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1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 139-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981919

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#High explosives are used to produce blast waves to study their biological effects. The lungs are considered as the critical target organ in blast-effect studies. The degree of lung hemorrhaging is related to both the explosive power and the increased lung weight. We studied the characteristics of the biological effects from an air explosion of a thermobaric bomb in a high-altitude environment and the lethality and lung injury severity of goats in different orientations and distances.@*METHODS@#Goats were placed at 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 m from the explosion center and exposed them to an air blast at an altitude of 4700-meter. A group of them standing oriented to the right side and the other group seated facing the explosion center vertically. The lung injuries were quantified according to the percentage of surface area contused, and using the pathologic severity scale of lung blast injury (PSSLBI) to score the 4 injury categories (slight, moderate, serious and severe) as 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The lung coefficient (lung weight [g]/body weight [kg]) was the indicator of pulmonary edema and was related to lung injury severity. Blast overpressure data were collected using blast test devices placed at matching locations to represent loadings to goats. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 26.0, statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).@*RESULTS@#In total, 127 goats were involved in this study. Right-side-standing goats had a significantly higher mortality rate than those seated vertical-facing (p < 0.05). At the 2.5 m distance, the goat mortality was nearly 100%, whereas at 5 m, all the goats survived. Lung injuries of the right-side-standing goats were 1 - 2 grades more serious than those of seated goats at the same distances, the scores of PSSLBI were significantly higher than the seated vertical-facing goats (p < 0.05). The lung coefficient of the right-side-standing goats were significantly higher than those of seated vertical-facing (p < 0.05). Mortality, PSSLBI, and the lung coefficient results indicated that the right-side-standing goats experienced severer injuries than the seated vertical-facing goats, and the injuries were lessened as the distance increased. The blast overpressure was consistent with these results.@*CONCLUSION@#The main killing factors of the thermobaric bomb in the high-altitude environment were blast overpressure, blast wind propulsions and burn. The orientation and distances of the goats significantly affected the blast injury severity. These results may provide a research basis for diagnosing, treating and protecting against injuries from thermobaric explosions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung Injury/etiology , Blast Injuries , Goats , Explosions , Lung/pathology
2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 373-377, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936021

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the application effects of feedforward control theory in the rollover bed treatment of mass patients with burn-explosion combined injury. Methods: A retrospective observational research was conducted. From June 13 to 14, 2020, 15 patients with severe burn-explosion combined injury caused by liquefied natural gas tank car explosion and conforming to the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. There were 13 males and 2 females, aged 33-92 (66±17) years. All the patients were treated with rollover bed from 48 h post admission, and the feedforward control theory was introduced, including establishing a special feedforward control management team for rollover bed, clarifying the duties of the medical staff in the rollover bed treatment of patients, implementing the cooperation strategy of multidisciplinary physician, training and examining for 80 nurses in the temporarily organized nurse team in the form of "rollover bed workshop", and formulating the checklist and valuation list of rollover bed treatment for continuous quality control. The frequency and the total number of turning over, and successful rate of one-time posture change with the rollover bed of patients within 30 days of admission were recorded, the occurrences of adverse events caused by improper operation for the rollover bed during the treatment were observed, including respiratory and cardiac arrests, treatment interruption, unplanned extubation, bed falling, and skin graft displacement. The lowest levels of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), the number of patients with oxygenation index>300 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), and the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of patients within 2 days of admission and on the 30th day of admission were recorded. Results: Within 30 days of admission, the patients were turned over with the rollover bed for 2 to 6 times each day, with a total of 1 320 turning over operations, the successful rate of one-time posture change reached 99.9% (1 319/1 320), and no adverse event occurred. Within 2 days of admission, the lowest levels of PaO2 and PaCO2 of the patients were (100±19) and (42±4) mmHg, respectively, and the number of patients with mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were 10, 2, and 3, respectively, and none of the patients had oxygenation index>300 mmHg. On the 30th day of admission, the lowest levels of PaO2 and PaCO2 of the patients were (135±28) and (37±8) mmHg, respectively, 3 patients developed moderate ARDS, 1 patient developed severe ARDS, and 11 patients had oxygenation index>300 mmHg. Conclusions: The introduction of feedforward control theory in the treatment of rollover bed of mass patients with burn-explosion combined injury can ensure safe and successful completion of turning over with the rollover bed, promote the repair of burn wound, and improve respiratory function, and therefore improve the treatment quality of patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Gas Analysis , Burns/therapy , Explosions , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 97-102, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935753

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the role and significance of pyroptosis in gas explosion-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Methods: In February 2018, 126 SPF male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into blank control group (18 rats) and experimental group (40 m, 80 m, 120 m, 160 m, 200 m and 240 m, 18 per group) . The experimental group carried out gas explosion in the roadway to build the ALI model, the control group did not carry out gas explosion, and other conditions were consistent with the experimental group. Respiratory function indexes such as respiratory frequency (f) , tidal volume (TV) , minute ventilation (MV) and airway stenosis index (Penh) were measured 24 hours after the explosion. 5 rats in each group were sacrificed after anesthesia, Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the content of Caspase-1. Western blotting was used to detect the content of cell pyroptosis including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) , Caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in lung tissue related protein expression. Results: The f and MV of rats in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) . Except for the 40 m and 80 m groups, the TV of rats in the other experimental groups were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) . Except for the 40 m group, the Penh of rats in the experimental groups were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05) . HE staining showed that the lung tissue of the experimental groups at different distance points showed obvious edema of the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli, a large number of red blood cells and inflammatory cells exuded in the alveolar space, thickening of the pulmonary interstitium, and increased lung injury score (P<0.05) . The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the positive expression of Caspase-1 in each experimental group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Western blotting results showed that the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins in each experimental group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Pyroptosis is involved in the pathophysiological process of gas explosion-induced ALI in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Explosions , Lung/pathology , Pyroptosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1032, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341418

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el año 2002 un artefacto explosivo improvisado estalló sobre la población civil afrocolombiana refugiada en una iglesia y generó una masacre. Los sobrevivientes presentaron importantes afectaciones en la salud, sin un estudio completo hasta la fecha. Objetivo: Establecer el perfil de salud auditiva en la comunidad de sobrevivientes a la masacre de Bojayá, Chocó. Métodos: A partir de evaluaciones clínicas audiológicas con anamnesis, otoscopia, audiometría, logoaudiometría e impedanciometría en 61 personas supervivientes, se efectuó un estudio descriptivo incluyendo variables sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo, signos y síntomas auditivos, y diagnósticos audiológicos. Resultados: Un 72,13 por ciento de los participantes fueron mujeres. Además de la exposición al estallido de artefacto explosivo improvisado, que les afectó tanto en recinto cerrado (78,69 %), como en exteriores adyacentes (3,28 por ciento) o ubicaciones más distantes; los principales factores de riesgo auditivo encontrados fueron la infección de oído previa (26,87 por ciento). Un 70,49 por ciento sufría de tinnitus y 14,75 por ciento de vértigo. El 81,97 por ciento de sobrevivientes (n = 50) presentaron alteraciones en su audición, sin estudio previo. Un 81 por ciento de quienes se encontraron con algún grado de hipoacusia, reportaban el antecedente de exposición al estallido dentro del espacio cerrado de la iglesia. Conclusiones: El perfil de salud auditiva de la comunidad de sobrevivientes a la masacre de Bojayá, Chocó, se caracterizó por la presencia de dificultades auditivas, tinnitus, otalgia, vértigo, antecedentes de trauma acústico y perforaciones timpánicas. El principal diagnóstico encontrado fue hipoacusia conductiva bilateral(AU)


Introduction: In 2002 an improvised explosive device exploded over a church with Afro-Colombian civilians sheltering there, generating a massacre. The survivors presented important health problems without a complete study to date. Objective: To establish the hearing health profile in the community of survivors of the Bojayá Massacre, Chocó. Methods: Based on clinical audiological evaluations with anamnesis, otoscopy, audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance in 61 survivors, a descriptive study was carried out including sociodemographic variables, risk factors, auditory signs and symptoms, and audiological diagnoses. Results: 72.13 percent of the participants were women. In addition to exposure to the explosion of an improvised explosive device, which affected indoors (78.69 percent), and in adjacent outdoors (3.28 percent) or more distant locations, the main auditory risk factors found were previous infection of ears (26.87 percent). 70.49 percent suffered from tinnitus and 14.75 percent from vertigo. 81.97 percent of survivors (n=50) presented alterations in their hearing, without previous study. 81 percent of those who encountered some degree of hearing loss reported a history of exposure to the blast within the closed space of the church. Conclusions: The hearing health profile of the community of survivors of the Bojayá massacre, Chocó, was characterized by the presence of hearing difficulties, tinnitus, earache, vertigo, a history of acoustic trauma, and tympanic perforations. The main diagnosis found was bilateral conductive hearing loss(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiometry, Speech , Tinnitus , Health Profile , Earache , Explosions , Explosive Agents , Hearing Loss, Conductive , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Residence Characteristics , Survivors , Gender Identity
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e2949, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156423

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Facial injuries are a common occurrence at the emergency room. Treatment for this type of trauma is complex in terms of re-establishing good oral and facial function, plus aesthetics. Objective: This paper aims to report a clinical case of aesthetic and functional rehabilitation using triamcinolone in a patient affected on the face by a fireworks explosion. Case report: A 26-year-old man was admitted to the oral and maxillofacial surgery service of the Sergipe Urgency Hospital presenting trauma after the explosion of a "Firework rocket" in his face. The patient had extensive soft tissue injury in gingival mucosa, right labial commissure, and tongue. There was also inferior incisive avulsion and dentoalveolar fracture. His clinical and tomographic evaluation presented comminuted mandibular fracture. After eighteen days he was discharged and sent to the dentistry service of the Federal University of Sergipe for aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of his facial damages. Two months later, the patient attended a University dental service to begin aesthetic and postoperative functional rehabilitation. First, the necrotic bone was removed, following intralesional infiltration of hexacetonide triamcinolone 20mg/mL into the scar of the labial region and the commissure of the lips was performed. Each application was performed after twenty days of interval. Later, lingual frenectomy and glossosplasty were done for improving his lingual mobility and then hexacetonide triamcinolone 20mg/mL infiltrations were also done in the tongue base in the following sessions. Conclusions: After five infiltrations, it was observed an improvement in the scar appearance and texture, which also had a lower contracture, as well as a lingual motricity improvement(AU)


Introducción: Las lesiones faciales son frecuentes en el servicio de emergencia. El tratamiento para este tipo de trauma es complejo en términos de restablecer una buena función bucal y facial, además de la estética. Objetivo: Reportar un caso clínico de rehabilitación estética y funcional a través del uso de hexacetónido de triamcinolona en un paciente afectado por una explosión de fuegos artificiales en su rostro. Caso clínico: Hombre de 26 años ingresado en el servicio de cirugía oral y maxilofacial del Hospital de Urgencia de Sergipe por presentar un traumatismo después de la explosión contra su rostro de un cohete de fuegos artificiales. El paciente tenía una lesión extensa de partes blandas en la mucosa gingival, comisura labial derecha y lengua. También hubo avulsión incisiva inferior y fractura dentoalveolar. A través de la evaluación clínica y de tomografía, fue posible observar fragmentación múltiple ósea en el sitio de la fractura, compatible con fractura mandibular conminuta. Después de dieciocho días fue dado de alta y enviado al servicio de odontología de la Universidad Federal de Sergipe para la rehabilitación estética y funcional de sus daños faciales. Dos meses después, el paciente asistió al servicio dental de la universidad para comenzar la rehabilitación funcional estética y posoperatoria. Primero, se retiró el hueso necrótico, luego se realizó la infiltración intralesional de hexacetónido de triamcinolona 20 mg/mL en la cicatriz de la región labial y se realizó la comisura de los labios; con un intervalo de 20 días entre cada aplicación. Posteriormente, se realizaron frenectomía lingual y glososplastia, para mejorar su movilidad lingual, y luego se realizaron infiltraciones de 20 mg/mL de hexacetónido de triamcinolona en la base de la lengua en las sesiones siguientes. Comentarios principales: Después de cinco infiltraciones se observó una mejora en el aspecto y la textura de la cicatriz, que también tenía una contractura más baja, así como una mejora de la motricidad lingual(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Triamcinolone/therapeutic use , Explosions/prevention & control , Facial Injuries/diagnosis , Mandibular Fractures/therapy , Plastic Surgery Procedures/rehabilitation , Emergency Service, Hospital
6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 338-349, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829007

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To observe the dynamic impacts of shock waves on the severity of lung injury in rats with different injury distances.@*Methods@#Simulate open-field shock waves; detect the biomechanical effects of explosion sources at distances of 40, 44, and 48 cm from rats; and examine the changes in the gross anatomy of the lungs, lung wet/dry weight ratio, hemoglobin concentration, blood gas analysis, and pathology.@*Results@#Biomechanical parameters such as the overpressure peak and impulse were gradually attenuated with an increase in the injury distance. The lung tissue hemorrhage, edema, oxygenation index, and pathology changed more significantly for the 40 cm group than for the 44 and 48 cm groups. The overpressure peak and impulse were significantly higher for the 40 cm group than for the 44 and 48 cm groups ( < 0.05 or < 0.01). The animal mortality was significantly higher for the 40 cm group than for the other two groups (41.2% . 17.8% and 10.0%, < 0.05). The healing time of injured lung tissues for the 40 cm group was longer than those for the 44 and 48 cm groups.@*Conclusions@#The effects of simulated open-field shock waves on the severity of lung injuries in rats were correlated with the injury distances, the peak overpressure, and the overpressure impulse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Biomechanical Phenomena , Blast Injuries , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Explosions , Lung Injury , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 88-91, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739376

ABSTRACT

The burn center in our hospital is a national and regional (Southeast Asia) center. Of all admissions, 10% are related to blast explosions, and 8% due to chemical burns. In the acute burn management protocol of Singapore General Hospital, early surgical debridement is advocated for all acute partial-thickness burns. The aim of early surgical debridement is to remove all debris and unhealthy tissue, preventing wound infection and thereby expediting wound healing. In chemical burns, there can be stubborn eschars that are resistant to traditional debridement. We would like to present a novel technique using the diathermy scratch pad as a cheap and efficient tool for the dual purpose of surgical debridement and dermabrasion.


Subject(s)
Burn Units , Burns , Burns, Chemical , Debridement , Dermabrasion , Diathermy , Explosions , Foreign Bodies , Hospitals, General , Singapore , Wound Healing , Wound Infection
8.
Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing ; : 1-11, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Iri station explosion that occurred in 1977 was a major social disaster in Korea, caused by a fire in a train equipped with explosives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the social disaster adaptation experiences of railroad workers. METHODS: This study was based on qualitative research using phenomenological methodology. Participants were six railroad workers who experienced the Iri station explosion. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with individual workers from March to June, 2018. The data analysis method was based on Colaizzi's approach. RESULTS: Experiences of railroad workers were categorized into 12 themes and the following 6 theme clusters: (1) Anxiety due to the extreme vibration and crash, (2) Terror regarding the horrible situation that one cannot face, (3) Anger about the cause of the explosion and a sense of relief about survival, (4) Confusion regarding different rumors, (5) Various efforts to return to daily life, and (6) Trauma that continues to exist. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study recommend that railroad organizations and managers should pay attention to enhance disaster preparedness and develop organizational disaster coping guidelines for members. The results of this study can help us to better understand the various aspects of the Iri station explosion of 1977.


Subject(s)
Anger , Anxiety , Disasters , Explosions , Explosive Agents , Fires , Korea , Methods , Qualitative Research , Railroads , Statistics as Topic , Vibration
9.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 409-419, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786581

ABSTRACT

Although the rare earth elements (REEs) recycling industry is expected to increase worldwide in high-tech industry, regulations for worker safety have yet to be established. This study was conducted to understand the potential hazard/risk of REE recycling and to support the establishment of regulations or standards. We review the extensive literature on the toxicology, occupational safety, and health issues, and epidemiological surveys related to the REEs, and propose suitable management measures. REE recycling has four key steps such as collection, dismantling, separation, and processing. In these processes, hazardous substances, such as REEs-containing dust, metals, and chemicals, were used or occurred, including the risk of ignition and explosion, and the workers can be easily exposed to them. In addition, skin irritation and toxicities for respiratory, nervous, and cardiovascular systems with the liver toxicity were reported; however, more supplementary data are needed, owing to incompleteness. Therefore, monitoring systems concerning health, environmental impacts, and safety need to be established, based on additional research studies. It is also necessary to develop innovative and environment-friendly recycling technologies, analytical methods, and biomarkers with government support. Through these efforts, the occupational safety and health status will be improved, along with the establishment of advanced REE recycling industry.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cardiovascular System , Dust , Environmental Health , Explosions , Hazardous Substances , Liver , Metals , Occupational Health , Recycling , Skin , Social Control, Formal , Toxicology
10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 188-196, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the emergency medical services (EMS) response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed the integrated data of the EMS rescue records and EMS-treated severe trauma registry from January 2012 to December 2013. Two databases were integrated using the unique accident identification number. Chemical incidents were defined by an in-depth review of the EMS rescue records according to a previous study. Mass casualty incidents were defined as more than 6 injured individuals. The rescue, EMS, and hospital variables of mass casualty chemical incidents were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 8 mass casualty chemical incidents and 73 patients were included. The mean responded rescue vehicles and EMS vehicles were 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. The 4 incidents were an oil spill due to traffic accidents and most patients suffered minor trauma. A carbon monoxide leak caused the largest number of patients (23 people). The explosion caused by flammable polyethylene leaks showed the highest severity. In that explosion, the mortality rate was 40% and 8 patients had a disability at discharge. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the characteristics of the EMS response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Traffic , Carbon Monoxide , Chemical Hazard Release , Emergency Medical Services , Explosions , Korea , Mass Casualty Incidents , Mortality , Observational Study , Petroleum Pollution , Polyethylene , Retrospective Studies
11.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 158-159, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713838

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Compressed Air , Explosions , Orbit , Orbital Cellulitis
12.
Korean Journal of Obesity ; : 45-49, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761657

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide, and its complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also increasing. To avoid long-term damage caused by obesity and its complications, we must develop preventive measures and therapeutic agents based on the pathophysiology of human obesity. However, genetically-modified rodents are mainly used for obesity research. This type of animal model is not very suitable for the study of human obesity because environmental factors such as excessive food intake and sedentary lifestyle are major causes of the recent explosion in human obesity. Therefore, diet-induced obesity rodent models are more appropriate for research in human obesity. Type of diet, animal species, duration of food intake, age, and sex can play a role in determining body weight and levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin. Animal housing conditions such as the number of animals per cage, ambient temperature, and length of the light-dark cycle also influence body weight and metabolic parameters. As a result, many influencing factors should be considered in the development of an appropriate diet-induced obesity rodent model for successful obesity research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Eating , Explosions , Glucose , Housing, Animal , Insulin , Leptin , Models, Animal , Obesity , Photoperiod , Prevalence , Rodentia , Sedentary Behavior , Triglycerides
13.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 136-138, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235764

ABSTRACT

During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it, a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation. The explosion took place in the victim's hands, in point-blank range. This report aimed to show the anatomical position, the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation, and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Accidents , Blast Injuries , Explosions , Fatal Outcome
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 139-140, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235763

ABSTRACT

Explosion has become one of the most common causes of death of the combat casualties. I made a comment on one case of autopsy whose cause of death was the accidental denotation of a 355 g rifle grenade and reviewed the clinical approaches and strategies of the blast injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents , Blast Injuries , Explosions
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 151-159, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26898

ABSTRACT

Sex determination is the preliminary step in every forensic investigation and the hard palate assumes significance in cranial sexing in cases involving burns and explosions due to its resistant nature and secluded location. This study analyzes the sexing potential of incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length, palatine process of maxilla length, horizontal plate of palatine bone length and transverse length between the greater palatine foramina. The study deviates from the conventional method of measuring the maxillo-alveolar length and breadth as the dimensions considered in this study are more heat resistant and useful in situations with damaged alveolar margins. The study involves 50 male and 50 female adult dry skulls of Indian ethnic group. The dimensions measured were statistically analyzed using Student's t test, binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve. It was observed that the incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length is a definite sex marker with sex predictability of 87.2%. The palatine process of maxilla length with 66.8% sex predictability and the horizontal plate of palatine bone length with 71.9% sex predictability cannot be relied upon as definite sex markers. The transverse length between the greater palatine foramina is statistically insignificant in sexing crania (P=0.318). Considering a significant overlap of values in both the sexes the palatal dimensions singularly cannot be relied upon for sexing. Nevertheless, considering the high sex predictability of incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length this dimension can definitely be used to supplement other sexing evidence available to precisely conclude the cranial sex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Burns , Ethnicity , Explosions , Forensic Anthropology , Hot Temperature , Logistic Models , Maxilla , Methods , Palate, Hard , ROC Curve , Skull , Spine
16.
Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing ; : 85-95, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the burn characteristics of female patients hospitalized in a burn center. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study. The subjects were 222 female patients aged over 19 years old having burn injuries from work sites between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. Data were collected using electronic medical records about the burn-related characteristics. The data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Many of the subjects were in their forties and fifties. Most subjects showed burns with an area of less than 10% of the body surface with a severity of second degree. Scalding burns were the most frequent. Contact burns were usually of third-degree severity and occurred on hands and wrists. Flame burns affected the largest body surface area and frequently occurred on the face and mainly caused by explosion of a stove or kitchen gas. Chemical burns frequently occurred on the lower limbs. CONCLUSION: Female workers are exposed to the hazards of burn injuries in industrial accidents. Types of burn differ depending on the workplace conditions. Therefore, preventative measures for burn injuries should be established in accordance with the characteristics of each industry to which female workers belong.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Accidents, Occupational , Body Surface Area , Burn Units , Burns , Burns, Chemical , Electronic Health Records , Explosions , Hand , Lower Extremity , Retrospective Studies , Wrist
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(2): 164-168, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-746534

ABSTRACT

The search for new instruments to promote an appropriate cervical preparation has led to the development of new rotary instruments such as TripleGates. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no study evaluating TripleGates effect on the “risk zone” of mandibular molars. Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a crown-down sequence of Gates-Glidden and TripleGates burs on the remaining cervical dentin thickness and the total amount of dentin removed from the root canals during the instrumentation by using cone beam computed tomography. The number of separated instruments was also evaluated. Material and Methods : Mesial roots of 40 mandibular first molars were divided into 2 equal groups: crown-down sequence of Gates-Glidden (#3, #2, #1) and TripleGates burs. Cervical dentin thickness and canal area were measured before and after instrumentation by using cone beam computed tomography and image analysis software. Student’s t-test was used to determine significant differences at p<0.05. Results : No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between the instruments, regarding the root canal area and dentin wall thickness. Conclusion : Both tested instruments used for cervical preparation were safe to be used in the mesial root canal of mandibular molars. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Accidents, Occupational , Ammonium Hydroxide/toxicity , Burns, Inhalation/complications , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/surgery , Agriculture , Burns, Inhalation/etiology , Burns, Inhalation/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Explosions , Follow-Up Studies , Injury Severity Score , Jehovah's Witnesses , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Transplantation/methods , Quality of Life , Rare Diseases , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 279-281, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326010

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba injection combined with traditional therapy in the treatment of explosive deafness.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty-six (98 ears) participants who were all coal miners were selected. These patients were diagnosed with explosive deafness. and admitted to the otolaryngology department of our hospital from May 2010 to October 2013. They were.equally divided into control group and treatment group according to the therapeutic method. The patients in the control group only received traditional therapy, such as hyperbaric oxygen, while the patients in the treatment group were given Ginkgo biloba injection in addition to the therapy for the control group. The improvement in hearing was recorded and compared between the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of improvement in tinnitus symptom in the treatment group was 78.0% (32/41), significantly higher than that in the control group (55.6%, 25/45) (χ2=4.857, P<0.05); compared with the treatment group (93.5%, 43/46), the control group had a significant lower overall response rate at 76.9% (40/52) (χ2=5.160, P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compared with traditional therapy alone, combined ginkgo biloba extract injection and traditional therapy can significantly improve tinnitus symptom and overall response rate in the treatment of explosive deafness in coal miners, which suggests that the combination therapy is worthy of clinical application.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Coal Mining , Combined Modality Therapy , Deafness , Drug Therapy , Explosions , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Hearing Tests , Injections , Noise, Occupational , Oxygen , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Tinnitus , Drug Therapy
19.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 314-319, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316792

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The 8.12 Tianjin Port Explosion in 2015 caused heavy casualties. Pingjin Hospital, an affiliated college hospital in Tianjin, China participated in the rescue activities. This study aims to analyze the emergency medical response to this event and share experience with trauma physicians to optimize the use of medical resource and reduce mortality of critical patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>As a trauma centre at the accident city, our hospital treated 298 patients. We retrospectively analyzed the data of emergency medical response, including injury triage, injury type, ICU patient flow, and medical resource use.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were totally 165 deaths, 8 missing, and 797 non-fatal injuries in this explosion. Our hospital treated 298 casualties in two surges of medical demand. The first one appeared at 1 h after explosion when 147 wounded were received and the second one at 4 h when 31 seriously injured patients were received, among whom 29 were transferred from Tianjin Emergency Center which was responsible for the scene injury triage. After reexamination and triage, only 11 cases were defined as critical ill patients. The over-triage rate reached as high as 62.07%. Seventeen patients underwent surgery and 17 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The present pre-hospital system is incomplete and may induce two surges of medical demand. The first one has a much larger number of casualties than predicted but the injury level is mild; while the second one has less wounded but almost all of them are critical patients. The over-triage rate is high. The hospital emergency response can be improved by an effective re-triage and implementation of a hospital-wide damage control.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blast Injuries , Mortality , Therapeutics , China , Explosions , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hospitals, University , Injury Severity Score , Mass Casualty Incidents , Retrospective Studies , Surge Capacity , Trauma Centers , Triage
20.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 320-322, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316791

ABSTRACT

A male patient, 55 years old, was found from a container yard 65 h later following a chemical warehouse explosion in Tianjin, China on August 12, 2015. He was about 50 m away from the explosion center. He was subjected to compound multiple trauma, multi-viscera function damage, multiple fractures, hemothorax, traumatic wet lung, respiratory failure I, hypovolemic shock and impaired liver and kidney functions. After a series of successful treatments, he was rescued and recovered well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blast Injuries , Therapeutics , China , Explosions , Multiple Trauma , Therapeutics
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