underlying PELNs' cross-regulatory effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Exosomes/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Nucleic Acids , Nanoparticles
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1099-1110, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the involvement of endothelial cells (ECs)-derived exosomes in the anti-apoptotic effect of Danhong Injection (DHI) and the mechanism of DHI-induced exosomal protection against postinfarction myocardial apoptosis.@*METHODS@#A mouse permanent myocardial infarction (MI) model was established, followed by a 14-day daily treatment with DHI, DHI plus GW4869 (an exosomal inhibitor), or saline. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-induced ECs-derived exosomes were isolated, analyzed by miRNA microarray and validated by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). The exosomes induced by DHI (DHI-exo), PBS (PBS-exo), or DHI+GW4869 (GW-exo) were isolated and injected into the peri-infarct zone following MI. The protective effects of DHI and DHI-exo on MI hearts were measured by echocardiography, Masson's trichrome staining, and TUNEL apoptosis assay. The Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to evaluate the expression levels of miR-125b/p53-mediated pathway components, including miR-125b, p53, Bak, Bax, and caspase-3 activities.@*RESULTS@#DHI significantly improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size in MI mice (P<0.01), which was abolished by the GW4869 intervention. DHI promoted the exosomal secretion in ECs (P<0.01). According to the results of exosomal miRNA microarray assay, 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in the DHI-exo were identified (28 up-regulated miRNAs and 2 down-regulated miRNAs). Among them, DHI significantly elevated miR-125b level in DHI-exo and DHI-treated ECs, a recognized apoptotic inhibitor impeding p53 signaling (P<0.05). Remarkably, treatment with DHI and DHI-exo attenuated apoptosis, elevated miR-125b expression level, inhibited capsase-3 activity, and down-regulated the expression levels of proapoptotic effectors (p53, Bak, and Bax) in post-MI hearts, whereas these effects were blocked by GW4869 (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#DHI and DHI-induced exosomes inhibited apoptosis, promoted the miR-125b expression level, and regulated the p53 apoptotic pathway in post-infarction myocardium.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/metabolism
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