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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 62-66, feb. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147175

ABSTRACT

El síndrome urémico hemolítico asociado a diarrea es precedido por una gastroenteritis por Escherichia coli productora de toxina Shiga. Se recomiendan medidas de sostén, especialmente, la restricción hídrica para evitar la sobrecarga cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, la expansión de volumen con líquidos isotónicos, en el período prodrómico o síndrome urémico hemolítico establecido, es segura y eficaz, reduce los requerimientos de diálisis, los días de internación y de terapia intensiva, los eventos neurológicos y la hiponatremia.Por ello, se propone, bajo supervisión nefrológica y/o garantizando el acceso a un centro de alta complejidad a corto plazo, hidratar a todo paciente sin signos de sobrecarga cardiopulmonar, independientemente de su función renal, con expansión inicial de volumen. Luego, si se logra una diuresis adecuada, no dializarlo (excepto que presente un trastorno metabólico/electrolítico intratable médicamente) y continuar la hidratación con una solución isotónica de dextrosa al 5 % para una adecuada hidratación y diuresis.


Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome is preceded by gastroenteritis due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Support measures are recommended, specifically, fluid restriction to avoid cardiopulmonary overload. However, in the prodromal period or with established hemolytic uremic syndrome, volume expansion with isotonic fluids is safe and effective, and reduces the need for dialysis, the length of hospital and intensive care stay, neurological events, and hyponatremia.Therefore, when nephrological monitoring is available and/or short-term access to a tertiary care hospital is guaranteed, it is suggested to hydrate patients with no signs of cardiopulmonary overload, regardless of their renal function, with initial volume expansion. Afterwards, if an adequate urine output is achieved, the patient should not be dialyzed (except if they have a medically intractable metabolic/electrolyte disorder) and hydration should be continued with an isotonic solution containing 5 % dextrose for adequate hydration and urine output.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fluid Therapy , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Pediatrics , Dehydration/complications , Extracellular Fluid
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To calculate the imbalance degree (IBD) of left-right meridian (IBD-LRM), IBD of exterior-interior meridian (IBD-EIM) and IBD of hand-foot meridians (IBD-HFM) of impedance in extracellular fluid of cells in twelve meridians of healthy subjects, so as to provide foundation for meridian diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) was applied. The constant current (from 1 to 100 kHz, 200 μA) was connected into the bilateral twelve meridians through two excitation electrodes with a distance of 10 cm. Two measuring electrodes, with an interval of 5 cm, were set in between the two excitation electrodes to collect the voltage amplitude and phase. The Cole-Cole curve fitting was used to calculate the impedance of extracellular fluid of cells in the twelve meridians; the IBD-LRM, IBD-EIM and IBD-HFM as well as their absolute values were calculated.@*RESULTS@#The impedance of extracellular fluid in the left side was higher than that in right side in the large intestine meridian, the small intestine meridian and the bladder meridian (<0.05, <0.01). The mean value of IBD-LRM of extracellular fluid was (4.0±1.4) %; the mean value of absolute value of IBD-LRM was (15.0±1.1) %; the maximum absolute value of IBD-LRM was the bladder meridian. The mean value of IBD-EIM was (3.3±1.0) %; the mean value of absolute value of IBD-EIM was (17.9±1.6) %; the maximum absolute value of IBD-EIM was the bladder meridian and the kidney meridian. The impedance of extracellular fluid of hand meridian, hand meridian and hand meridian were lower than those of foot meridians. The mean value of IBD-HFM was (-2.6±1.1) %; the mean value of absolute value of IBD-HFM was (19.7±1.7) %; the maximum absolute value of IBD-HFM was meridian; the imbalance of meridians was greater than meridians. There were significant differences in impedance of extracellular fluid between left and right and between hands and feet (<0.05, <0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The extracellular fluid of left-right meridians of healthy subjects is different, but the absolute value of IBD is low; the mean value of exterior meridian and interior meridian is very close, and the absolute value of IBD is medium; the impedance of the foot meridians are greater than the hand meridians, and the absolute value of IBD is relatively high.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Electric Impedance , Extracellular Fluid , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Meridians
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774160

ABSTRACT

Bioelectrical impedance measurement technology is a non-invasive detection technology for extracting human physiological and pathological information. The analysis method of the relationship between bioimpedance and human physiological parameters is an important part of this technology. In order to calculate the internal and external liquid volume of human cells more accurately, based on the Moissl equation for calculating the internal and external fluid volume of human cells, a segmented human bioimpedance spectrum measurement model and an improved calculation method of intracellular and external fluid capacity were proposed. The measurement and calculation experiments of the intracellular and extracellular fluid volume before and after the human body's water intake were designed and compared with the Moissl calculation method. The results show that the improved calculation method can calculate the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes more effectively, and the relative error is less than 5%, which may provide new ideas or more accurate methods for the analysis of human body components, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.


Subject(s)
Body Water , Electric Impedance , Extracellular Fluid , Humans , Intracellular Fluid
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be misleading in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We therefore investigated the CSF biomarkers in 18F-florbetaben amyloid-negative positron-emission tomography (PET) [amyloid PET(−)] iNPH, amyloid-positive PET [amyloid PET(+)] AD, and cognitively normal (CN) subjects. METHODS: Ten amyloid PET(+) AD patients (56.7±5.6 years old, mean±standard deviation), 10 amyloid PET(−) iNPH patients (72.8±4.5 years old), and 8 CN subjects (61.2±6.5 years old) were included. We measured the levels of β-amyloid (Aβ)40, Aβ42, total tau (t-tau) protein, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein in the CSF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The level of Aβ42 and the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in the CSF were significantly lower in AD than in iNPH or CN subjects. The Aβ40 level did not differ significantly between AD and iNPH (p=1.000), but it did between AD and CN subjects (p=0.032). The levels of both t-tau and p-tau were higher in AD than in iNPH or CN subjects. The levels of Aβ42, Aβ40, t-tau, and p-tau were lower in iNPH than in CN subjects, but there was no significant difference after controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying low CSF Aβ levels differs between amyloid PET(−) iNPH and amyloid PET(+) AD subjects. The lower levels of all CSF biomarkers in iNPH patients might be due to reduced clearances from extracellular fluid and decreased brain metabolism of the periventricular zone in iNPH resulting from glymphatic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Biomarkers , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Extracellular Fluid , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Metabolism , Positron-Emission Tomography
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691347

ABSTRACT

Qi, blood and the meridians are fundamental concepts in Chinese medicine (CM), which are components of the human body and maintain physiological function. Pathological changes of qi, blood and meridians may lead to discomfort and disease. Treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine aims to regulate qi and blood so as to recover normal function of the meridians. This paper explores the nature of qi as well as compares and correlates them with the structures of the human body. We propose a conceptualization of qi as being similar to the interstitial fluid, and the meridians as being similar to interstitial space of low hydraulic resistance in the body. Hence, qi running in the meridians can be understood as interstitial fluid flowing via interstitial space of low hydraulic resistance.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Connective Tissue , Physiology , Extracellular Fluid , Physiology , Extracellular Space , Physiology , Humans , Meridians , Qi , Water
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728620

ABSTRACT

Intracellular Ca²⁺ mobilization is closely linked with the initiation of salivary secretion in parotid acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders and believed to be involved in salivary impairments. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on cytosolic Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse parotid acinar cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ levels were slowly elevated when 1 mM H₂O₂ was perfused in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. In a Ca²⁺-free medium, 1 mM H₂O₂ still enhanced the intracellular Ca²⁺ level. Ca²⁺ entry tested using manganese quenching technique was not affected by perfusion of 1 mM H₂O₂. On the other hand, 10 mM H₂O₂ induced more rapid Ca²⁺ accumulation and facilitated Ca²⁺ entry from extracellular fluid. Ca²⁺ refill into intracellular Ca²⁺ store and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1 µM)-induced Ca²⁺ release from Ca²⁺ store was not affected by 1 mM H₂O₂ in permeabilized cells. Ca²⁺ efflux through plasma membrane Ca²⁺-ATPase (PMCA) was markedly blocked by 1 mM H₂O₂ in thapsigargin-treated intact acinar cells. Antioxidants, either catalase or dithiothreitol, completely protected H₂O₂-induced Ca²⁺ accumulation through PMCA inactivation. From the above results, we suggest that excessive production of H₂O₂ under pathological conditions may lead to cytosolic Ca²⁺ accumulation and that the primary mechanism of H₂O₂-induced Ca²⁺ accumulation is likely to inhibit Ca²⁺ efflux through PMCA rather than mobilize Ca²⁺ ions from extracellular medium or intracellular stores in mouse parotid acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Dithiothreitol , Extracellular Fluid , Hand , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate , Ions , Manganese , Mice , Perfusion , Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Plasma , Reactive Oxygen Species
8.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 141-149, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727036

ABSTRACT

Artificial pancreas is a technique developed to automatically control blood glucose in people with diabetes by providing an endocrine function instead of a healthy pancreas. The technique was developed for the replacement of insulin secretion deficiencies among various exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas and is mainly used for people with type 1 diabetes or those who need intensive insulin treatment. This review briefly summarizes the working principles, components, recent clinical research, and future perspectives of artificial pancreas.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Extracellular Fluid , Glucose , Insulin , Pancreas , Pancreas, Artificial
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference. METHODS: Thirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76) and nighttime (r=0.82). The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity. CONCLUSION: We showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Extracellular Fluid , Glucose , Humans , Hydrogels , Hyperglycemia , Inpatients , Mass Screening , Plastics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sodium
10.
Immune Network ; : 68-76, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30382

ABSTRACT

The lymphatic vasculature has been regarded as a passive conduit for interstitial fluid and responsible for the absorption of macromolecules such as proteins or lipids and transport of nutrients from food. However, emerging data show that the lymphatic vasculature system plays an important role in immune modulation. One of its major roles is to coordinate antigen transport and immune-cell trafficking from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes. This perspective was recently updated with the notion that the interaction between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes controls the immune-cell migration and immune responses by regulating lymphatic flow and various secreted molecules such as chemokines and cytokines. In this review, we introduce the lymphatic vasculature networks and genetic transgenic models for research on the lymphatic vasculature system. Next, we discuss the contribution of lymphatic endothelial cells to the control of immune-cell trafficking and to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Finally, the physiological roles and features of the lymphatic vasculature system are further discussed regarding inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in a pathological condition, especially in mucosal tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Chemokines , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Extracellular Fluid , Gastrointestinal Tract , Leukocytes , Lymph Nodes , Lymphangiogenesis , Mucous Membrane , Peripheral Tolerance , Respiratory System
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728575

ABSTRACT

Intracellular calcium (Ca²⁺) oscillation is an initial event in digestive enzyme secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species are known to be associated with a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders including pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on intracellular Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of H₂O₂ at 300 µM resulted in additional elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and termination of oscillatory Ca²⁺ signals induced by carbamylcholine (CCh) in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. Antioxidants, catalase or DTT, completely prevented H₂O₂-induced additional Ca²⁺ increase and termination of Ca²⁺ oscillation. In Ca²⁺-free medium, H₂O₂ still enhanced CCh-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and thapsigargin (TG) mimicked H₂O₂-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ increase. Furthermore, H₂O₂-induced elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels was abolished under sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase-inactivated condition by TG pretreatment with CCh. H₂O₂ at 300 µM failed to affect store-operated Ca²⁺ entry or Ca²⁺ extrusion through plasma membrane. Additionally, ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uniporter blocker, failed to attenuate H₂O₂-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ elevation. These results provide evidence that excessive generation of H₂O₂ in pathological conditions could accumulate intracellular Ca²⁺ by attenuating refilling of internal Ca²⁺ stores rather than by inhibiting Ca²⁺ extrusion to extracellular fluid or enhancing Ca²⁺ mobilization from extracellular medium in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Carbachol , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Extracellular Fluid , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Ion Transport , Mice , Pancreatitis , Perfusion , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Ruthenium Red , Thapsigargin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipedema is a condition consisting of painful bilateral increases in subcutaneous fat and interstitial fluid in the limbs with secondary lymphedema and fibrosis during later stages. Combined decongestive therapy (CDT) is the standard of care in most countries. Since the introduction of tumescent technique, liposuction has been used as a surgical treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of liposuction used as treatment for lipedema. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who received 72 liposuction procedures for the treatment of lipedema completed a standardized questionnaire. Lipedema-associated complaints and the need for CDT were assessed for the preoperative period and during 2 separate postoperative follow-ups using a visual analog scale and a composite CDT score. The mean follow-up times for the first postoperative follow-up and the second postoperative follow-up were 16 months and 37 months, respectively. RESULTS: Patients showed significant reductions in spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, feeling of tension, bruising, cosmetic impairment, and general impairment to quality of life from the preoperative period to the first postoperative follow-up, and these results remained consistent until the second postoperative follow-up. A comparison of the preoperative period to the last postoperative follow-up, after 4 patients without full preoperative CDT were excluded from the analysis, indicated that the need for CDT was reduced significantly. An analysis of the different stages of the disease also indicated that better and more sustainable results could be achieved if patients were treated in earlier stages. CONCLUSIONS: Liposuction is effective in the treatment of lipedema and leads to an improvement in quality of life and a decrease in the need for conservative therapy.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Fluid , Extremities , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lipectomy , Lipedema , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphedema , Preoperative Period , Quality of Life , Standard of Care , Subcutaneous Fat , Visual Analog Scale
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of postprandial hyperglycemia is a key aspect in diabetes treatment. We developed a novel system to measure glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET) for simple monitoring of postprandial glucose excursions. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between our system and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) by comparing glucose AUC obtained using MIET with that obtained using CGM for a long duration. METHODS: Twenty diabetic inpatients wearing a CGM system were enrolled. For MIET measurement, a plastic microneedle array was applied to the skin as pretreatment, and hydrogels were placed on the pretreated area to collect interstitial fluid. Hydrogels were replaced every 2 or 4 hours and AUC was predicted on the basis of glucose and sodium ion levels. RESULTS: AUC predicted by MIET correlated well with that measured by CGM (r=0.93). Good performances of both consecutive 2- and 4-hour measurements were observed (measurement error: 11.7%±10.2% for 2 hours and 11.1%±7.9% for 4 hours), indicating the possibility of repetitive measurements up to 8 hours. The influence of neither glucose fluctuation nor average glucose level over the measurement accuracy was observed through 8 hours. CONCLUSION: Our system showed good relationship with AUC values from CGM up to 8 hours, indicating that single pretreatment can cover a large portion of glucose excursion in a day. These results indicated possibility of our system to contribute to convenient monitoring of glucose excursions for a long duration.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Extracellular Fluid , Glucose , Humans , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Hyperglycemia , Inpatients , Plastics , Skin , Sodium
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167821

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Carbon Dioxide , Extracellular Fluid , Heart Rate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intravenous , Isoflurane , Lactic Acid , Macaca mulatta , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Propofol , Respiratory Rate , Thiopental
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [81] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871517

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é uma das infecções mais prevalentes na humanidade, sendo o comprometimento pulmonar a principal causa de morbimortalidade. A cultura é o padrão de referência para diagnóstico, porém apresenta baixa sensibilidade. Das formas extrapulmonares, a TB pleural é a mais comum e apresenta diagnóstico confirmatório difícil por ser paucibacilar e conter interferentes intrínsecos na amostra. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), por amplificar o DNA da micobactéria, apresenta-se como teste mais sensível que a cultura, sendo positivo em amostras que apresentam a partir de 102 UFC/mL (unidades formadoras de colônia por mL) de M. tuberculosis (MTB). Entretanto, quando utilizada em amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar e/ou líquido pleural pode ter seu desempenho comprometido pela presença de inibidores intrínsecos da amostra (variáveis pré-analíticas) e pelas técnicas de amplificação e detecção (variáveis analíticas) utilizadas na reação. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de variáveis pré-analíticas (concentração de células, hemácias e proteínas) na detecção do DNA do M. tuberculosis em amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) e líquido pleural (LP), utilizando combinações de métodos de extração/detecção. Métodos: Amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar e líquido pleural de pacientes não infectados pelo M. tuberculosis foram obtidas através de indução à expectoração, broncoscopia respiratória e/ou toracocentese, respectivamente, em volumes suficientes para o estudo. Para testar o limiar de detecção do M. tuberculosis, as amostras foram preparadas "in vitro" de maneira a conter concentrações variadas dos interferentes pré-analíticos e de UFC/mL da micobactéria. Para a técnica de PCR, o DNA foi extraído pelo método de extração QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) e pelo AMPLICOR® Respiratory Specimen Preparation (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, NJ, USA) e amplificado...


Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é uma das infecções mais prevalentes na humanidade, sendo o comprometimento pulmonar a principal causa de morbimortalidade. A cultura é o padrão de referência para diagnóstico, porém apresenta baixa sensibilidade. Das formas extrapulmonares, a TB pleural é a mais comum e apresenta diagnóstico confirmatório difícil por ser paucibacilar e conter interferentes intrínsecos na amostra. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), por amplificar o DNA da micobactéria, apresenta-se como teste mais sensível que a cultura, sendo positivo em amostras que apresentam a partir de 102 UFC/mL (unidades formadoras de colônia por mL) de M. tuberculosis (MTB). Entretanto, quando utilizada em amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar e/ou líquido pleural pode ter seu desempenho comprometido pela presença de inibidores intrínsecos da amostra (variáveis pré-analíticas) e pelas técnicas de amplificação e detecção (variáveis analíticas) utilizadas na reação. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de variáveis pré-analíticas (concentração de células, hemácias e proteínas) na detecção do DNA do M. tuberculosis em amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) e líquido pleural (LP), utilizando combinações de métodos de extração/detecção. Métodos: Amostras de escarro, lavado broncoalveolar e líquido pleural de pacientes não infectados pelo M. tuberculosis foram obtidas através de indução à expectoração, broncoscopia respiratória e/ou toracocentese, respectivamente, em volumes suficientes para o estudo. Para testar o limiar de detecção do M. tuberculosis, as amostras foram preparadas "in vitro" de maneira a conter concentrações variadas dos interferentes pré-analíticos e de UFC/mL da micobactéria. Para a técnica de PCR, o DNA foi extraído pelo método de extração QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) e pelo AMPLICOR® Respiratory Specimen...


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Extracellular Fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sputum , Tuberculosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Animal models are necessary to study the mechanism underlying the effects of exercise on depression but an effective procedure for exercise treatment and exercise effects on physiological parameters in a specific depression model need to be characterized. METHODS: Physiological parameters including lactate, partial pressue of O2 (pO2) and CO2 (pCO2) saturated O2 (sO2), pH, HCO3, total CO2 (TCO2), and base excess extracellular fluid (BEecf) levels in the blood were measured after treatment with passive exercise in normal mice and a stress-induced depression model. RESULTS: Normal mice or mice that were subjected to daily 2-hour restraint for 14 days (2 hoursx14 days of restraint) were placed on a running wheel that was rotating at a speed of 9 m/min for 1 hour per day for 1 to 21 days. After repeated exercise in mice that were previously subjected to 2 hoursx14 days restraint, plasma lactate levels decreased, the levels of pO2, sO2, and pH tended to increase, and the levels of pCO2 decreased in the absence of significant changes in HCO3, TCO2, and BEecf. However, none of these changes were additive to the stress effects or were much more severe than those induced after repeated passive exercise in normal mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that passive exercise for 1 hour daily for 14 to 21 consecutive days on a running wheel rotating at a speed of 9 m/min may be used as an exercise protocol without inducing severe additive effects on physiological burdens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression , Extracellular Fluid , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactic Acid , Mice , Models, Animal , Plasma , Running
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186087

ABSTRACT

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) easily have large amounts of extracellular fluids, such as edema or ascites, because of cardiovascular instability under septic conditions and also have high risk of malnutrition while staying in the ICU. Traditional nutritional assessment parameters like body mass index have a limitation in ICU patients due to muscle atrophy and decrease of lean body mass. Bioimpedence analyses (BIA) can be used to assess body composition and are useful in performance of nutritional assessments in ICU patients. BIA can simply and noninvasively estimate body composition (total body water, extracellular water, intracellular water, body cell mass, and free fat mass etc.) by sending a weak electric current through the body. In particular, phase angle (PhA, phase difference between the voltage applied to the impedance and the current driven through it), one of the parameters of BIA, is related to cell membrane integrity or cell size. Low PhA can possibly imply malnutrition and PhA has been reported as a useful indicator of clinical outcomes or prognosis of severe patients. Additional study with clinical application of BIA in ICU patients is needed in order to confirm the usefulness of BIA.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Body Water , Cell Membrane , Cell Size , Critical Illness , Edema , Electric Impedance , Extracellular Fluid , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition , Muscular Atrophy , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Support , Prognosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147487

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is common in the critically ill patients and known to cause a variety of negative clinical outcomes. However, various conventional methods for nutrition assessment have several limitations. We hypothesized that body composition data, as measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), may have a significant role in evaluating nutritional status and predicting clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. We gathered clinical, biochemical, and BIA data from 66 critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Patients were divided into three nutritional status groups according to their serum albumin level and total lymphocyte counts. The BIA results, conventional indicators of nutrition status, and clinical outcomes were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results showed that the BIA indices including phase angle (PhA), extracellular water (ECW), and ECW/total body water (TBW) were significantly associated with the severity of nutritional status. Particularly, PhA, an indicator of the health of the cell membrane, was higher in the well-nourished patient group, whereas the edema index (ECW/TBW) was higher in the severely malnourished patient group. PhA was positively associated with albumin and ECW/TBW was negatively associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin, and duration of mechanical ventilation. In non-survivors, PhA was significantly lower and both ECW/TBW and %TBW/fat free mass were higher than in survivors. In conclusion, several BIA indexes including PhA and ECW/TBW may be useful for nutritional assessment and represent significant prognostic factors in the care of critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Body Water , Cell Membrane , Critical Illness , Edema , Electric Impedance , Extracellular Fluid , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracellular Fluid , Lymphocyte Count , Malnutrition , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin , Survivors
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3076-3082, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275564

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Shen-Fu injection (SFI) can attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury, protect cardiac function, and improve microcirculation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We hypothesized that SFI may also have an influence on myocardial metabolism during ventricular fibrillation (VF). In this study, we used SFI pretreatment prior to VF to discuss the changes of myocardial metabolism and catecholamine (CA) levels during untreated VF, trying to provide new evidence to the protection of SFI to myocardium.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four pigs were divided into three groups: Saline group (SA group), SFI group, and SHAM operation group (SHAM group). Thirty minutes prior to the induction of VF, the SFI group received 0.24 mg/ml SFI through an intravenous injection; the SA group received an equal amount of sodium chloride solution. The interstitial fluid from the left ventricle (LV) wall was collected through the microdialysis tubes during VF. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and Na + -K + -ATPase and Ca2 + -ATPase enzyme activities were measured after untreated VF. Peak-to-trough VF amplitude and median frequency were analyzed for each of these 5-s intervals.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The levels of glucose and glutamate were lower after VF in both the SA and SFI groups, compared with baseline, and the levels in the SFI group were higher than those in the SA group. Compared with baseline, the levels of lactate and the lactate/pyruvate ratio increased after VF in both SA and SFI groups, and the levels in the SFI group were lower than those in the SA group. In both the SA and SFI groups, the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine increased significantly. There were no statistical differences between the two groups. The content of ATP, ADP, and phosphocreatine in the SFI group was higher than those in the SA group. The activity of LV Na + -K + -ATPase was significantly higher in the SFI group than in the SA group. Amplitude mean spectrum area (AMSA) was significantly lower in the SA and SFI groups at 8- and 12-min compared with 4-min. The AMSA in the SFI group was higher than that in the SA group at each time point during untreated VF.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SFI pretreatment can improve myocardial metabolism and reduce energy exhaustion during VF, and it does not aggravate the excessive secretion of endogenous CAs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Catecholamines , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Energy Metabolism , Extracellular Fluid , Metabolism , Female , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Myocardium , Metabolism , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
20.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2014. 56 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-790310

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a expressão de integrina alfa2, mediadores moleculares, citocinas e quiocinas, a partir de células presentes no líquido interstical periapical adjacente e dentes portadores de infecção dos canais radiculares. Metodologia: os 13 pacientes incluídos no estudo foram encaminhados à Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil). As amostras foram retiradas de dentes com necrose pulpar e nenhum paciente apresentou sintomas periapicais agudos no momento das coletas (...) Resultados: Observaram-se níveis significativamente mais baixos de TNF-α, CCL5, CCL2 / MCP-1 e IL8 em dentes com cargas bacterianas redusidas...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Cavity/pathology , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Chemokines , Cytokines , Extracellular Fluid
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