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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879968

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL)-17-mediated autophagy on the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF6)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 pathway and osteoclast differentiation. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were cultured with a medium containing 30 ng/mL macrophage colony stimulating factor and 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligard (RANKL), and IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 ng/mL) was added for intervention (IL-17 group). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe TRAP positive multinucleated cells; phalloidin fluorescent staining was used to detect actin ring circumference; toluidine blue staining was used to analyze bone resorption lacuna formation. To further examine the mechanism of the effect of IL-17-mediated autophagy on the differentiation of osteoclasts, the control group used RANKL medium to culture mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, while the IL-17 group was treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, /mL). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and osteoclast-related proteins c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1) after treatment with different concentrations of IL-17. The expression of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway related proteins were detected in IL-17 and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA group. The number of TRAP positive multinucleated cells, the circumference of the actin ring and the area of bone resorption lacuna in IL-17 group treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, were significantly higher than those in the control group. In IL-17 treated RAW264.7 cells, the expression of c-fos, NFATc1, Beclin-1, LC3, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 was all significantly up-regulated (all 0.05). After treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, the expression levels of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 all decreased significantly (all 0.05). IL-17 can promote the expression of autophagy proteins and enhance the differentiation ability of osteoclast precursor cells, and the TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Interleukin-17 , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 21-27, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) as a signaling molecule exists in various types of organisms from early multicellular to animal cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that ABA has an antinociceptive effect in rodents. The present study was designed to assess the possible role of PKA and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) on the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) ABA in male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were cannulated intrathecally and divided into different experimental groups (n=6‒7): Control (no surgery), vehicle (received ABA vehicle), ABA-treated groups (received ABA in doses of 10 or 20 µg/rat), ABA plus H.89 (PKA inhibitor)-treated group which received the inhibitor 15 min prior to the ABA injection. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests were used as acute nociceptive stimulators to assess ABA analgesic effects. p-ERK was evaluated in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord using immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that a microinjection of ABA (10 and 20 µg/rat, i.t.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in tail flick and hot plate tests. The application of PKA inhibitor (H.89, 100 nM/rat) significantly inhibited ABA-induced analgesic effects. Expression of p-ERK was significantly decreased in ABA-injected animals, which were not observed in the ABA+H.89-treated group. Conclusions: Overall, i.t. administration of ABA (10 µg/rat) induced analgesia and p-ERK down-expression likely by involving the PKA-dependent mechanism.


Resumo Objetivo: O ácido fito-hormônio abscísico (ABA) existe como molécula sinalizadora em vários tipos de organismos, de multicelulares a células e tecidos animais. Foi demonstrado que o ABA tem efeito antinociceptivo em roedores. O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar o possível papel da PKA e da ERK fosforilada (p-ERK) nos efeitos antinociceptivos do ABA intratecal (i.t.) em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: Os animais foram canulados por via i.t. e divididos em diferentes grupos experimentais (n=6‒7): controle (sem cirurgia), veículo (veículo ABA recebido), grupos tratados com ABA (recebeu ABA em doses de 10 ou 20 µg/rato), grupo tratado com ABA mais H.89 (inibidor de PKA) que recebeu o inibidor 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Os testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente foram utilizados como estimuladores nociceptivos agudos para avaliar os efeitos analgésicos da ABA. A p-ERK foi avaliada na porção dorsal da medula espinhal por imunotransferência. Resultados: A microinjeção de ABA (10 e 20 µg/rato, i.t.) aumentou significativamente o limiar nociceptivo nos testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente. A aplicação de inibidor de PKA (H.89, 100 nM/rato) inibiu significativamente os efeitos analgésicos induzidos por ABA. A expressão de p-ERK diminuiu significativamente em animais injetados com ABA que não foram observados no grupo tratado com ABA+H.89. Conclusões: No geral, a administração i.t. de ABA (10 µg/rato) induziu a analgesia e expressão negativa de p-ERK provavelmente envolvendo mecanismo dependente de PKA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increased apoptosis was recently found in the hypertrophied left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although the available evidence suggests that apoptosis can be induced in cardiac cells by various insults including pressure overload, cardiac apoptosis appears to result from an exaggerated local production of angiotensin in adult SHRs. Altered expressions of Bcl associated X (Bax), Bcl-2, chemokine receptor (CCR)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (PERK), and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA were investigated to explore the effects of losartan on the SHR model. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control (C), SHR (hypertension: H), and losartan (L; SHRs were treated with losartan [10 mg/kg/day] for 5 weeks). Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, and connexin 43 proteins and kallikrein mRNA was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at week 5. PERK protein expression was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at weeks 3 and 5. Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: Losartan treatment reduced expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA in SHRs, along with decreased inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensins , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Inflammation , Kallikreins , Losartan , Male , Monocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691381

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the potential efficacy of panaxadiol saponins component (PDS-C), a biologically active fraction isolated from total ginsenosides, to reverse chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and pancytopenia caused by cyclophamide (CTX).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mice with myelosuppression induced by CTX were treated with PDS-C at a low- (20 mg/kg), moderate- (40 mg/kg), or high-dose (80 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The level of peripheral white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU) and platelet (PLT) were measured, the histopathology and colony formation were observed, the protein kinase and transcription factors in hematopoietic cells were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In response to PDS-C therapy, the peripheral WBC, NEU and PLT counts of CTX-induced myelosuppressed mice were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, bone marrow histopathology examination showed reversal of CTX-induced myelosuppression with increase in overall bone marrow cellularity and the number of hematopoietic cells (P<0.01). PDS-C also promoted proliferation of granulocytic and megakaryocyte progenitor cells in CTX-treated mice, as evidenced by significantly increase in colony formation units-granulocytes/monocytes and -megakaryocytes (P<0.01). The enhancement of hematopoiesis by PDS-C appears to be mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway, this was evidenced by the up-regulation of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK), and receptor tyrosine kinase (C-kit) and globin transcription factor 1 (GATA-1) in hematopoietic cells of CTX-treated mice (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PDS-C possesses hematopoietic growth factor-like activities that promote proliferation and also possibly differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in myelosuppressed mice, probably mediated by a mechanism involving MEK and ERK protein kinases, and C-kit and GATA-1 transcription factors. PDS-C may potentially be a novel treatment of myelosuppression and pancytopenia caused by chemotherapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Cell Proliferation , Cyclophosphamide , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , GATA1 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Hematopoiesis , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Metabolism , Myeloid Cells , Pathology , Panax , Chemistry , Pancytopenia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Up-Regulation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691378

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (MSP) flower extracton on in vitro and in vivo models.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MSP flower extract was extracted in 99.9% methanol and applied to examine the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro at the dose of 3.92-62.50 μg/mL and hair growth of C57BL/6 mice in vivo at the dose of 1000 μg/mL. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), β-catenin, substance P was measured by relative quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MSP (7.81 μg/mL) down-regulated TGF-β1 and up-regulated HGF and β-catenin in hDPCs (P<0.01). MSP (1000 μg/mL)-treated mice showed the earlier transition of hair follicles from the telogen to the anagen phase. The number of mast cells was lower in the MSP-treated mice than in other groups (P<0.05 vs. NCS group). Substance P and TGF-β1 were expressed in hair follicles and skin of the MSP group lower than that in negative control. Stem cell factor in hair follicles was up-regulated in the MSP-treated mice (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The MSP flower extract may have hair growth-promotion activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Female , Flowers , Chemistry , Hair Follicle , Cell Biology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Metabolism , Humans , Mast Cells , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Poaceae , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Skin , Metabolism , Stem Cell Factor , Metabolism , Stress, Psychological , Pathology , Substance P , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691363

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca] concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and ERK-2 signal transduction pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Animals , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Metabolism , Calcineurin , Genetics , Metabolism , Calcium , Metabolism , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Hypertrophy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Quinazolines , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fermented Laminaria japonica (FL), a type sea tangle used as a functional food ingredient, has been reported to possess cognitive improving properties that may aid in the treatment of common neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the effects of FL on scopolamine (Sco)- and ethanol (EtOH)-induced hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, using the Passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. To examine the underlying mechanisms associated with neuroprotective effects, we analyzed acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, brain tissue expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and immunohistochemical analysis, in the hippocampus of mice, compared to current drug therapy intervention. Biochemical blood analysis was carried out to determine the effects of FL on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. 7 groups (n = 10) consisted of a control (CON), 3 Sco-induced dementia and 3 EtOH-induced dementia groups, with both dementia group types containing an untreated group (Sco and EtOH); a positive control, orally administered donepezil (Dpz) (4mg/kg) (Sco + Dpz and EtOH + Dpz); and an FL (50 mg/kg) treatment group (Sco + FL50 and EtOH + FL50), orally administered over the 4-week experimental period. RESULTS: FL50 significantly reduced EtOH-induced increase in AST and ALT levels. FL50 treatment reduced EtOH-impaired step-through latency time in the PA test, and Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia escape latency times in the MWM test. Moreover, anticholinergic effects of Sco and EtOH on the brain were reversed by FL50, through the attenuation of AChE activity and elevation of ACh concentration. FL50 elevated ERK1/2 protein expression and increased p-CREB (ser133) in hippocampus brain tissue, according to Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that FL may be considered an efficacious intervention for Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia, in terms of reversing cognitive impairment and neuroplastic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cholesterol , Cognition Disorders , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dementia , Drug Therapy , Ethanol , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Functional Food , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Laminaria , Memory , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuroprotective Agents , Receptors, Muscarinic , Scopolamine , Triglycerides , United Nations , Water
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772285

ABSTRACT

To screen for additional treatment targets against tongue cancer, we evaluated the contributions of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), AKT and ezrin in cancer development. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ERK and ezrin expressions were significantly higher in invasive squamous cell carcinoma than in carcinoma in situ. To investigate the roles of ERK and ezrin in cancer development, we used the non-woven silica fibre sheet Cellbed with a structure resembling the loose connective tissue morphology in a novel 3D culture system. We confirmed that the 3D system using Cellbed accurately mimicked cancer cell morphology in vivo. Furthermore, cell projections were much more apparent in 3D-cultured tongue cancer cell lines than in 2D cultures. Typically, under conventional 2D culture conditions, F-actin and cortactin are colocalized in the form of puncta within cells. However, in the 3D-cultured cells, colocalization was mainly observed at the cell margins, including the projections. Projections containing F-actin and cortactin colocalization were predicted to be invadopodia. Although suppressing ezrin expression with small interfering RNA transfection caused no marked changes in morphology, cell projection formation was decreased, and the tumour thickness in vertical sections after 3D culture was markedly decreased after suppressing ERK activity because both the invasion ability and proliferation were inhibited. An association between cortactin activation as well as ERK activity and invadopodia formation was detected. Our novel 3D culture systems using Cellbed™ are simple and useful for in vitro studies before conducting animal experiments. ERK contributes to tongue cancer development by increasing both cancer cell proliferation and migration via cortactin activation.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma in Situ , Metabolism , Pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cytoskeletal Proteins , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Pathology , Phosphorylation , Podosomes , Pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Silicon Dioxide , Tongue Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2007-2015, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771408

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of INF-γ on the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the potential mechanism in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, the cells were treated with different concentrations of INF-γ. The expressions of proteins, including PD-L1, cell-migration-related proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin), ERK, p-ERK, Jak2, and p-Jak2 were detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescent staining assay. Cell migration was studied through cell wound healing assay and transwell assay. IFN-γ could up-regulate the expressions of PD-L1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. The cell migration rate was significantly increased after adding IFN-γ. The expression levels of vimentin and N-cadherin were increased whereas the expression of E-cadherin was decreased after adding IFN-γ. The expression levels of ERK, p-ERK, Jak2 and p-Jak2 were significantly increased and this phenomenon was inhibited when adding ERK inhibitor U0126 or Jak2 inhibitor AG490. These results demonstrate that IFN-γ could up-regulate the expression of PD-L1, promote cell migration and transmission, and facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transformation of breast cancer cells and this process may be related with ERK and Jak2-STAT signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Janus Kinase 2 , STAT Transcription Factors , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773640

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Mice , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812430

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Mice , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147982

ABSTRACT

Previously, we demonstrated that galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) protects human keratinocytes against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of galangin on induction of antioxidant enzymes involved in synthesis of reduced glutathione (GSH), and investigated the associated upstream signaling cascades. By activating nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), galangin treatment significantly increased expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS). This activation of Nrf2 depended on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Inhibition of GSH in galangin-treated cells attenuated the protective effect of galangin against the deleterious effects of UVB. Our results reveal that galangin protects human keratinocytes by activating ERK/AKT-Nrf2, leading to elevated expression of GSH-synthesizing enzymes.


Subject(s)
Catalytic Domain , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase , Glutathione Synthase , Glutathione , Humans , Keratinocytes , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 747-754, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) play an important role in regulation of hair cycling and growth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation of cultured hDPCs and on the growth of human hair follicles (HFs) in vitro. METHODS: We examined the effect of LED irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in hDPCs. Anagen HFs were cultured with LED irradiation and elongation of each hair shaft was measured. RESULTS: The most potent wavelength in promoting the hDPC proliferation is 660 nm and 830 nm promoted hDPC proliferation to a lesser extent than 660 nm. Various wavelengths significantly increased β-catenin, Axin2, Wnt3a, Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA expression. LED irradiation significantly increased β-catenin and cyclin D expression, and the phosphorylation of MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). HFs irradiated with 415 nm and 660 nm grew longer than control. CONCLUSION: Our result suggests that LED has a potential to stimulate hDPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ERK pathway. To our best knowledge, this is the first report which investigated that the effect of various wavelengths of LED on hDPC proliferation and the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Cyclin D , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Hair Follicle , Hair , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger
14.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 406-411, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812752

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-ERK in benign and malignant prostate tissues, and whether it can be used as a marker for the prognosis of advanced prostate cancer (PCa).@*METHODS@#Using immunohistochemical Envision, we detected the expressions of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in 20 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 40 cases of advanced PCa and analyzed their correlation with PCa metastasis, Gleason score, PSA level, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#The expression of ERK1/2 was remarkably higher in the advanced PCa than in the BPH cases (82.5% vs 55%, P5 yr, and survival ≤ 5 yr groups were 61.9%, 89.5%, 57.9%, and 90.5%, respectively, with statistically significant differences among these groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins are highly expressed in advanced PCa and p-ERK1/2 is associated with the metastasis and prognosis of advanced PCa.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 , Metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Metabolism , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms , Mortality , Pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10722

ABSTRACT

The Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) is a ubiquitously expressed pH-regulatory membrane protein that functions in the brain, heart, and other organs. It is increased by intracellular acidosis through the interaction of intracellular H⁺ with an allosteric modifier site in the transport domain. In the previous study, we reported that glutamate-induced NHE-1 phosphorylation mediated by activation of protein kinase C-β (PKC-β) in cultured neuron cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p90 ribosomal s6 kinases (p90RSK) pathway results in NHE-1 activation. However, whether glutamate stimulates NHE-1 activity solely by the allosteric mechanism remains elusive. Cultured primary cortical neuronal cells were subjected to intracellular acidosis by exposure to 100 μM glutamate or 20 mM NH₄Cl. After the desired duration of intracellular acidosis, the phosphorylation and activation of PKC-β, ERK1/2 and p90RSK were determined by Western blotting. We investigated whether the duration of intracellular acidosis is controlled by glutamate exposure time. The NHE-1 activation increased while intracellular acidosis sustained for >3 min. To determine if sustained intracellular acidosis induced NHE-1 phosphorylation, we examined phosphorylation of NHE-1 induced by intracellular acidosis by transient exposure to NH₄Cl. Sustained intracellular acidosis led to activation and phosphorylation of NHE-1. In addition, sustained intracellular acidosis also activated the PKC-β, ERK1/2, and p90RSK in neuronal cells. We conclude that glutamate stimulates NHE-1 activity through sustained intracellular acidosis, which mediates NHE-1 phosphorylation regulated by PKC-β/ERK1/2/p90RSK pathway in neuronal cells.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Blotting, Western , Brain , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Glutamic Acid , Heart , Membrane Proteins , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(6): 532-541, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Impaired angiogenesis in cardiac tissue is a major complication of diabetes. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play important role during capillary-like network formation in angiogenesis process. Objectives: To determine the effects of testosterone and voluntary exercise on levels of vascularity, phosphorylated Akt (P- AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) in heart tissue of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. Methods: Type I diabetes was induced by i.p injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin in animals. After 42 days of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, heart tissue samples were collected and used for histological evaluation and determination of P-AKT and P-ERK levels by ELISA method. Results: Our results showed that either testosterone or exercise increased capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in the heart of diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had a synergistic effect on capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in heart. Furthermore, in the castrated diabetes group, capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels significantly decreased in the heart, whereas either testosterone treatment or exercise training reversed these effects. Also, simultaneous treatment of castrated diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had an additive effect on P-AKT and P-ERK levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that testosterone and exercise alone or together can increase angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. The proangiogenesis effects of testosterone and exercise are associated with the enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in heart tissue.


Resumo Fundamento: Angiogênese prejudicada em tecido cardíaco é uma das principais complicações das diabetes. As vias de sinalização da proteína-quinase B (AKT) e a quinase regulada por sinal extracelular (ERK) exercem um importante papel durante a formação de uma rede similar à capilar no processo de angiogênese. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos da testosterona e exercícios voluntários sobre os níveis de vascularidade, AKT fosforilada (P- AKT) e ERK fosforilada (P-ERK) sobre o tecido cardíaco de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Métodos: A diabetes tipo 1 foi induzida através de injeção intraperitoneal de 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina em animais. Após 42 dias de tratamento com testosterona (2mg/kg/dia) ou exercícios voluntários, individualmente ou em conjunto, as amostras de tecidos cardíacos foram coletadas e usadas para avaliação histológica e determinação de níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK através do método ELISA. Resultados: Os nossos resultados mostraram que a testosterona ou os exercícios aumentaram a capilaridade, os níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK nos corações de ratos diabéticos. O tratamento de ratos diabéticos com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito sinérgico sobre a capilaridade, níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK no coração. Além disto, na capilaridade do grupo diabético castrado, os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK diminuíram significativamente no coração, ao passo que o tratamento com testosterona ou o treinamento com exercícios reverteu tais efeitos. O tratamento simultâneo de ratos diabéticos castrados com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito aditivo sobre os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK. Conclusão: Nossas descobertas sugerem que a testosterona e exercícios, em conjunto ou individualmente, podem aumentar a angiogênese nos corações de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Os efeitos favoráveis à angiogênese da testosterona e dos exercícios estão associados à ativação reforçada de AKT e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Testosterone/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Heart/drug effects , Androgens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Androgens/therapeutic use , Myocardium/chemistry
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(1): 76-84, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects of epicatechin (ECN), a crosslinking agent, on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured in collagen scaffolds. Material and Method To evaluate the effects of ECN on the proliferation of hDPCs, cell counting was performed using optical and fluorescent microscopy. Measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to assess odontogenic differentiation. The compressive strength and setting time of collagen scaffolds containing ECN were measured. Differential scanning calorimetry was performed to analyze the thermal behavior of collagen in the presence of ECN. Results Epicatechin increased ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a specific odontogenic-related marker. Furthermore, ECN upregulated the expression of DSPP in hDPCs cultured in collagen scaffolds. Epicatechin activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the treatment with an ERK inhibitor (U0126) blocked the expression of DSPP. The compressive strength was increased and the setting time was shortened in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cells cultured in the ECN-treated collagen scaffolds was significantly increased compared to the cells in the untreated control group. Conclusions Our results revealed that ECN promoted the proliferation and differentiation of hDPCs. Furthermore, the differentiation was regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. Changes in mechanical properties are related to cell fate, including proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, our study suggests the ECN treatment might be desirable for dentin-pulp complex regeneration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catechin/pharmacology , Collagen/pharmacology , Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacology , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Blotting, Western , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Gene Expression , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301075

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the cytoprotective effects of Saeng-kankunbi-tang (, SKT), a herbal prescription consisting of Artemisia capillaris and Alisma canaliculatum, and its underlying mechanism involved.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In mice, blood biochemistry and histopathology were assessed in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative hepatic injury in vivo. The animal groups included vehicle-treated control, CCl4, SKT 500 mg/(kg day) CCl4+SKT 200 or 500 mg/(kg day). In HepG2 cell, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) induced severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. The cyto-protective effects of SKT were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flfluorescence activated cell sorting analysis and western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The administration of SKT prevented liver damage induced by CCl4 in mice, by inhibition of hepatocyte degeneration and inflflammatory cell infifiltration as well as plasma parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01). Moreover, treatment with tBHP induced hepatocyte death and cellular reactive oxygen species production in hepatocyte cell line. However, SKT pretreatment (30-300 μg/mL) reduced this cell death and oxidative stress (P<0.01). More importantly, SKT inhibited the ability of tBHP to induce changes in mitochondrial membrane transition in cell stained with rhodamine 123 P<0.01). Furthermore, treatment with SKT induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mediated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation as well as the expressions of heme oxygenase 1 and glutamate- cystein ligase catalytic, Nrf2 target genes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SKT has the ability to protect hepatocyte against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage mediated by Nrf2 activation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cell Death , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria , Metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Peroxides , Phosphorylation , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1154-1160, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290109

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Previously, we reported that dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) was differentially expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEA). However, the role of DUSP1 in EEA progression and the relationship between DUSP1 and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) are still unclear.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression of DUSP1 in EEA specimens was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of DUSP1 on cell proliferation was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit 8 and colony formation assay, and cell migration was analyzed by transwell assay. MPA-induced DUSP1 expression in EEA cells was measured by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>DUSP1 expression was deficient in advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, high-grade and myometrial invasive EEA. In EEA cell lines (Hec1A, Hec1B, RL952, and Ishikawa), the DUSP1 expression was substantially higher in Ishikawa cells than in other cell lines (P < 0.05). Knockdown of DUSP1 promoted Ishikawa cells proliferation, migration, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) pathway. MPA-induced DUSP1 expression and inhibited MAPK/Erk pathway in Ishikawa cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our data suggest that DUSP1 deficiency promotes EEA progression via MAPK/Erk pathway, which may be reversed by MPA, suggesting that DUSP1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of EEA.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation , Genetics , Physiology , Dual-Specificity Phosphatases , Genetics , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Female , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 154-159, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259425

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway on the endothelial differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human PDLSC was cultured in the medium with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) to induce endothelial differentiation. Endothelial inducing cells was incubated with U0126, a specific p-ERK1/2 inhibitor. PDLSC from one person were randomly divided into four groups: control group, endothelial induced group, endothelial induced+DMSO group and endothelial induced+U0126 group. The protein expression of the p-EKR1/2 was analyzed by Western blotting at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours during endonthelial induction. The mRNA expressions of CD31, VE-cadherin, and VEGF were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after a 7-day induction. The proportion of CD31(+) to VE-cadherin(+) cells was identified by flow cytometry, and the ability of capillary-like tubes formation was detected by Matrigel assay after a 14-day induction. The measurement data were statistically analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein level in PDLSC was increased to 1.24±0.12 and 1.03±0.24 at 1 h and 3 h respectively, during the endothelial induction (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of CD31 and VEGF in induced+U0126 group were decreased to 0.09±0.18 and 0.49±0.17, which were both significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05). The proportion of CD31(+) to VE-cadherin(+) cells of induced+U0126 group were decreased to 5.22±0.85 and 3.56±0.87, which were both significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05). In Matrigel assay, the branching points, tube number and tube length were decreased to 7.0±2.7, 33.5±6.4, and (15 951.0±758.1) pixels, which were all significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The endothelial differentiation of PDLSC is positively regulated by ERK signaling pathway. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation could suppress endothelial differentiation of PDLSC.</p>


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Genetics , Metabolism , Butadienes , Pharmacology , Cadherins , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Physiology , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Pharmacology , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Nitriles , Pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Signal Transduction , Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Physiology , Time Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism , Pharmacology
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