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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 743-751, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351661


Abstract Introduction: The evaluation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-related nosocomial infection (ECMO-related NI) in a homogeneous cohort remains scarce. This study analyzed ECMO-related NI in adult patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2017, 322 adult patients who have received ECMO support after cardiac surgery were divided into the infection group (n=131) and the non-infection group (n=191). ECMO-related NI was evaluated according to demographic data, surgical procedures, and ECMO parameters. Results: The incidence of ECMO-related NI was 85.4 cases per 1000 ECMO days. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common pathogen causing blood stream infection and respiratory tract infection. Prolonged duration of surgery (P=0.042) and cardiopulmonary bypass assist (P=0.044) increased the risk of ECMO-related NI. Body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 1.077; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004-1.156; P=0.039) and duration of ECMO support (OR: 1.006; 95% CI: 1.003-1.009; P=0.0001) were the independent risk factors for ECMO-related NI. Duration of ECMO support > 144 hours (OR: 2.460; 95% CI: 1.155-7.238; P<0.0001) and ECMO-related NI (OR: 3.726; 95% CI: 1.274-10.895; P=0.016) increased significantly the risk of in-hospital death. Conclusion: Prolonged duration of ECMO support was an independent risk factor for NI. Surgical correcting latent causes of cardiopulmonary failure and shortening duration of ECMO whenever possible would reduce susceptibility to NI.

Humans , Adult , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 338-345, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288242


Abstract Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving treatment in cardiogenic and respiratory shock. It is prone to various complications, infection being among the most frequent. This study aims to define the prevalence and characteristics of infections in ECMO patients in a tertiary care center for cardiac diseases. Methods: All ECMO patients between 2012 and 2016 in a single cardiac center were retrospectively included. Demographic data, ECMO indications, type, site, duration, and infection-related data were recorded. Data were analyzed among all patients and separately between pediatric and adult patient groups. Results: One hundred and twenty-six patients, 66 (53.4%) pediatric and 60 (47.6%) adult, received ECMO within the study period. Mean age was 3.54±4.27 years in the pediatric group and 54.92±15.57 years in the adult group. The main indication for ECMO was postcardiotomy shock (77.8%). Forty-six (36.5%) of all cases developed a culture-proven nosocomial infection with a rate of 49/1000 ECMO days. Infection was associated with > 5 days of ECMO duration and hemodialysis requirement in all patients and lower age in the pediatric group. The most frequent infection site was the lower respiratory tract (14.3%), while the most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella (8.7%) and Streptococcus (4.8%) species. Conclusion: The respiratory tract is the most common site of infection, however, all sites impose a threat to recovery, with longer treatment durations required for patients with culture-proven infections. A better understanding of the infectious spectrum and its effect on the mortality and morbidity is required for more successful treatment of ECMO patients.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Shock , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Cross Infection , Shock, Cardiogenic , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(3): 410-424, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042589


RESUMO A oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea é uma modalidade de suporte de vida extracorpóreo que possibilita suporte temporário à falência da função pulmonar e/ou cardíaca, refratária ao tratamento clínico convencional. Desde as primeiras descrições da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea, melhorias significativas ocorreram no dispositivo, no manejo do paciente e, consequentemente, nos desfechos dos pacientes em oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea. Diversos estudos importantes sobre a utilização de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo refratária ao suporte clínico convencional, em parada cardíaca intra-hospitalar e choque cardiogênico refratário foram publicados nos últimos anos. Dessa forma, o objetivo desta revisão é apresentar conceitos teóricos e práticos sobre a utilização da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea em situações de falência pulmonar e/ou cardíaca refratária ao manejo clínico convencional em pacientes críticos.

ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a modality of extracorporeal life support that allows for temporary support in pulmonary and/or cardiac failure refractory to conventional therapy. Since the first descriptions of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, significant improvements have occurred in the device and the management of patients and, consequently, in the outcomes of critically ill patients during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Many important studies about the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional clinical support, under in-hospital cardiac arrest and with cardiogenic refractory shock have been published in recent years. The objective of this literature review is to present the theoretical and practical aspects of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for respiratory and/or cardiac functions in critically ill patients.

Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Critical Illness/therapy , Equipment Design
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(1): 34-40, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995735


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an ever more available technique for reversible catastrophic heart or pulmonary failure that requires permanent training and actualization. This article reviews inclusion criteria, basic concepts, anticoagulation management, use of vasoactive drugs, respiratory support, laboratory tests and weaning. An up to date and easy to use reference material we hope will facilitate the study and implementation of ECMO in centers that are, or look to be, providers. The authors have made an exhaustive review of published literature and have also referenced the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) guidelines.

La oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) es una técnica indicada para falla cardiológica y/o pulmonar catastrófica de etiología recuperable, cada vez más disponible, lo que hace necesario que los prestadores de cuidados intensivos estén actualizados en esta técnica. Este artículo repasa conceptos, criterios de inclusión, manejo de anticoagulación, uso de drogas vasoactivas, apoyo ventilatorio, exámenes paraclínicos y destete de la asistencia. El tener una referencia actualizada, fácil y concreta facilita el estudio e implementación de ECMO en centros que van a disponer del mismo o que ya la están desarrollando. Los autores hicieron una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura publicada y de la normativa internacional disponible de la Organización del soporte de vida extracorpóreo (ELSO por su sigla en inglés Extracorporeal Life Support Organization).

Humans , Child , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/standards , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Patient Selection , Nutritional Support , Monitoring, Physiologic
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 468-474, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897962


Abstract Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become a standard technique over the past few decades in intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: A review of pediatric patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors and causal organisms related to acquired infections and assess the survival rates of ECMO patients with nosocomial infections. Methods: Sixty-six patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU between January 2011 and June 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic features and surgical procedures were reviewed. Results: Sixty-six patients received a total of 292.5 days of venoarterial ECMO support. Sixty were postoperative patients. Forty-five patients were weaned from ECMO support with an ECMO survival rate of 68.2%. The rate of infection was 116.2/1000 ECMO days. Prolonged ICU stay, duration of ventilation and ECMO were found associated with development of nosocomial infection and only the duration of ECMO was an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections in ECMO patients. Conclusion: The correction of the underlying process leading to ECMO support and shortening the length of ECMO duration together with stricter application of ECMO indications would improve the infection incidence and hospital surveillance of the patient group.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(1): 60-70, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841261


ABSTRACT In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation.

RESUMO Em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória grave (hipoxêmica ou hipercápnica), o suporte somente com ventilação mecânica pode ser insuficiente para suas necessidades, especialmente quando se tenta evitar o uso de parâmetros ventilatórios que possam causar danos aos pulmões. Nesses pacientes, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana), que também é muito eficaz na remoção de dióxido de carbono do sangue, pode manter a vida, permitindo o uso de ventilação pulmonar protetora. No presente artigo de revisão, objetivamos explorar alguns dos aspectos mais relevantes do suporte respiratório por ECMO. Discutimos a história do suporte respiratório por ECMO em adultos; evidências clínicas; custos; indicações; instalação do equipamento; parâmetros ventilatórios; cuidado diário do paciente e do sistema; solução de problemas comuns; desmame e descontinuação.

Humans , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hypercapnia , Hypoxia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy
Acta paul. enferm ; 29(4): 405-412, ago. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-827725


Resumo Objetivo Identificar os fatores relacionados à mortalidade e avaliar a sobrevida de pacientes pediátricos tratados com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea. Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, que incluiu pacientes pediátricos que utilizaram o dispositivo nos últimos cinco anos. Os grupos foram divididos com base naqueles que sobreviveram ou não após a terapia. Para avaliar os fatores preditivos de morte, foi utilizada análise multivariada com regressão logística e, para a sobrevida, o método de Kaplan-Meier e Log-Rank. Resultados A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo era maior no grupo de sobreviventes (74%+14,6% vs 56,2% + 22%, p=0,038) e o número de pacientes que necessitaram de diálise foi maior no grupo de não sobreviventes (52,4% vs. 12,5%, p=0,039), sendo a sobrevida significativamente menor neste grupo (log-rank=0,020). Conclusão Disfunção ventricular prévia, evidenciada pela fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo <55%, e necessidade de terapia de substituição renal concomitante aumentaram o risco de morte.

Abstract Objective To identify factors related to mortality, and evaluate the survival of pediatric patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Methods A retrospective cohort study that included pediatric patients using the device in the last five years. The groups were divided into those who survived after therapy, and those who did not. Multivariate logistic regression was used for assessing the predictive factors of death, and the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for assessing survival. Results Left ventricular ejection fraction was higher in the group of survivors (74% + 14.6% vs 56.2% + 22%, p = 0.038), and the number of patients who required dialysis was higher in the group of non-survivors (52.4% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.039), showing significantly lower survival in this group (log-rank = 0.020). Conclusion Previous ventricular dysfunction, evidenced by a left ventricular ejection fraction <55%, and requirement of concomitant renal replacement therapy, increased the risk of death.

Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Nursing, Practical , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30792


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The clinical outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after the failu re of optimal conventional therapy were determined. METHODS: The medical records of all patients administered ECMO during their stay in a medical intensive care unit of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between February 2010 and July 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: In total, 15 patients with hematologic malignancies were compared to 33 immunocompetent patients with documented cardiorespiratory failure. Underlying hematologic malignancies were significantly associated with lower overall survival (0.0% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.044). Mortality was significantly associated with a higher 24 hours ECMO inspired fraction of oxygen (0.71 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.13, p = 0.015), the development of infection after ECMO (87.5% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.001), and the presence of hyperbilirubinemia (70.0% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001). Matching of the patients based on their Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores confirmed the greater risk of mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (survival: 0.0% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.017). The mean difference in inotropic-equivalent scores after ECMO was significantly lower in the immunocompetent patients than in those with hematologic malignancies (-59.22 +/- 97.83 vs. 53.87 +/- 164.46, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hematologic malignancies who require ECMO for respiratory support have poor outcomes. The incidence of complications in these patients did not significantly differ from that in immunocompetent patients.

APACHE , Adult , Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(3): 414-425, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727166


Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but can be lethal. The underlying mechanism remains uncertain but triggering inflammatory cascades have become an accepted etiology. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and the roles of inflammatory mediators in the development of the syndrome is imperative in the determination of therapeutic options and promotion of patients' prognosis and survival. Postperfusion lung syndrome is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome in clinical features, diagnostic approaches and management strategies. However, the etiologies and predisposing risk factors may differ between each other. The prognosis of the postperfusion lung syndrome can be poorer in comparison to acute respiratory distress syndrome due to the secondary multiple organ failure and triple acid-base imbalance. Current management strategies are focusing on attenuating inflammatory responses and preventing from pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Choices of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and apparatus, innovative cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, modified surgical maneuvers and several pharmaceutical agents can be potential preventive strategies for acute lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass.

Síndrome pós-perfusão pulmonar é rara, mas pode ser letal. O mecanismo subjacente permanece incerto, mas desencadear cascatas inflamatórias tornou-se uma etiologia aceita. É imperativo uma melhor compreensão da fisiopatologia e os papéis de mediadores inflamatórios no desenvolvimento da síndrome na determinação de opções terapêuticas e de promoção do prognóstico e sobrevida dos pacientes. Síndrome pós-perfusão pulmonar é semelhante à síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto em características clínicas, métodos diagnósticos e estratégias de gestão. No entanto, as etiologias e fatores de risco predisponentes podem ser diferentes entre si. O prognóstico da síndrome pós-perfusão pulmonar pode ser mais pobres em comparação com síndrome da angústia respiratória aguda, devido à falência de múltiplos órgãos secundária e desequilíbrio ácido-base triplo. Estratégias de gestão atuais centram-se em atenuar reações inflamatórias e impedir lesão pulmonar de isquemia-reperfusão. Escolhas do circuito de circulação extracorpórea e aparelhos, técnicas inovadoras de circulação extracorpórea, manobras cirúrgicas modificadas e vários agentes farmacêuticos podem ser potenciais estratégias preventivas para lesão pulmonar aguda durante a circulação extracorpórea.

Adult , Humans , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Prognosis , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia/therapy , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Syndrome
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(2): 121-127, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732001


La oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea se considera una terapia de rescate y soporte vital compleja, con beneficios en enfermedades cardiorrespiratorias durante el periodo neonatal, que cumple con las características de ser reversible en recién nacidos mayores de 34 semanas. El criterio de selección de los pacientes y el momento oportuno en que se indica son críticos para el resultado final, si bien las nuevas alternativas de manejo en falla respiratoria hipoxémica en recién nacidos a término y casi a término han generado una disminución de su uso, excepto en la hernia diafragmática, que continúa siendo una enfermedad compleja donde podría tener alguna aplicabilidad. Si bien nuestra experiencia está iniciándose, el entrenamiento constante hará de la oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea una opción para pacientes complejos en quienes la terapia máxima fracasa. Se hace un informe de los primeros casos neonatales por falla respiratoria hipoxémica manejados en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered a rescue therapy and complex vital support with benefits in cardiorespiratory diseases during neonatal period that fulfil the characteristics of being reversible in neonates older than 34 weeks. The criteria for patient selection and its prompt use are critical for the final result. Even though new alternatives for management of hypoxemic respiratory failure in full term and almost full term neonates have decreased its use, congenital diaphragmatic hernia continues being a complex disease where it can have some applicability. Even though our experience is beginning, constant training will make of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation an option for complex patients in whom maximum therapy fails. This is a report of the first neonatal cases of hypoxemic respiratory failure managed at Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/complications , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Colombia , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Fatal Outcome , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Patient Selection , Program Evaluation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2011 Jan; 14(1): 19-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139557


Indications for extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after pediatric cardiac surgery have been increasing despite the absence of encouraging survival statistics. Modification of ECMO circuit led to the development of integrated ECMO cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit at the author's institute, for children undergoing repair of transposition of great arteries among other congenital heart diseases (CHD). In this report, they analyzed the outcome of children with CHD, undergoing surgical repair and administered ECMO support in the last 10 years. The outcome was analyzed with reference to the timing of intervention, use of integrated ECMO-CPB circuit, indication for ECMO support, duration of ECMO run and the underlying CHD. The results reveal a significantly improved survival rate with the use of integrated ECMO-CPB circuit and early time of intervention rather than using ECMO as a last resort in the management. The patients with reactive pulmonary artery hypertension respond favorably to ECMO support. In all scenarios, early intervention is the key to survival.

Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Transposition of Great Vessels/surgery
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 90(4): 237-242, abr. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-482950


FUNDAMENTO: O suporte cardiopulmonar com oxigenador de membrana é um método de ressuscitação de distúrbios hemodinâmicos, pulmonares ou ambos, consagrado em centros internacionais. OBJETIVOS: Descrever diversos aspectos relacionados ao suporte cardiopulmonar com oxigenador de membrana em um serviço de cirurgia cardiovascular nacional e determinar seus resultados imediatos e tardios. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, 10 pacientes foram submetidos a suporte circulatório e/ou respiratório em candidatos ou submetidos a cirurgia cardiovascular pediátrica, com idade mediana de 58,5 dias (40 por cento de neonatos) e peso mediano de 3,9 kg. O suporte foi mantido com a intenção de recuperação e desmame, de acordo com critérios clínicos e ecocardiográficos diários. O suporte foi descontinuado nos pacientes sem indicação de transplante, com incapacidade de recuperação e com sobrevida limitada, de acordo com julgamento multidisciplinar. RESULTADOS: O suporte circulatório foi utilizado no pós-operatório de operações corretivas ou paliativas em 80 por cento e no pré-operatório no restante. Instabilidade hemodinâmica grave irresponsiva (40 por cento), falência miocárdica na saída de circulação extracorpórea (20 por cento) e parada cardíaca no pós-operatório (20 por cento) foram as indicações mais freqüentes. O tempo médio de permanência em suporte circulatório foi de 58 ± 37 horas. O suporte foi retirado com sucesso em 50 por cento e 30 por cento obtiveram alta hospitalar. A sobrevida atuarial foi de 40 por cento, 30 por cento e 20 por cento aos 30 dias, 3 meses e 24 meses, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O suporte cardiopulmonar com oxigenador de membrana foi um método eficaz e útil na ressuscitação de distúrbios cardiovasculares e pulmonares graves no perioperatório de cirurgia cardiovascular pediátrica.

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a well-documented resuscitation method in patients with severe hemodynamic and/or respiratory impairment. OBJECTIVE: To describe several aspects related to the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a pediatric heart center and determine its immediate and late outcomes. METHODS: Between October 2005 and January 2007, 10 patients who were submitted to pediatric cardiac surgery underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation implant. Median age was 58.5 days (40 percent neonates) and median body weight was 3.9 kg. Circulatory assistance was initiated aiming at the recovery and the weaning protocols followed daily clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Support was discontinued when transplant was contraindicated, when the patient was unable to recover or when survival was considered to be limited by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was employed after corrective or palliative heart surgery in 80 percent and preoperatively in the remaining ones. It was most often indicated for irresponsive hemodynamic instability (40 percent), post-cardiotomy shock (20 percent) and post-cardiac arrest (20 percent). The mean duration on support was 58 ± 37 hours. Weaning was successfully in 50 percent of the cases and 30 percent were discharged home. Actuarial survival was 40 percent, 30 percent and 20 percent at 30 days, 3 months and 24 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an effective and useful tool for the resuscitation of patients presenting severe hemodynamic and/or respiratory failure in the perioperative period of pediatric cardiovascular surgery.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Arrest/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Arrest/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 53(3): 223-228, maio-jun. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-460387


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da ventilação de alta freqüência (VAF) em crianças e adolescentes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório (SDRA) por meio de estimativas de sobrevida e tempo de ventilação. Verificar se a VAF reduziu a indicação de oxigenação de membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. MÉTODOS: A técnica empregada foi uma revisão sistemática da literatura médica sobre o uso de VAF e ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. O levantamento bibliográfico utilizou os bancos de dados Medline, Lilacs e Embase. Os termos utilizados para pesquisa foram: adult respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO, high-frequency ventilation, high-frequency jet ventilation e high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Foram procurados ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados, estudos de coorte e série de casos que comparavam VAF com ventilação mecânica convencional (VMC), ECMO com VMC ou VAF precedendo o uso de ECMO. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 289 publicações relacionadas a VAF, SDRA e ECMO. Destas, apenas nove atendiam aos critérios de seleção pré-estabelecidos referindo-se a utilização de VAF e/ou ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar se o uso de VAF melhora a sobrevida de crianças e adolescentes com SDRA. Quanto ao tempo de ventilação, não houve estudo que comprovasse, com significância estatística, a sua redução ou aumento. Não foi possível verificar se VAF diminui ou não a indicação de ECMO em crianças e adolescentes com SDRA.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of high-frequency ventilation (HFV) in children and adolescents with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through estimates of survival rate and time of ventilation. To verify whether HFV can reduce the indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children and adolescents with ARDS. METHODS: a systematic review of medical literature on the use of HFV and ECMO in children and adolescents with ARDS was carried out. Medline, Lilacs and Embase databases were searched for the following terms: adult respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO, high-frequency ventilation, high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Search was conducted for controlled and randomized clinical trials, cohort studies and a series of cases which compared HFV with conventional mechanic ventilation (CMV), ECMO with CMV, or HFV preceding the use of ECMO. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty nine publications related to HFV, ARDS and ECMO were found. Of these, only nine matched pre-established selection criteria which refer to use of HFV and/or ECMO in children and adolescents with ARDS. CONCLUSION: It was not possible to determine if use of HFV improves the survical rate of children and adolescent with ARDS. Regarding ventilation time, there is no study that confirms, with statistical significance, its increase or decrease. Whether HFV reduces or not indication of ECMO for children and adolescents with ARDS was also determined.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/standards , High-Frequency Ventilation/standards , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Epidemiologic Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis
In. Auler Junior, José Otávio Costa; Oliveira, Sérgio Almeida de. Pós-operatório de cirurgia torácica e cardiovascular. Porto Alegre, Artmed, 2004. p.280-302, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-500481
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72662


The fetus is an unstable subject for an isolated physiological and biochemical study. To study the fetus in a controlled and stable environment, a trial was done using 12 goat fetuses. Extrauterine incubation system was devised using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system. The system consisted of a venous reservoir with a servo-controlled roller pump and a membrane oxygenator. The extra-corporeal circuit and membrane oxygenator were primed with the maternal whole blood of 200 mL. Fetal umbilical cords was exposed by Cesarean section. Fetal umbilical arterial blood was drained via the drainage cannula. The drained blood was perfused to the oxygenator by the roller pump. The highly oxygenated and decarboxylated blood was returned to an umbilical vein via the perfusion catheter. The blood flow rate was controlled manually using a roller pump. Fetal heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram were continuously recorded. Gas analysis of drained and perfused bood was performed hourly. With this system, the fetuses were able to survive under fairly stable physiological condition for periods of up to 34 hr. The extrauterine incubation system used in this study could therefore be a encouraging future experimental model in researching the artificial placenta for premature fetuses.

Animals , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetus/blood supply , Goats , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Models, Animal , Pregnancy , Time Factors , Umbilical Arteries , Umbilical Veins
Indian J Pediatr ; 1997 May-Jun; 64(3): 287-301
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79278


A brief overview of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and its use in infants and children is presented. The history, selection, operative procedure, daily management and complications are discussed. The international results are shown.

Child , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Selection , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome