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Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(2): 351-355, Mar.-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449808


Abstract Chronic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocation has been treated historically with complex osteotomies and reconstructive procedures, often resulting in intractable stiffness and loss of function. It is desirable to use a technique of fixation that will not only restore the wrist biomechanics but also be cosmetically appealing to the individual. We present a novel technique of reduction and fixation of a chronically dislocated DRUJ in a 26-year-old male using a minimally invasive approach, with successful restoration of DRUJ function and no postoperative complications.

Resumo Luxação crônica da articulação radioulnar distal (ARUD) foi tratada historicamente com osteotomias complexas e procedimentos reconstrutivos, geralmente resultando em rigidez intratável e perda de função. É desejável usar uma técnica de fixação que não apenas restaure a biomecânica do punho, mas também seja esteticamente atraente para o indivíduo. Apresentamos uma nova técnica de redução e fixação de uma ARUD deslocada cronicamente em um homem de 26 anos, usando uma abordagem minimamente invasiva, com restauração bem-sucedida da função da ARUD e sem complicações pós-operatórias.

Humans , Male , Adult , Orthopedics/trends , Wrist Injuries/surgery , Wrist Injuries/diagnosis , Wrist Injuries/psychology , External Fixators
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 839-845, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981677


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of single Taylor external fixator combined with biplanar osteotomy on correction of tibial multiplanar deformities.@*METHODS@#Between October 2016 and December 2021, 11 patients with tibial multiplanar deformities (20 sides) were treated with single Taylor external fixator and biplanar osteotomy. Of them, 4 were male and 7 were female; the average age ranged from 13 to 33 years (mean, 21.9 years). Diagnosis included rickets severe genu varum deformity (7 cases, 14 sides), rickets severe genu valgum deformity (2 cases, 4 sides), multiple osteochondromatosis calf deformity (1 case, 1 side), neurofibromatosis medial lower leg anterior arch deformity with short of leg (1 case, 1 side). After fibular osteotomy and tibial multiplanar osteotomy, a Taylor external fixator was installed. After operation, the deformities were corrected successively and fixed completely. The osteotomy healed, then the external fixator was removed. Before operation and at 12 months after operation, the full-length X-ray films were taken. The leg-length discrepancy, medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA), posterior proximal tibial angle (PPTA), anterior distal tibial angle (ADTA), and tibial rotation angle were measured. The degree of lower limb deformity was scored with reference to a customized tibial mechanical axis scoring table.@*RESULTS@#Osteotomy was successfully completed without neurovascular injury and other complications. The external fixator was adjusted for 28-46 days, with an average of 37 days, and the external fixator was worn for 136-292 days, with an average of 169 days. Mild needle infection during the fixation period occurred in 3 sides, refracture at the distal tibial osteotomy in 1 side after removing the external fixator, and nonunion of the distal fibular osteotomy in 1 side. All patients were followed up 369-397 days (mean, 375 days). At 12 months after operation, the lower limb discrepancy decreased, but there was no significant difference ( P>0.05). MPTA, LDTA, PPTA, ADTA, and tibial rotation angle improved, and the differences in LDTA, ADTA, and tibial rotation angle were significant ( P<0.05). The score of lower limb deformity was significantly higher than that before operation ( P<0.05), and the results were excellent in 9 sides, good in 8 sides, fair in 3 sides, with the excellent and good rate of 85%.@*CONCLUSION@#Single Taylor external fixator combined with biplanar osteotomy is effective in the correction of tibial multiplanar deformities.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Tibia/surgery , Osteotomy/methods , Rickets , External Fixators , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 694-699, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981654


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness of limited internal fixation combined with a hinged external fixator in the treatment of peri-elbow bone infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 19 patients with peri-elbow bone infection treated with limited internal fixation combined with a hinged external fixator between May 2018 and May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 15 males and 4 females with an average age of 44.6 years (range, 28-61 years). There were 13 cases of distal humerus fractures and 6 cases of proximal ulna fractures. All the 19 cases were infected after internal fixation of fracture, and 2 cases were complicated with radial nerve injury. According to Cierny-Mader anatomical classification, 11 cases were type Ⅱ, 6 cases were type Ⅲ, and 2 cases were type Ⅳ. The duration of bone infection was 1-3 years. After primary debridement, the bone defect was (3.04±0.28) cm, and the antibiotic bone cement was implanted into the defect area, and the external fixator was installed; 3 cases were repaired with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, and 2 cases were repaired with lateral brachial fascial flap. Bone defects repair and reconstruction were performed after 6-8 weeks of infection control. The wound healing was observed, and white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reaction protein (CRP) were reexamined regularly after operation to evaluate the infection control. X-ray films of the affected limb were taken regularly after operation to observe the bone healing in the defect area. At last follow-up, the flexion and extension range of motion and the total range of motion of the elbow joint were observed and recorded, and compared with those before operation, and the function of the elbow joint was evaluated by Mayo score.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up 12-34 months (mean, 26.2 months). The wounds healed in 5 cases after skin flap repair. Two cases of recurrent infection were effectively controlled by debridement again and replacement of antibiotic bone cement. The infection control rate was 89.47% (17/19) in the first stage. Two patients with radial nerve injury had poor muscle strength of the affected limb, and the muscle strength of the affected limb recovered from grade Ⅲ to about grade Ⅳ after rehabilitation exercise. During the follow-up period, there was no complication such as incision ulceration, exudation, bone nonunion, infection recurrence, or infection in the bone harvesting area. Bone healing time ranged from 16 to 37 weeks, with an average of 24.2 weeks. WBC, ESR, CRP, PCT, and elbow flexion, extension, and total range of motions significantly improved at last follow-up ( P<0.05). According to Mayo elbow scoring system, the results were excellent in 14 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 89.47%.@*CONCLUSION@#Limited internal fixation combined with a hinged external fixator in the treatment of the peri-elbow bone infection can effectively control infection and restore the function of the elbow joint.

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Elbow , Elbow Joint/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Bone Cements , Treatment Outcome , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Fractures, Bone , Range of Motion, Articular
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 815-820, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009142


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between closed reduction combined with semi-circular external fixator and minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) in the treatment of middle anddistal tibia fractures.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of sixty patients with middle and distal tibia fractures admitted between January 2019 and November 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were categorized into external fixation group (n=30) and internal fixation group (n=30). There were 18 males and 12 females in the external fixation group, with an average age of (49.29±2.35) years old. Among them, 14 patients presented with fractures on the left side, and 16 patients presented with fractures on the right side. Closed reduction, arched wire, and semi-circular external fixator were used for treatment. There were 20 males and 10 females in the internal fixation group, with an average age of (48.96±1.87) years old. Among them, 15 patients presented with fractures on the left side, and 15 patients presented with fractures on the right side. MIPPO technique was used for the treatment. Perioperative parameters, including time injury to surgery, surgical duration, incision length, intraoperative bleeding, time to active activity, and incision healing level, were compared between the two groups. Clinical outcomes were also assessed, including Johner-Wruhs scores, time to minimum pain-adapted full weight-bearing, visual analog scale (VAS), SF-36 scale, and complications.@*RESULTS@#The external fixation group exhibited a significantly shorter incision length (1.36±0.86) cm and lower intraoperative bleeding (10.83±5.73) ml compared to the internal fixation group (12.74±3.12) cm and (86.47±8.90) ml, respectively(P<0.05). The postoperative active activity time (1.50±0.54) days and minimum pain-adapted full weight-bearing activity time(108.87±3.43) days in the external fixation group were slightly delayed than the internal fixation group(1.15±0.98) days and (105.27±3.68) days, respectively(P<0.05). Over a mean postoperative follow-up duration of (6.23±1.89) months, both groups showed improved VAS and SF-36 scale scores. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS and SF-36 scale scores 1, 3, 6 months post-operatively between the two groups(P>0.05). The intraoperative surgical time in the external fixation group (35.42±9.31) minutes was shorter than that in the internal fixation group(74.22±7.81) minutes (P<0.05). There was no intraoperative vascular or nerve injury, nor postoperative skin necrosis in the external fixation group. However, skin necrosis was observed in 6 patientsin the internal fixation group, representing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Both external fixation and plate internal fixation are effective methods for the treatment of middle and distal tibia fractures. External fixation exhibits the advantage of less surgical trauma and a lower incidence of complications.

Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tibia , Treatment Outcome , Ankle Fractures , Tibial Fractures/surgery , External Fixators , Pain , Necrosis
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 798-803, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009139


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the needle puncture safety and clinical efficacy of manual reduction combined with external fixation of ankle frame in the treatment of trimalleolar fracture under the guidance of Chinese Osteosynthesis (CO) theory.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 118 patients with trimalleolar fractures admitted from December 2010 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-three patients were treated with manual reduction combined with external fixation of ankle frame(observation group). Sixty-five patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws(control group). The operation time, hospitalization days, non-weight-bearing time of the affected limb, clinical healing time of fracture, incidence of complications, visual analogue scale (VAS) before and 1 month after operation, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society(AOFAS) score of ankle joint before and 1 year after operation were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Patients in both groups were followed up for more than 1 year. All patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 14 to 70 months, with an average of(35.28±14.66) months. There were statistically significant in operation time, hospitalization days, non-load-bearing time of affected limbs, clinical healing time of fractures and VAS score one month after operation between the two groups. One month after operation, the VAS score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group(t=3.343, P=0.001). The operation time of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group(t=9.091, P=0.000). The hospitalization days in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group(t=5.034, P=0.000). The non-load-bearing time of the affected limb in the observation group was significantly shorter than that in the control group(t=11.960, P=0.000). The clinical healing time of fracture in the observation group was significantly shorter than that in the control group(t=4.007, P=0.000). There was no significant difference in AOFAS score between the two groups one year after operation(t=0.417, P=0.678). In the observation group, there were 2 cases of pinhole infection and 3 cases of loss of reduction less than 2 mm. There were 3 cases of surgical incision infection in the control group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups(χ2=0.446, P=0.504).@*CONCLUSION@#Manual reduction combined with external fixation is safe and effective in the treatment of trimalleolar fracture under the guidance of CO theory, and the function of ankle joint recovers well after operation. This therapy has good clinical value.

Humans , Ankle Fractures/surgery , Ankle Joint/surgery , East Asian People , External Fixators , Lower Extremity , Retrospective Studies , Manipulation, Orthopedic/methods , Fracture Fixation/methods , Open Fracture Reduction/methods , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 13(1): 79-90, 20230000. ilus, ilus, ilus, ilus, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425221


Introducción: las heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego en la región craneofacial provocan daños funcionales devastadoras y deformidades estéticas, que se suman al trauma psicológico al momento del regreso a la vida cotidiana de un paciente. Por esta razón, la reconstrucción adecuada es esencial para una rehabilitación integral. La fijación externa es un método de reducción cerrada de fracturas que implica el uso de tornillos para manipular segmentos sueltos de hueso, que luego se fijan mediante conexiones externas. Es importante recalcar que las fracturas mandibulares causadas por proyectil de arma de fuego son un reto para este tipo de tratamiento. Objetivo: presentar el caso de un paciente con fractura mandibular por proyectil de arma de fuego tratado con fijadores externos y revisión de la literatura sobre este tipo de tratamiento. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 19 años que presentó fractura de rama mandibular izquierda causado por proyectil de arma de fuego; la fractura se manejó mediante la colocación de fijación intermaxilar con arcos barra tipo Erich y fijación externa durante 3 meses. Como parte del resultado, el paciente presentó una correcta oclusión dentaria y mantiene sus movimientos mandibulares sin ninguna limitación. Esto demuestra que la reducción cerrada y fijación externa debe mantenerse en el arsenal terapéutico debido a sus adecuados resultados comprobados en la literatura y en este caso. Ahora bien, aunque la reducción abierta y fijación interna con material de osteosíntesis hace parte del manejo idóneo para todo tipo de fractura, todos los casos requieren ser individualizados.

Background: wounds from a frearm projectile in the craniofacial region cause devastating functional damage and aesthetic deformities, along with psychological trauma when returning to daily life. This is why proper reconstruction is essential for comprehensive rehabilitation. External fxation is a method of closed fracture reduction that involves the use of screws to manipulate loose segments of bone that are then fxed using external connections. Objective: to present the case of a patient with a mandibular fracture caused by a frearm projectile treated with external fixators and review the literature. Clinical case: a 19-year-old male patient who presented a fracture of the left mandibular ramus caused by a frearm projectile, the fracture was managed by placing intermaxillary fxation with Erich-type bar arches and external fixation for 3 months. The patient presented a correct dental occlusion and maintains his mandibular movements without any limitation. Conclusion: mandibular fractures caused by frearm projectiles are a challenge for treatment. Open reduction and internal fixation with osteosynthesis material is the ideal management for all types of fractures, however, all cases must be individualized, and it must be considered that closed reduction and external fxation must remain in our therapeutic arsenal due to their adequate results verifed in the literature and in our case.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , External Fixators , Mandibular Fractures , Therapeutics , Wounds, Gunshot
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1415756


Introducción: El adecuado tratamiento de los defectos óseos se presenta como un desafío para el cirujano ortopedista, en cuanto a la dificultad en la restitución de un miembro alineado, sin discrepancia ni infección. Se han descrito múltiples técnicas para reconstruir estos defectos, como el injerto óseo autólogo o de banco, la técnica de membrana inducida, la osteogénesis por distracción y los cilindros de titanio trabecular, pero ninguna ha demostrado ser significativamente superior a otra. materiales y métodos: Entre 2018 y 2021, 10 pacientes con defectos óseos de la tibia fueron tratados mediante transporte óseo guiado con osteosíntesis endomedular. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo analizando la magnitud de los defectos, el tiempo de transporte, las complicaciones y cirugías adicionales durante el proceso, si hubo consolidación y las deformidades residuales. Al final del proceso, se midió el puntaje de la ASAMI (óseo y funcional). Resultados: La longitud promedio de los defectos tratados fue de 9,75 cm y el índice de fijación externa promedio, de 40,62 días/cm. El 50% tenía un puntaje de la ASAMI óseo bueno; el 10%, excelente y el 40%, pobre al final del proceso reconstructivo. El 20% tenía un puntaje de la ASAMI funcional excelente; el 30%, bueno y el 50%, pobre. Conclusiones: El uso de tutores externos guiados mediante osteosíntesis es un método fiable para tratar defectos óseos, al mismo tiempo que se trata la infección de manera local y sistémica, acortando los tiempos de tutor externo y, por lo tanto, de internación y reintervención. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: The proper treatment of bone defects represents a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon given the difficulty in restoring limb alignment without discrepancy nor infections. Multiple techniques have been described for the reconstruction of these defects. These include bone grafting, whether autologous or from a bank, the induced membrane technique, distraction osteogenesis, and, recently, the use of trabecular titanium cylinders, but none has been shown to be significantly superior to another. materials and methods: Between 2018 and 2021, ten patients with tibial bone defects were treated by guided bone transport with intramedullary osteosynthesis. We carried out a descriptive retrospective study of this series, analyzing the magnitude of the defects, the transport time, the complications and additional surgeries that took place during the process, whether there was con-solidation, and the residual deformities. The bone and functional ASAMI scores were measured at the end of the process. Results: The average length of the treated defects was 9.75 cm and the average external fixation index was 40.62 d/cm. At the end of the reconstructive process, 50% of the patients presented a good bone ASAMI score, 10% presented an excellent score, and 40% had a poor score. Regarding the functional ASAMI score, 20% were excellent, 30% were good, and 50% were poor. Conclusion: The use of fixators guided by intramedullary nails constitutes a reliable method to treat bone defects that allows treating the infection locally and systemically, shortens the times of external fixation and hospitalization, and reduces the need for reinterventions. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , External Fixators , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Debridement , Fractures, Bone
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523934


Introducción: El Hospital Militar Central cuenta con un grupo especial para la atención de pacientes con trauma de guerra que incluye una evaluación inicial y manejo urgente de las lesiones que amenacen la vida, mediante un enfoque de control de daños que busca preservar la vida del paciente, salvar la extremidad y conservar su función. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal de pacientes de las fuerzas militares de Colombia, que sufrieron fracturas de fémur o tibia por trauma de guerra entre 2012 y 2020; y tratados mediante fijación externa en este Hospital. Objetivos: Describir las complicaciones del trauma de guerra tras un año de manejo de pacientes con fracturas de fémur o tibia utilizando un protocolo de control de daños en el Hospital Militar Central, centro de referencia para este tipo de trauma en el país. Resultados: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con fracturas femorales o tibiales por traumas de guerra entre 2012 y 2020, manejados con un protocolo de control de daños. Se seleccionaron 72 soldados, el 96% de las fracturas eran abiertas, el 91% (66 casos) sufrió alguna complicación, como lesión nerviosa, lesión vascular, defecto de cobertura, infección, falta de consolidación. Conclusiones: El trauma de guerra continúa representando una de las etiologías de politraumatismo en pacientes jóvenes de nuestro país que, a su vez, sigue teniendo grandes implicaciones clínicas y económicas. Las lesiones óseas de las extremidades requieren un manejo por etapas basado en la fijación externa según los principios de control de daños. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: The Central Military Hospital of Bogotá, Colombia has a specialized team for treating war trauma patients. They conduct an initial assessment of patients and promptly manage potentially fatal injuries using a damage control approach that aims to save the patient's life, save the limb, and preserve its function. Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on patients from the Colombian armed forces who, between 2012 and 2020, had femur or tibia fractures as a result of war trauma; these patients were treated using external fixation by the orthopedics and traumatology service of the Central Military Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Objectives: To describe the complications associated with war trauma following a year of treatment for femur and/or tibia fractures under a damage control protocol at the Central Military Hospital, the nation's reference facility for this kind of trauma. Results:A retrospective review of war trauma patients between 2012 and 2020 with femoral or tibial fractures treated with DCO was performed. Fisher's Exact tests were used for comparisons. Seventy-two soldiers were selected, 96% of fractures were open, 91% (66 cases) had some type of complication such as nerve injury, vascular injury, coverage defect, infection, and nonunion. Conclusions: In our country, war trauma persists as one of the causes of polytrauma in young patients, which has significant clinical and financial implications. Bone injuries of severely affected extremities require staged management based on external fixation according to damage control principles. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Tibial Fractures , External Fixators , Femoral Fractures , War-Related Injuries , Fractures, Open , Leg Injuries
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1520021


Las fracturas expuestas de pierna son lesiones frecuentes, sus principales complicaciones son la infección y la dificultad en la consolidación ósea. El abordaje ortoplástico implica llevar a cabo principios y prácticas de ambas especialidades en forma conjunta, evitando el tratamiento por separado de los problemas que surgen de estas lesiones graves y así intentar disminuir al mínimo las complicaciones. Nuestro objetivo es transmitir la importancia del enfoque ortoplástico en las fracturas expuestas. Se reporta el caso de un paciente adulto, con una fractura de pierna, tibia y peroné expuesta, que requirió múltiples procedimientos quirúrgicos en vistas a preservar el miembro. Fueron necesarias variadas estrategias para controlar la infección ósea y reconstruir las partes blandas y óseas. Con el estímulo de la movilidad del tobillo y pie, se logró comenzar a restituir la función del miembro desde el inicio; permitiendo, a las 6 semanas de evolución, el apoyo del miembro mediante una fijación ósea estable. A los 24 meses de seguimiento clínico y radiográfico evidenciamos paciente y familia satisfechos con un excelente resultado funcional según score ASAMI. Se concluye que en pacientes con fracturas expuestas graves, es clave el abordaje ortoplástico para lograr mejores resultados.

Open leg fractures are frequent injuries; the infection and difficulty in bone healing are their main complications. The orthoplastic approach involves carrying out principles and practices of both specialties together, avoiding separate treatment of the problems that arise from these serious injuries and thus minimizing complications. The objective of the article is to convey the importance of the orthoplastic approach in open fractures. We report the case of an adult patient, with an open fractured leg, to required multiple surgical procedures to preserve the limb. Various strategies were necessary to cure the bone infection and reconstruct the soft tissue and bone. The limb function restore was possible promoting the ankle and foot mobility from the beginning and it allowed weight-bearing on the limb through stable bone fixation, at 6 weeks of evolution. We evidenced a patient and family satisfied with an excellent functional result according to the ASAMI score, at 24 moths of clinical and radiographic follow-up. It is concluding that in patients with severe open fractures, the orthoplastic approach is key to obtain better results.

As fraturas expostas da perna são lesões frequentes, suas principais complicações são infecção e dificuldade de consolidação óssea. A abordagem ortoplástica envolve a realização conjunta de princípios e práticas de ambos ases especialidades, evitando o tratamento separado dos problemas decorrentes dessas lesões graves e minimizando assim as complicações. Nosso objetivo é transmitir a importância da abordagem ortoplástica nas fraturas expostas. É relatado o caso de um paciente adulto, com fratura de perna, tíbia e fíbula expostas, necessitando de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para preservação do membro. Várias estratégias foram necessárias para curar a infecção óssea e reconstruir os tecidos moles e o osso. Foi possível começar a restaurar a função do membro desde o início, com a estimulação da mobilidade do tornozelo e do pé; com 6 semanas de evolução, concedendo cargas ao membro por meio de fixação óssea estável. Apresentou boa evolução, aos 24 meses de acompanhamento clínico y radiográfico, constatamos a satisfação do paciente e família. com um excelente resultado funcional de acordo a pontuação ASAMI. Conclui-sé que em pacientes com fraturas expostas graves, a abordagem ortoplástica é fundamental para obter melhores resultados.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Fractures, Open/surgery , Leg Injuries/surgery , Catastrophic Illness , Follow-Up Studies , External Fixators , Treatment Outcome , Focal Infection/complications , Fracture Fixation , Fractures, Open/complications
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(6): 899-910, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423637


Abstract Objective Over the last decades, volar locking plates (VLPs) have been the mainstay treatment for distal radius fractures (DRFs). With the growing body of evidence, we systematically reviewed studies on recent VLP modifications. Methods A systematic search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE database for studies published in English in the past five years. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the operative treatment of DRFs. We excluded ongoing trials and studies not directly addressing DRF. The primary outcomes assessed were subjective (such as the scores on the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [DASH] questionnaire, the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation [PRWE], the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], the 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36], and the Visual Analog Scale [VAS]) and objective clinical outcomes (the complication rate). Results We identified 29 articles published from 2016 to 2020 with high quality of evidence, except for one, which had evidence of moderate quality. In total, 3,079 DRFs were analyzed in the present study. All studies except one had a greater proportion of female participants, and only in 1 study the mean age of the sample was < 40 years old. There were no significant differences between the VLP and external fixation (EF) in terms of the scores on the DASH (p= 0.18) and PRWE (p= 0.77). The VLP alone without pronator quadratus (PQ) repair yielded significantly better outcomes. Conclusion In unstable fractures, the VLP and EF yielded comparable long-term results. There is no clear benefit of adding PQ repair to current the VLP surgical technique. Level of EvidenceLevel I

Resumo Objetivo Nas últimas décadas, a placa volar bloqueada (PVB) tem sido o tratamento principal para fraturas do rádio distal (FRDs). Com o crescente conjunto de evidências, revisamos sistematicamente estudos sobre modificações recentes na PVB. Métodos Uma pesquisa sistemática foi realizada utilizando o banco de dados PubMed/MEDLINE por estudos publicados em inglês nos últimos cinco anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados (ECCRs) sobre o tratamento cirúrgico de FRDs. Excluímos ensaios e estudos em andamento que não abordavam diretamente a FRD. Os desfechos primários avaliados foram desfechos clínicos subjetivos (como as pontuações no questionário de Deficiências do Braço, Ombro e Mão [Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, DASH, em inglês], na Avaliação do Punho Classificada pelo Paciente [Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation, PRWE, em inglês], no questionário Qualidade de Vida Europeia - 5 Dimensões [European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, EQ-5D, em inglês], na Pesquisa de Saúde por Formulário Curto de 36 Itens [36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36, em inglês], e na Escala Visual Analógica [EVA]) e objetivos (taxa de complicações). Resultados Identificamos 29 artigos publicados entre 2016 e 2020 com alta qualidade de evidência, exceto por um, de qualidade moderada. Ao todo, foram analisadas 3.079 FRDs neste estudo, Todos os estudos analisados, exceto por um, tinham maior proporção de participantes do gênero feminino, e somente em 1 estudo a idade média da amostra foi < 40 anos. Não houve diferença significativa entre a PVB e fixação externa (FE) em termos das pontuações no DASH (p= 0,18) e na PRWE (p= 0,77). Os resultados da PVB isolada, sem qualquer reparo do pronador quadrado (PQ), foram significativamente melhores. Conclusão Em fraturas instáveis, a PVB e a FE produziram resultados comparáveis no longo prazo. Não há um benefício claro em se adicionar reparo do PQ à técnica cirúrgica atual da PVB. Nível de EvidênciaNível I

Radius Fractures/surgery , Wrist Injuries/surgery , Bone Plates , External Fixators
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 667-674, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394884


Abstract Objective To analyze the results of clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker Type V, VI) treated with Illizarov ring external fixator with or without minimum opening. Methods A total of 52 tibial plateau fractures of type V, VI were treated with Ilizarov ring external fixator with or without mininum internal fixation were studied. Functional outcome assessment was done using the American Knee Society (AKS) score with clinical, radiological union, and complications were analyzed. Results There were 37 (71.15%) male and 15 (28.84%) female patients, with a mean age of 39.07 ± 12.58 years old. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the major cause of fracture, accounting for 32 cases (61.53%) followed by fall injury, with 16 cases (30.76%), and direct impact, with 4 cases (7.69%). Twenty-one (40.38%) cases were type V and 31 (59.61%) cases were type VI fractures, and there were 24 (46.15%) cases of open fracture. The mean AKS score of Type V and Type VI fractures were 82.8 and 80.70, respectively, but this was statistically not significant at p<0.05. The mean AKS score of closed and open fractures were also statistically not significant at p<0.05. Conclusions For Schatzker Types V and VI complex tibial plateau fractures, Ilizarov external fixation is a safe, cost-effective and efficient treatment method that presents a satisfactory outcome.

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os resultados clínicos, radiológicos e funcionais da fratura do planalto tibial (Schatzker Tipo V, VI) tratada com fixador externo do anel Illizarov com ou sem abertura mínima. Métodos Um total de 52 fraturas do planalto tibial dos tipos V e VI foram tratadas com fixador externo do anel Ilizarov com ou sem fixação interna mínima. A avaliação do desfecho funcional foi feita utilizando-se o escore da American Knee Society (AKS, na sigla em inglês) com consolidação clínica, radiológica e complicações encontradas. Resultados Foram 37 (71,15%) pacientes do sexo masculino e 15 (28,84%) do sexo feminino, com idade média de 39,07 ± 12,58 anos. Acidentes de trânsito (ATs) foram a principal causa das fraturas, contabilizando 32 casos (61,53%), seguidos por lesão por queda, com 16 casos (30,76%), e impacto direto, com 4 casos (7,69%). Foram 21 (40,38%) casos de fraturas tipo V, 31 (59,61%) casos do tipo VI e 24 (46,15%) casos de fratura exposta. Os escores médios da AKS para as fraturas tipo V e VI foram de 82,8 e 80,70, respectivamente, mas não foi estatisticamente significativo em p <0,05. O escore médio da AKS para fraturas fechadas e abertas também não foi estatisticamente significativo em p <0,05. Conclusões Para a fratura do planalto tibial complexa dos tipos V e VI de Schatzker, a fixação externa de Ilizarov é um método de tratamento seguro, econômico e eficiente que resulta em resultados satisfatórios.

Humans , Male , Female , Tibial Fractures , External Fixators , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Ilizarov Technique
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1200-1206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970809


Knee joint distraction is a new technology for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in recent years. It could reduce knee pain and improve knee function, which is inseparable from the role of cartilage repair. The mechanism and influencing factors of knee joint distraction in repairing cartilage are the focus of current research. In this paper, the author reviewed literature and found that knee joint distraction could reduce knee joint load and provide a appropriate mechanical environment for cartilage repair, and it is resulting hydrostatic pressure fluctuation in the knee joint not only helps cartilage to absorb nutrients, but also promotes cartilage formation genes and inhibits cartilage matrix degrading enzyme gene expression. In addition, knee joint distraction creates conditions for synovial mesenchymal stem cells to be collected to cartilage injury, and improves ability of synovial mesenchymal stem cells to proliferate and differentiate into a chondrogenic lineage. Knee joint distraction could reduce inflammatory reaction and cartilage injury of knee joint by reducing content of inflammatory factors and inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes. At present, it is known that the factors affect repair of cartilage by knee joint distraction include, increasing weight-bearing activity and height and time of distraction is helpful for cartilage repair, male patients and patients with higher severity of knee osteoarthritis have better cartilage repair effect after knee joint distraction.The better efficacy of cartilage repair on the first year after knee joint distraction predicts a higher long-term survival rate of knee joint distraction with knee preservation. However, the research on the above hot spots is only at the initial stage and further exploration is still needed, in order to better guide clinical application of knee joint distraction.

Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis, Knee , External Fixators , Knee Joint/surgery , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular/surgery
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1189-1192, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970806


OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical efficacy of external placement of micro-locking plate combined with small incision reduction in treating proximal phalanx comminuted fractures.@*METHODS@#From January 2018 to December 2019, 17 patients with proximal phalanx comminuted fractures were treated with micro-locking plate combined with small incision open reduction, including 13 males and 4 females, aged from 16 to 64 years old with an average of (37.2±20.1) years old. Two patients were accompanied by soft tissue extrusion and opening injuries, which were treated with fixed treatment after the first-stage emergency debridement. Curative effect was evaluated according to total active flexion scale (TAFS) of American Hand Surgery Association at 6 months after operation;and fracture healing, nailing, local soft tissue healing, complications were observed.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up from 6 to 12 months with an avaerge of(9.3±3.6) months. Two patients occurred delayed union, 1 occurred local skin necrosis and was treated with the second-stage skin grafting to repair wound surface. No external screw breakage or infection was reported, skin soft tissue healed favorably and reached bony union, the union time from 12 to 24 weeks with an average of (15.7±2.1) weeks. According to TAFS standard, 9 patients got excellent result, 5 good and 3 poor at 6 months after operation.@*CONCLUSION@#External micro-locking plate combined with small incision reduction in treating proximal phalanx comminuted fracture, which has advantages of good condition of skin and soft tissue, simple operation, early functional exercise, good range of motion of interphalanx joint, and function score of recovery period is high.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bone Plates , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation , Fracture Healing , Fractures, Comminuted/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Finger Phalanges/surgery
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 287-291, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928906


The software of 3D-Modeling(UG NX 10.0) was used to design a new external fixator model for proximal femoral fracture, and fresh femoral cadaver specimens were used to simulate experimental operation. The results showed that the external fixator designed with the proximal femoral locking plate shape can improve the accuracy of Kirschner wire penetration into the femoral neck, reduce fluoroscopic and soft tissue incision injuries, and make a good stability and is easy to operate, which has a certain value for patients with proximal femoral fracture, such as intolerant surgery and poor physical condition.

Humans , Bone Plates , External Fixators , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 54-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928481


Wide-awake local anesthesia has many advantages. We describe a new method to use wide-awake local anesthesia with more flexibility. A 32-year-old man with a severe right-hand contracture after an iatrogenic tourniquet accident during an anterolateral thigh flap for a partial hand amputation underwent contracture release using external fixation after proximal row carpectomy and subsequent tenolysis. We performed most of the tenolysis procedure under general anesthesia and the final stage with an intraoperative assessment of active finger movement and dissection under local anesthesia. He regained his grip strength 2.5 years post-injury. General anesthesia is useful to treat a surgical site with extensive hard scars, whereas local anesthesia is useful for adjusting tension in an awake patient. The indication for wide-awake surgery is yet to be established; our method of combining general and local anesthesia in the tenolysis procedure illustrates the possibilities in expanding this method.

Adult , Humans , Male , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Brain Neoplasms , Contracture/surgery , Dissection , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation , Wakefulness
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 59-62, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928470


Schatzkter type-I tibial plateau fracture is a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau in sagittal plane, consequent to valgus impaction caused by low velocity of trauma. However, a deep understanding of the different columns of the tibial plateau and patho-mechanisms of the injury led to the unmasking of atypical fractures around the tibial plateau. We have encountered 2 cases with unusual fracture pattern of the lateral tibial condyle caused by road traffic accidents. The fracture pattern and severity of injury deviate from the original description of Schatzker type 1; in view of dual plane split, there is rotation of the posterolateral column fragment along its sagittal plane plus grade-III medial collateral ligament injury. The patients were initially treated with knee spanning external fixator and after a latency of 5 days, definitive fracture specific fixation was done, combined with repair of grade-III medial collateral ligament injury. At the 6 months follow-up both the patients achieved satisfactory knee functions (knee society score case 1: 100 and case 2: 92) and returned to their jobs. The severity of fracture pattern and displacement as described should prompt for examination of associated ligament injury. Because of timely diagnosis, early and appropriate care promised an excellent function outcome even in such a severe nature of knee injury. To prompt the description of injury pattern we coined the name "dual split and dislocation" of lateral tibial plateau, as a complex injury variant of split fracture of lateral tibial plateau fracture.

Humans , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Joint Dislocations , Knee Injuries , Tibial Fractures/surgery
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 53(2): 58-64, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1517584


Las fracturas del radio distal están entre las patologías más comunes en el área de la emergencia, actualmente los tratamientos más utilizados son la fijación con alambres de Kirschner y fijador externo (AKFE), o la osteosíntesis con placas volares de estabilidad angular (PVEA), realizamos un estudio comparativo de los resultados a corto plazo entre ambos métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, retrospectivo y descriptivo desde el 2005 al 2019, donde se revisaron las historias de los pacientes con fracturas de radio distal tratados con AKFE o PVEA, evaluando el alta después de la medición de la amplitud de movimiento articular funcional. Se incluyeron 68 pacientes, 47(69,11%) pacientes tratados con PVEA y 21(30,88%) con AKFE, la edad promedio fue de 53,07 años, la causa más común fue la caída de su altura en 60,29% casos, el alta médica por mejoría se realizó a las 15,95 semanas para AKFE y a las 9,86 semanas para PVEA (<0.05). La osteosíntesis con PVEA evidenció un menor tiempo de recuperación de la amplitud de movimiento articular con respecto a los pacientes tratados con AKFE(AU)

Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pathologies in the emergency area, currently the treatment more frequently used are fixation with Kirschner wires and external fixator (KWEF), or osteosynthesis with angular stability volar plates (FAVP), we carried out a comparative study of the short-term results between both methods. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study from 2005 to 2019, where the histories of patients with distal radius fractures treated with KWEF or FAVP revised, evaluated, evaluating at discharge after functional joint range of motion was measured.68 patients were evaluated, 47 patients treated with FAVP and 21 with KWEF, average age of 53.07 years, the most common cause was the fall from his height with 60.29%, the medical discharge was made at 15,95 weeks for KWEF and 9,86 weeks for FAVP; with a t student<0.05 between them. Osteosynthesis with FAVP evidenced a shorter recovery time for joint range of motion compared to patients treated with KWEF(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bone Wires , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Wrist Fractures/surgery , General Surgery
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37308, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341556


Resumen: Introducción: la luxación traumática de la rodilla constituye una lesión rara dentro de la patología ortopédica. En muchas ocasiones su diagnóstico pasa desapercibido dado que se dan en el contexto de pacientes politraumatizados, y la falla en el mismo puede derivar en un pronóstico potencialmente letal para el compromiso vital del miembro lesionado. Objetivo: realizar una revisión de la literatura disponible en los últimos veinte años acerca de cuáles son las indicaciones del uso del fijador externo (FFEE) en la luxación traumática aguda de rodilla en la urgencia. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistematizada a través de los buscadores electrónicos Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, Science direct y el portal Timbó. La misma alcanzó un total de 6.495 artículos, y de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 14 trabajos para realizarla. Resultados: se destaca que la mayoría de los artículos encontrados son de nivel de evidencia IV. La utilización del uso de la fijación externa en la urgencia como parte de la estabilización temporal y el manejo inicial estaría indicado en los siguientes escenarios clínicos: pacientes politraumatizados, lesión vascular, luxación expuesta, inestabilidad de la articulación, luxación recidivante, luxofracturas, lesiones a nivel del aparato extensor, obesidad mórbida, intolerancia del uso de la férula u ortesis. Conclusión: la sistematización y protocolización a la hora de la toma de decisiones permite disminuir de forma mayoritaria las complicaciones vinculadas a la patología traumática; éstas deben estar dirigidas a la estabilización del paciente en primera instancia, y en segunda instancia a estabilizar la articulación de la rodilla. La fijación externa tiene indicaciones en escenarios clínicos puntuales; sin embargo algunas de estas indicaciones aún son objeto de debate.

Abstract: Introduction: traumatic dislocation of the knee constitutes an unusual lesion in orthopedic pathology, the diagnosis of which is often missed. This is because it occurs in the context of multiple trauma patients, and failure to diagnose it may result in a potentially fatal outcome for the life-threatening compromise of the injured limb. Objective: to perform a literature review of literature on indications for the use of the external fixator in the acute knee dislocation at the emergency room that has been available in the last twenty years. Method: we conducted a systematized search by means of electronic search engines Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, Science direct and the Timbó portal. The search included 6495 articles and according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion 14 studies were selected. Results: the review highlights that most articles found are level of evidence IV. The use of the external fixator in the emergency room as part of the temporary stabilization and initial handling of the condition would be indicated in the following clinical scenarios: multiple trauma patients, vascular lesion, exposed dislocation, joint instability, recurrent dislocation, fracture dislocation, lesions of the extensor apparatus, morbid obesity, splint or orthosis intolerance. Conclusion: systematization and the observation of protocols when it comes to the making of decisions enables the decrease of most complications associated to trauma pathologies. Actions must be geared to stabilizing patients first and to stabilize the knee joint. The external fixator is indicated for specific clinical scenarios. However, some of these indications are still a matter of debate.

Resumo: Introdução: a luxação traumática do joelho é uma lesão rara na patologia ortopédica. Em muitas ocasiões, seu diagnóstico passa despercebido, por ocorrer no contexto de pacientes politraumatizados, e que sua falha pode levar a um prognóstico potencialmente letal para o envolvimento vital do membro lesado. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura disponível nos últimos vinte anos sobre as indicações do uso do fixador externo na luxação traumática aguda do joelho em pronto-socorro. Materiais e métodos: foi realizada uma busca sistemática nas bases LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Science Direct, na Biblioteca Cochrane e no portal Timbó. Foram obtidas 6.495 referencias dos quais 14 artigos foram selecionados de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Resultados: a maioria dos artigos encontrados apresentam evidência de nível IV. O uso de fixação externa na emergência como parte da estabilização temporária e manejo inicial, seria indicado nos seguintes cenários clínicos: pacientes politraumatizados, lesão vascular, luxação exposta, instabilidade articular, luxação recorrente, luxação, lesões ao nível do aparelho extensor, obesidade mórbida, intolerância ao uso de tala ou órtese. Conclusão: a sistematização e protocolização no momento da tomada de decisão é o que possibilita reduzir, em sua maioria, as complicações relacionadas à patologia traumática. Estas devem ter como objetivo em primeiro lugar estabilizar o paciente e, em segundo lugar, estabilizar a articulação do joelho. A fixação externa tem indicações em contextos clínicos específicos; no entanto, algumas delas ainda geram controvérsia.

External Fixators , Knee Dislocation , Knee Injuries , Emergency Medical Services
Rev. medica electron ; 43(4): 1118-1130, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341541


RESUMEN Con el paulatino incremento de accidentes automovilísticos, de trabajo, y la violencia urbana, las fracturas expuestas y complejas constituyen traumatismos de creciente incidencia y de difícil solución, con largos períodos de convalecencia que ponen en peligro la vida o la conservación del miembro lesionado. Un gran número de ellas dejan secuelas invalidantes. Existen varios tratamientos, entre ellos la fijación externa, utilizando el sistema creado por el profesor Rodrigo Álvarez Cambras, con varias ventajas que proporcionan una mejor evolución. Se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de mostrar la evolución y los resultados de un paciente ingresado y operado con el diagnóstico de lesión expuesta, compleja y grave de la extremidad inferior, específicamente de tibia. Este presentó varias complicaciones, por lo que se le colocó un aparato de osteosíntesis de fijación externa Álvarez Cambras en el Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Docente José Ramón López Tabrane, de Matanzas (AU).

ABSTRACT With the gradual increase of automobile and work accidents as well as urban violence, exposed and complex fractures are traumas of increasing incidence and difficult solution, with long periods of convalescence that endanger the life or the conservation of the injured member. A large number of them leave invalidating sequels. There are several treatments, including external fixation using the system created by Professor Rodrigo Alvarez Cambra, with several advantages that provide a better evolution. The current work was carried out with the objective of showing the evolution and results of a patient who entered the Teaching Provincial Clinical-surgical Hospital Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane, of Matanzas, and underwent a surgery with the diagnosis of exposed, complex and serious lesion in the lower limb, specifically of tibia. The patient had several complications and so he was put an Alvarez Cambra external fixation osteosynthesis devise (AU).

Humans , Male , Tibial Fractures/surgery , External Fixators , Therapeutics , Tibial Fractures/complications , Tibial Fractures/diagnosis , Tibial Fractures/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Fractures, Open/surgery , Fractures, Open/diagnosis
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 320-325, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288678


Abstract Objective Retrospectively assess the functional outcome of patients undergoing arthrodesis after septic failure of total knee arthroplasty. Methods Eighteen patients were evaluated, with a mean time of 3.7 years of follow-up. Arthrodesis surgery was performed using a narrow anterior dynamic compression plate, and medial or external fixator in two planes of the joint (Orthofix Bone Growth Therapy, Lewisville, TS, USA), at the surgeon's discretion. Results The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus methicillin sensitive (38.9%). The mean lower limb discrepancy was 3.63 cm. The mean knee society score was 68 points. According to the visual analog scale for pain, 44% of the patients had a 0 score at the time of assessment, and 22.2% were very dissatisfied, despite the bone healing achieved. Patients were assessed for the ability to walk with or without assistance. Conclusion Knee arthrodesis surgery was effective in controlling the infectious process and decreasing pain complaints, but satisfaction with the procedure was low.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar de modo retrospectivo o resultado funcional dos pacientes submetidos a artrodese após falha séptica da artroplastia total de joelho. Métodos Foram avaliados 18 pacientes com tempo médio de 3,7 anos de seguimento. A cirurgia de artrodese foi realizada com placa do tipo dynamic compression plate (DCP) estreita, anterior e medial, ou fixador externo em dois planos da articulação (Orthofix Bone Growth Therapy, Lewisville, TS, EUA), a critério do cirurgião. Resultados O patógeno mais frequentemente encontrado foi o Staphylococcus aureus sensível a meticilina (38,9%). A discrepância de membros inferiores média foi de 3,63 cm. O da knee society score (KSS) médio foi de 68 pontos. Segundo a escala analógica visual de dor, 44% dos pacientes apresentaram pontuação zero no momento da avaliação, e 22,2% estavam muito insatisfeitos a despeito da consolidação óssea obtida. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de deambular com ou sem auxílio de apoio. Conclusão A cirurgia de artrodese do joelho se mostrou eficiente quanto ao controle do processo infeccioso e diminuição das queixas álgicas, porém a satisfação com o procedimento é baixa.

Humans , Arthrodesis , Pain Measurement , Retrospective Studies , External Fixators , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Infections , Knee